Espionage and intelligence in Russia 1772, 1914, 1917, 1937, 1989.

COPYRIGHT BY BOGDAN KONSTANTYNOWICZ

23 July 2014

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Berezyna and Lubuszany - the estate of Poniatowski-Tyszkiewicz-Potocki branch - the Knights Templar of the FREEMASONRY.
Miezonka-Swolna-Moscow-St Petersburg and the family history of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantynowicz.


Key note.
I think I managed to investigate and decipher a system: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia: deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.). Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence. The conspiracy created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia. They anchored in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon. And the whole system took over the movement of German from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius. At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.

Among relatives and next of kins of our Konstantynowicz 'Mscislau' branch appeared the Zarako Zarakowski family in the second half of 19th cent. and in the 20th cent.; 

the Spychalski family from Lodz was related to kinsmen of our lineage at the turn of the 20th century and in the middle of the 20th cent.; 

the Jaroszewicz family had connection to our line in the middle of the 20th cent. (the Jaroszewicz house derived from the Vicebsk province and had Prus the 1st arms, they possessed here the Ostupiszcze estate from Gruzewski family since 1710 to the end of the 18th cent.; Jerzy Piotr Jaroszewicz with Kwaczynski nickname was an officer here in 1713 - 1714 and somebody here in 1716; related to Kownacki, Rymaczewski and Kopakowski according to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 3; among others several of the Jaroszewiczs died in Old Bychow in 1655; priest Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666, Roman Jaroszewicz in Mahileu in 1682, and Jan Jaroszewicz in Vilna 1720 - 1722, another Jan Jaroszewicz and also his son Jan lived in Szaule near by Mejszagola in 1753, Ludwik Jaroszewicz lived in the Mscislau province in 1764; the Jaroszewiczs were related to Jankowski, Olszewski and Chodasiewicz families in the Dzisna district and also they served Radzivill family in the Minsk government at the turn of the 20th cent.; Dmitrij Jaroszewicz son of Konstantin, Russian admiral)

Constantinovich / Konstantinovitz / Constantinowitz family in Russia, 18th and 19th cent. to the November Revolution 1917

the Swierczewski family was near socially associated with us, for instance in the sixtieth of the 20th century. 

Some Generals, Prime Minister, the Head of State and one marshal of the communistic Poland - creators of the Soviet   transitory administration 1943 / 1990 - derived from these families. Relatives of our Konstantynowicz branch kept in touch  with  Jozef  Pilsudski, Michal Zymierski and Wladyslaw Sikorski at the moment in the first half of the 20th century - marshals  and  General with different political views. 

It wonder that three Marshals and General - military prosecutor died with natural death but three remaining Generals died with tragic death.

The Jaroszewicz marriage was murdered by former Secret Service and the Soviet KGB officers, acc. to http://nowahistoria.interia.pl/historia-na-fotografii/. Jaroszewicz was supposed to suggest that Charles / Karol Swierczewski 'Walter' betrayed him in 1947, the secret disclosed by the Soviet General, concerning the replacement of the Polish communist leaders by Soviet agents-look-alikes.

About a backstage of murder of the Jaroszewicz couple writes in book 'Famous couples PRL', Sławomir Koper, ed. by 'Red and Black', at website http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/ on 11 February 2014. "...Jaroszewicz apparently had financial problems, but saved a sell-numismatists, which Peter has accumulated during his long career. ... journalist Bohdan Roliński published two interviews with former Prime Minister. ... indicated that Jaroszewicz spoke with Karol Świerczewski, who told him that the Russians used the 'method of matrioszka', of substituting Polish communist by Soviet agents - look-alikes. Jaroszewicz and Świerczewski have identified several 'matrioszka', including Jozef Swiatlo and Boleslaw Bierut. Jaroszewicz suggested that the death of Świerczewski could be related to this knowledge. ... Even more sensational hypothesis has a journalist of the weekly Angora, Leszek Szymowski, who stated that the reason for the murder was the Jaroszewicz archive, which contained a copy of the documents incriminating Wojciech Jaruzelski, Czeslaw Kiszczak and other politicians 80s. This crime was part of a broader plan to eliminate all that could stopped the conduct of political transformation, directed by generals Kiszczak and Jaruzelski. Weekly Wprost published information suggesting that the death of Jaroszewicz has connected with the secret wartime archives of the Reich Security Office, which at the end of World War II went to the baroque palace in Radomierzyce near Zgorzelec. ... among others Gestapo informers lists, documents relating to French collaboration with the Third Reich ... In 1945, Colonel Piotr Jaroszewicz and several other officers had some explosive packages of securities before the archives were transferred to the USSR. ... Tadeusz Steć was killed in his own home at the hands of unknown assailants just a few months after Peter. Before his death, he was tortured... Jerzy Fonkowicz was assassinated in 1997. In 2007, the theory that the murder was related to the Jaroszewicz Nazi archive has placed the Criminal Intelligence Bureau of the Police Headquarters (in Poland). ... ignored the testimony of the witness (who said he saw one woman and two men the morning on September 1 came out of the house). At the end of 2005, analysts Archive X (section dealing with the explanation of complex criminal cases) found that from the register of the murder of Jaroszewicz lost key evidence, that is, the three bags with traces of unidentified fingerprints. The prints were found at the glasses of Jaroszewicz and cabinet doors located in his office... Biography of Jaroszewicz overgrown in many myths. The future prime minister was born in 1909 in Nieśwież ... ... In August 1943 he was still Private, but after several months already a colonel, and after a further eight (after the war) general! Even Napoleon Bonaparte promoted from lieutenant to general took a little more time...".

Generals of communistic People Polish Army: Karol Swierczewski, Piotr Jaroszewicz and Marian Spychalski (later on the Marshal) in the fourties of the 20th century were deputies of Michal Zymierski - Marshal and communistic Minister of Defense. The genealogy of my Mscislau "inlet" of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century  and after  when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo 
but especial at the turn of the 20th century. It was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century.  

This connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century?

Curiously enough: 

New military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) and this body consisted the 2nd Division of the General Quartermaster in December 1917, which was the central organ of intelligence and counterintelligence services of the armed forces of Russia. So by the end of 1918, Soviet military intelligence in full was as the legal successor of the pre-revolutionary military intelligence. GUGSH headed General V. V. Marushevsky (Polish?) who refused to cooperate with the new government. 

Then Quartermaster-General Nikolai Mikhailovich Potapov was new chief of the military intelligence (in 1915-1917, Potapov was the Main Director of the General Staff at the office of General Quartermaster. However, according to some reports, he - from July 1917 - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). 

Colonel Yudin was the bolshevik Commissar and Peter F. Ryabikov, after the coup, was had remained in the office because the Bolsheviks did not touch the military intelligence, as opposed to counter-military intelligence, which they immediately dispersed, as it was involved in the campaign of charges the Bolsheviks was spying for Germany in the summer of 1917. Crisis of foreign intelligence commenced with the end of December 1917: colonel Andrey Stanislavsky (Polish?) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and in March 1918 the Soviet government established the Supreme Military Council for the organization of the armed forces of Red Army with a military leader, former tsarist general M. D. Bonch-Bruevich and two political commissars Shutko and P. Proshyan. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. Potapov. In June, 1918 the Supreme Military Council was reorganized and included: a military leader Bonch - Bruevich, chief of staff and staff occupied by former officers, the deputy of the military leader appointed a former Major General of General Staff Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo, an assistant Chief of Operations of the Supreme Military Council was Colonel Alexander Kovalevsky (Polish? April - May 1918). Kovalevsky, soon will move to the South, where he headed the mobilization management of the North Caucasus Military District; here he with General Nosovich (Polish?) were arrested by Stalin, but after Nosovich was fleeing to the 'white', Kovalevsky was again arrested and shoted.

Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here:  http://history.tuad.nsk.ru/index.html (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. September 1917 (?) a chief of the Russian military counterintelligence.
Above inf. acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union'.
'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum' were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia - representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale after February and October 1917 Revolutions in Russia, close to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide). Different source: On September 9, 1917, Бонч-Бруевич / Bonch-Bruevich was replaced as commander by Gen. V. A. Cheremisov / В. А. Черемисов and appointed to the Supreme Commander. Arriving at the General Headquarters in Mogilev, Bonch-Bruevich established contact with the Mogilev Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies and 27 September 1917 was co-opted into its executive committee in Mogilev by Dnieper river. In early October 1917, Bonch-Bruevich rejected the appointment of Governor-General of the Southwestern Region in Kiev and Omsk and took over as head of the Mogilev garrison.
But acc. to Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990: A Biographical..., by Michael Parrish, we read that M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was a General in Tsarist Counterintelligence.
Next M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917
. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919.

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and  Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force).


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.

Below I present abbreviation of the von Pilchau Pilar genealogy.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, nickname Alf, b. in Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa. His wife Julie Olga Eugenie von der Pahlen born in Pleskau or Pskow / Pihkva in 1865, her mother Helene Charlotte Louise von der Pahlen nee von Toll 1833 - 1910, and her grandmother Olga Karoline Olga von Toll nee von Strandman 1796 - 1861, her brother Karl Gustav von Strandmann 1787 - 1855, and her sister Wilhelmine Charlotte von Ungern-Sternberg nee von Strandmann 1785 - 1813.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, who has brothers:
1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830; his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and
3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jõgisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia. Jõgisoo (Jõgisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.
Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna Adele Gruenewaldt or Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt; she died in 1889 in Cannes; her husband Walter Johann Georg Konstantin von Grünewaldt was born 1843 in Hapsal /Haapsalu; his family owned Koik (Koigi) in Järvamaa: father Alexander Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1805 in Koik; his grandfather Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt died 1792 in Koik / Koigi). Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 died April 20, 1912 in Hapsal / Haapsalu, Estonia. His brother: Magnus Friedrich von Gernet 1824 died October 22, 1909 in Reval / Tallinn, Estonia - and his son:
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet was born 1864 and died in 1944. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864 - 1944, and his mother Katharina Kitty Helene Amelie von Gernet (nee von Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt; her father Johann / Iwan Christoph Engelbrecht von Grünewaldt, from Hukas and Koik = Koigi; her grandfather - above named - Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; her great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt b. 1719, landlord of Koigi) 1833 - 1909, near by the Pilchau Pilar family.
Richard Adolf von Gernet of 1863, known as Adolf, or Adolph. He was born on 14 April 1863 in Sellenkull / Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km, and south-west of Lehola. He was a graduate of the cathedral school / 'Domschule zu Reval' (a German-language institution, but it was closed in 1893) 1876 - 1881, and Dorpat in 1881-1886. He was a noted metallurgist after 'M. Inst. M.M.' that is the 'Institute of Mining and Metallurgy'. Adolf von Gernet worked in 'Privatlaboratoriums von Dr. Werner Siemans' in Berlin by Erik Thomson, where he was made ​​head of this laboratory of Werner von Siemens. In 1889 he built a gold wash in Yekaterinburg in the Urals. In 1892 he was representative of the company in America. Around 1895 he followed his brother Rudolf to South Africa where he was a Director of the 'Central Rand Gold Mine Ore Reduction Works'. He patented a process for extracting copper, which became known as Siemens-Halske electric precipitation process later. He presented a paper before the 'Society of Chemists and Metallurgists' in Johannesburg on electrical precipitation; von Gernet, representing the firm of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, introduced the process in the Transvaal, and for several years it was extensively used. In the 1890s he studied with John Hays Hammond off the coast of Cape Town, the gold content in the sea water ('investigations off the coast of South Africa, not far from Capte Town, to determine the gold content of sea water in that place'). There was a 'Von Gernet Copper Company', but it was liquidated in October 1905. In 1898 he became the first Russian Vice Consul in Johannesburg. In 1901, he traveled through Peru and Bolivia. Later he was in Brussels. Acc. to me he back to Estonia / Russia 1906 ? - to 1917 ? He died on January 4, 1942 in Dingolfing, Bavaria. Adolph von Gernet married in 1898 Leonilla princess of Mestscherski with whom he had a daughter, Alexandra von Reitzenstein (1900-1965).
Above Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864, as Rudolf. He was born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig - his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 in 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:
1. Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?),
2. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774,
3. Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army. His son Stanisław Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska / Zofia Januszewski.
She came from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806, she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Jacek Gilewicz from Marseille - grandson of Justin Dzerzhinsky / Justyn Dzierżyński, a cousin of Felix Dzierzynski, the adoptee by his parents. He has an archive of the sister of Felix - Aldona Dzierzynska, suddenly three pages of the manuscript; he was convinced that Stalin was poisoned Felix. He has cousin in Radom, Mrs. Wanda from Dzierżyński, died in 2011, owned a memorabilia of sister of Felix, Aldona, including a manuscript of 1909, photocopies of letters; Felix began to write to his sister when he went to high school of Vilnius, the last letter he sent to Aldona in 1919. In Moscow is living grandson of Felix - Felix Dzerzhinsky Janowicz / Feliks Janowicz Dzierżyński; old man, a professor at Moscow University. We remember that in 1923, Soviet intelligence resident living in Warsaw, Mieczyslaw Łoganowski had a group of young communists and came up with the idea that they had to go to Sulejowek, to pay homage to Pilsudski and then throw a bomb or shoot him. Łoganowski sent a plan of attack to Moscow. Felix categorically forbade him to implementation because of Anthony Bulhak Dzerzhinsky married a niece of Pilsudski. They have for some time lived with Pilsudski in Sulejówek. It was a very tragic situation. His brother Stanislaus Dzierzynski in 1917, was stabbed to death in their family mansion. Probably they were some deserters. Escaped from the front, returned to Russia, spent the night in the mansion. Felix had command track down the group. They have to be tracked and shot. From a letter to his sister Aldona Bulhak - Kojałłowicz (April 15, 1919): 'I am sending you things from Dzierżynow. Very solid gold jewelry was confiscated because of our rights... I know that this confiscation touches you, but I could not otherwise - that is the law of gold'. We have data of Jan Bułhak b. 1871 in Nowa Wilejka / New Wilejka, son of Mikolaj Bułhak and Antonina Zamkowicz.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау born 1802, in Wilno / Вильнюс, was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski. His mother
Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю and father Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born 1768. His grandfather Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Катарина Хелена фон Таузас. Place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti. Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, his father - Jan Ludwik Bécu.
August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816
(we are looking for! Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау born 1757 and died 1783, her father Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1734 d. 1801; her brothers and sisters: 1756 in Халлик, born Иоганна София Пилар фон Пильхау, Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау, Вильгельм Фридрих Пилар фон Пильхау 1761, София Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, Анна Доротея Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, in Халлик, Oтто Густав Пилар фон Пильхау born 1763, Юлиана Шарлотта Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1764, in Халлик, Мария Луиза Пилар фон Пильхау Крутов b. 1766, Георг Людвиг or Егор Максимович Пилар фон Пильхау born on 19 март 1767, Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау 1768, Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1769, Анна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1771, Иоганна Кристина Пилар фон Пильхау 1772, Якоб Иоганн Пилар фон Пильхау 1774, Рейнгольд Адольф Пилар фон Пильхау 1775, Рейнгольд Вольдемар Пилар фон Пильхау 1777, Ульрика Генриетта Пилар фон Пильхау 1780, Каролина Амалия Пилар фон Пильхау 1780),

and he has two daughters: Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.
Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki.

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki,
when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8. August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK).
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830:
his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.

Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:

Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu
with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl /
Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802),
Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, and
Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.
Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 and his cousins and closest next of kin:

Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein;

фон Людер / Luder died 1857;

Екатерина Николаевна Кудашева / Kudashev, b. 1811; Дунина / Dunin, b. 1799; 1798 m. to Иоганн Густав Юст / Iust; 1766 born in Халлик, Иван Крутов / Krutov / Krutow; Иоганна Агнета Гессе / Hesse b. 1779;

Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Becu (Maria Becu was married Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Maksymilian Fabian Pilar Pilchau b. 1768; her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and in Wilno / Вильнюс, was born Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802);
somebody in 1798 m. to Иоганн Дитрих Бенджамин Альтхан; Сукни (Suckni) / Sukni d. 1838; фон Рамм / von Ramm, b. 1779; фон Мореншильдт b. 1811; Наталья Николаевна Карпова / Karlow; Михайловна Езерская / Jezierski, died 1919; фон Штааль b. 1843; Васильевна Чулкова b. 1855; Домудовская / Домудовски; фон Эссен / Essen b. 1847; Раиса Митрофановна Филиппова / Filippow d. after 1932; Беренд фон Мореншильдт d. 1861; Симсен; 1801 Франц Герман Экбаум; 1801 Фридрих фон Руктешель.

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734.
Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau.
Evdokya Dmitrievna Horvath was born in St Petersburg in 1902, and married first in 1921 to Cecil Lewis, second time to Cedric Williams; she was the daughter of the military engineer General Dmitri Horvath, the second of six children of General Horvath and his wife Camilla Benois. Dmitri Horvath was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov, and was connected to the Baltic aristocracy through his mother, Baroness
Maria Pilar von Pilchau. Camilla Benois,
a member of a distinguished family of artists, sculptors, architects and musicians, was herself a talented artist and sang and played the piano. Acc. to (Copyright in 2005) The Independent.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.
Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
Above
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734, was father of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau,
Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau,
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau; was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau. Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.
Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 in Padis. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Above
Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814,
has brothers:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830
(Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801).
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and

3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Zofia Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau
died January 28, 1898 - she was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, who died in 1896. Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Mickiewicze Wielkie: in 1870 situated in the Minsk Governorate, the Slutsk district, volost Kleck, but in 1923 in the Poland, Province Nowogródek, the district of Nieswiez. Mickiewicze situated on way from Niasviz / Nieswiez to Klieck / Kleck, close to Asmolawa. It was the Витгенштейн family estate as Быховщизна in 1870 (Wittgenstein - Byhovschizna / Bykowszczyzna).
P. L. Wittgenstein to E. K. Pilyavskaya / E. Pilawska in 1886-1887. In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died, the son Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein; Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire. Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh. Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska. He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska; with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and above Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania. Her children: Piotr Wittgenstein b. 1831 and Maria b. 1829 with husband Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Her husband from 1828 Ludwik Adolf  F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) born 8 June 1799 in Kowno, He was first son of Ludwik Adolf Piotr / Pjotr Christianovich zu Sayn und Wittgenstein / Пётр Христианович Витгенштейн, who was born 1769 in Pierejaslawl Zalesskij either Нежин / Negine or Переяславл, and died 11 June 1843 in Lwiw / Lwow.
Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze
(Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow).
His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor; parents of Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789: mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749.
Florian Stanislaw Bulhak (a branch of photographer Jan Brunon Bułhak) + Krystyna Ciekawianka were parents of
Florian Bułhak b. 1750 d. 1806, Józef Bułhak (see below), Jan Bułhak, Wincenty Bułhak, Ignacy Józefat Bułhak / Ignacy Jozafat Bułhak / Josafat Ignatius Bulhak, Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749: branch of Aldona Dzierzynska (see below) and Władysław Bułhak.
Above Josafat Ignatius Bulhak b. April 20, 1758, d. February 25, 1838, Greek Orthodox priest, Uniate bishop of Pinsk (1787-1795), bishop of Brest (1798-1828), Bishop of Lithuania (1828-1833) and Archbishop of Polotsk (1833-1838), in 1817-1838 the Metropolitan of Kiev. Above Jozef Bulhak, the Uniate bishop of Pinsk and Turow, abbot of the monastery of the Basilian in Suprasl.
Great-grandfather Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 (father of FLORIAN STANISLAW, KAZIMIERZ, KATARZYNA, JAKUB m. BARBARA Wolk - Traby, FRANCISZKA, DOROTA, MARCIN m. MARIANNA WERESZCZAK, JAN b. 1700 m. NN MOGIELNICKA, Nowogrodek clark: probably from Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 come a branch of Gabriel Bulhak and Ignacy Bulhak of Bobruisk / Bobrujsk marshal and next generation here:
Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow, and south-east of Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family and Borki of 'Nadberezyncy'. Bułhak Gabriel, office clark in 1793 and 1810. Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750 / 1754, married in 1790), m. to Marianna Imielinski - Prawdzic; he taken estate Kosmowicze from Radziwill. His parents: Benedykt Bulhak (b. ca 1640?) and Eufemia Protasewicz. Benedykt was from Konstanty Bulhak and Anna Zablocki, acc. to aordycz.republika.pl. Above Eufemia Bułhak (Protasewicz - Jastrzębiec) b. ca 1650 was mother of Mikołaj Bułhak, Jerzy Piotr Bułhak and Szymon Bułhak - by: Urszula Ewa Skarżyńska in 2007.
Aldona Kojallowicz Bulhak nee Dzierzynska, 1870 - 1966. Her husband Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856 - his father Rudolf Jerzy Bulhak 1824-1894; grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789. Great-grandfather Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749. Children of Jerzy Onufry Bulhak: Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak, Beata Bułhak - Lopott - Trzeciak, Krystyna Bułhak - Niezabitowski, Ostroberta Bułhak - Woyna b. 1793, Duklana Pilecki b. 1795 and Julian Bułhak. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913) close to Marina Gorka. We know that BULHAK, J., was in Nieswiez, Slutsk, Minsk. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor.
Осташин Мурованый / Ostaszyn Murowany. Here was living Jan Bulhak / Ян Булгак, son of Валериан Булгак, Walerian Bulhak or Walery; Jan Brunon Bułhak's parents were Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak - Syrokomla b. 1842 in Ostaszyn d. 1905
(he was brother of Karolina Karpowicz, Antoni Bułhak b. 1850 d. 1898, NN Bułhak, Barbara Bułhak from Sadek d. 1907 and Helena Kiersnowska; Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak was son of Jan Antoni Franciszek Bułhak b. 1795 in Woroncza and JULJA HROMYK, and grandson of Florian Bulhak b. ca 1740, great-grandson of Florian Stanisław Bułhak from Mikolaj Bulhak and Katarzyna or Marianna)
and Józefa née Haciska - Roch (b. 1848 in Miratycze, daughter of Władysław Dachnowicz Haciski - son of Tadeusz Dachnowicz Haciski - and Anna Haciska), landowners in Ostaszyn. Jan Bulhak from 1897 to 1899, studied literature, history and philosophy at Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Back home, he lived in the village of Peresieka (Пярэсека) near Minsk, where he inherited a manor after his great-uncle's death (brother of one's grandparent or uncle of one's parent). Пярэсека, Минская область / Pereseka, close to Czurylawiczi, Kaikawa, ca 16 km south of Minsk core; 7 km south-west of Karaliszczawiczi / Koroliszczewiczi / Koroliszczewicze - here Konstantynowicz family.
Children of FLORIAN BULHAK b. ca 1740 and HELENA JABLONSKI: JÓZEF, WINCENTY, WLADYSLAW, IGNACY, MACIEJ b. 1794 d. 1863, JAN ANTONI FRANCISZEK b. 1795 in Woroncza d. 1850, and FLORIANA.

Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo / Georgia. Troubetzkoy / Trubeckoj, Katenin, Orlov-Denissov and Martynov from Russia.


In search of genealogy. It is of greatest importance to me.

I am looking for all information about my grandfather Marian or Jerzy Konstantynowicz and about his family from the parish of Berazino (Berezina, Berezino or Berezyna).  He belonged to one of the old noble families from the farthest eastern reaches of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Those lands were also the first to be taken by tsarist Russia as the result of the partitions of Poland. 

Those near and dear (families at the beginning of the 20th cent.) in the Berazino parish (Mother of God of Mercy catholic church),  Riga / Ryga, the Dryssa ujezd and elsewhere:
Viljandi, Tallinn, Parnu / Parnawa, Moscow, Petersburg, Ufa, Miezonka, Hapsal / Haapsalu, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti.

With families: Melik - Beglyarov or Melik-Beglarov, Demonets / Demonet or Demontet, Breguet, Brown, Wilde, Nikitin, Katenin, Gruzinski, Bagrationi, Drzewiecki, Orlov-Denisov, Martynov, Paszkowski, Kalinowski, Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Horodecki, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Nobel, Masson, Hacker / Hakker, Kammer, Briling, Vologdin, Azbelev, Benckendorf or Benkendorf, Pushkin, Kropotkin, Chikin, Bakst, Trubecki / Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoi, Beklemishev, Rosenberg, Wittgenstein, Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Soltan, Oginski, Japaridze (Mestia in Upper Svaneti and Zuruldi 7 km east, ca 30 km north of Lentechi, and north-west of Oni; the Japaridzes is Svans), Rosen, Gernet, Rehbinder, Schilling, Nakachidze, von Zarnekau, Yurievsky, Duke of Oldenburg, Nikoladze, Maipariani or Maypariani, Saparov, Armand, Diseren, Duflon, Rey, Paat / Paats, Karamyan, Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux.

1.

Malkiewicz

Old Svolna, Miezonka, Moscow and the Jauji farm (i.e. Jowce or Javci in LATVIA; 49 km north - east of Vilani in the Ludsen = Ludza district formerly. We know now about Jeci small village close to Dzirkalava / Dzierkalova, Lapava / Lapova, Locukolni, Purini, Zalmuiza in the area of Malnava. Jeci village is located 4 km from Karsava. Malnava Roman Catholic Church was laid in 1932 under the auspices of priest Boleslavs Grisans. This is the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rezekne-Aglona.

Count Szadurski (a friend of the Malkiewicz family) in ca. 1830 - who was himself a nature lover, interested in gardening - lay out a park behind the manor house in Malnow / Malnawa. Documentary evidence of Malnava estate dates back in 1774 but before 1724 the estate belonged to the Hilzen family of German roots.
In 18th century, the Malnava / Malnov / Malnow manor came into the ownership of Count Szadurski. In 1878, this land belongs to Julius von der Ropp, after S. F. Agarkov in 1906.
Oświej / Oswej / Osveya (Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz spent her childhood there; she was born in Moscow, but her father from the Malnow district; she has family in Miezonka, Lodz, Warsaw; in Karsawa - Malnow - Ludsen area were living the Brzezinskis) was a property of the Ciołek-Szadurski family in mid 1820s. Szadurski Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery in 1817 studied in Polotsk / Polock, next in Vilnius 1822/23, landlord of Malnow and Oswiej, in Lucyn / Ludsen, the nearby town, Szadurski held offices, in 1837 married to Marya Zyberk-Plater daughter of Michal. Mikolaj died in 1876.

Melnava / Malnaya / Małnów / Malnow - a village near to Karsawa: Karolina, next of kin with Jozef Hylzen, was wife of Jan Franciszek Szadurski, owner of Pusza, Zielonpol or Zielonpole and Matnow / Malnow; her son Jan Szadurski, m. Dorota Szczyt, and her children:

1. Jozef Szadurski, offices in Witebsk 1814 1817,

2. Ksawery, who taken estates from the Hylzen family; Jozef Szadurski has son Ignacy, who held offices in Witebsk 1835 / 1838, no children and from Ksawery Szadurski is new branch.

A place of offices held by a member of the Szadurski family: Szadurski Stanislaw, a brother of Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery, a Russian colonel, died in 1870; Szadurski Mikolaj died 1876. Properties of Szadurski: Zwirdzin to Stanislaw Szadurski, Newlany, Dorotpol, Dunakla to the Stanislaw Szadurski family. Oswiej and Malnow - the Mikolaj Szadurski family.
Michal Plater-Zyberk 1777 - 1862/63, his daughter Maria married to Mikolaj Szadurski. Maria b. on 23 Sept. 1813, m. on 15 Oct. 1837, she died in Kraslaw on 20 Dec. 1893.

Izabella Malkiewicz born 01st May 1908 in Moskwa / Moscow / Moscou; Mother-in-God was Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Her sister Irena Malkiewicz, actress.
In Moscow her father had a car; she known very well French language. In 1911 first time in Swolna Stara, to Zarakowski, Konstantynowicz and Malkiewicz families. 1912 and 1913 in Stare Zaborze / Zaborze, close to Swolna. 1913 in Oswiej / Osvieja, in empty palace. 1914 in Rawanicze to Slotwinski family, the Berazino parish. She known Miezonka and history about Anna Malkiewicz married Konstantynowicz; Anna died when was born first baby. Lived in Moscow to September 1918; October 1918 in Wilno / Vilnius. January 1919 Vilna / Wilno was captured by Bolshevik troops, and Jozef Malkiewicz left under Soviets. The Malkiewicz family escaped to Warsaw. 1937 served the Red Cross in Warsaw. September 1939 served Field Hospital No 104 of Colonel Szarecki; 08 September 1939 left Warsaw. On 16 September in Kopyczynce and back to Trembowla, and again 18 - 19 September 1939 in Trembowla (to November the 01st, 1939); here was general Wladyslaw Sikorski - and Chruszczow - in Hospital No 104. April 1942 to 1943 - The J. Przybylski office in Warsaw; here general Zymierski - Rola of the Soviet military intelligence service; from Spring 1942 Izabella Malkiewicz / Izabela Horodecka - Malkiewicz as 'Teresa' served Polish counter-intelligence service;

17 March 1943 served to 993/W Special Unit. She was famous for activity during the Second world war in Warsaw. Her mother Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso from Minsk in Belarus; painter (Izabella Horodecki - Malkiewicz was great grand-daughter of Wiktor Waraksa / Weraksa b. circa 1820 son of Jan). Her father Wladyslaw Alojzy Malkiewicz b. 23 February 1875 in Swolna Stara / Svolna;

lived in the Dryssa county; 1879 in Pluszcze with the Pluszczewski family; 1885 Wilno, after Moscow near by the Konstantynowiczs; married 1907, stayed in Moscow to September 1918. Her husband Zygmunt Horodecki. Deputy Prosecutor of Warsaw Court to 05 September 1939; Kowno 1940; 14 June 1941 jailed in Soviet Union; Palestine and Monte Cassino, Ankona / Ancona. His brother was colonel of Polish Army in 1939.

Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Born ca 1880?

Note:

Iwan Poklewski-Koziell (1865 - 1925)
/ Иван Альфонсович Поклевский-Козелл: his mother

Angelika Rymoza (1830 - 1901).

His father Alfons Poklewski-Koziell (1809 - 1890), grandfather Tomasz Poklewski-Koziell b. ca 1780
/ Foma / Томаш Поклевский-Козелл; grandmother Anna Spink b. ca 1790. His sister Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff (1860 - 1908).

Next Jan:

Jan Koziełł-Poklewski / Jakub Skała / b. 1837 in Serwecz Wielki, d. 1896 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk; Colonel in 1863; 1852 studied in Petersburg, next in Paris / Paryż; friend of Ludwik Mierosławski; 1861 Wilno, Moscow; Petersburg, 1863 in Warszawa / Warsaw; Augustow; Grodno and Belgium; 1864 Dresden and Paris; back to the Congress Poland in 1872 and jailed in Alma Ata / Ałma-Ata.

Вялікая Сэрвач, Великая Сервачь, Wielki Serwecz, Vialikaja Servač, Siervacz Servach: close to Liudvinovo, Kostienievichi, Stieszicy; ca 18 km south-west of Dolginovo; north-east of Vilejka, north of Minsk in Belarus.

Romuald Mikolaj Augustyn / Romuald Malkiewicz family:

born 07-02-1840 in Jowce, Malnow parish, Ludsen district; family close to Mikolaj Szadurski, Maryanna Szadurska, Dominik Porako, Justyna nee Filipowicz, Jan Brzezinski, Julia nee Cray / Krey, Hermann Cray / Herman Krey, Franciszka nee Ostrowska.

Children:

1. Wladyslaw Alojzy b. 23 February 1875 in Stara Swolna, the Dryssa county, died 29 November 1941 in Warsaw, after 1879 with family Pluszczewski; living in Pluszcze, the Swieciany ujezd. 1885 Wilno college, next Moscow; married in 1907 to Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso; Summers in Stare Zaborze, Oswiej, Swolna i Rawanicze; in 1914 at Rawanicze close to Berezyna, Oswiej 1912 - 1913; to September 1918 in Moscow, next in Wilno October 1918; January 1919 escaped to Warsaw from Wilno; living in Warsaw. 1919 in Minsk in Belarus, near to dr Jan Malkiewicz with Jastrzebiec coat of arms. Jan Werakso killed in Moscow.

2. Jozef Malkiewicz born Swolna Stara at the Dryssa ujezd in 1879, from 1879 to 1914 in Pluszcze, 12 km from Zacisze of Konstantynowicz; January 1919 married; after 1919 ?

3. Michal Malkiewicz b. ca 1870; lived in Stara Swolna next door Zarako-Zarakowski family. the Oswieja parish, the Dryssa ujezd; friend to Bernatowicz of Zaborze and relatives to the Bortkiewicz family from Swolna - gen. Aleksander Bernatowicz b. 1855; in an office of Piotr Jaroszewicz was woman from this family! Genowefa Malkiewicz nee Werakso to 1975 known the Bortkiewicz family. Michal Malkiewicz married Konstancja Bernatowicz b. 1878 in Zaborze close to Holubowo of Zarakowski, she died 1962. He died 1916 in Swolna Stara. His sons: Marian Malkiewicz b. Stara Swolna, the Witebsk province, 01-01-1916, ca January 1918 with mother escaped Stara Swolna to Wilno; 1919 in Wilno, died 1972. Zygmunt Malkiewicz b. 1907 in Stara Swolna; 1918 escaped from Swolna to Wilno, lived after in Warsaw, married 1937 to Krystyna Zekowska d. 1987; he was after in Kurow, Opatow, Ruszcza; 1950 - 1970 repressed by the Polish communists; d. 1974. Children: Izabela, Zbigniew, Anna Tarnowska.

4. Marian Malkiewicz b. ca 1867 lived in Oswiej, 30 km north of Swolna station; single; from 1873 in Stara Swolna, 4 km from Zaborze; Zaborze 24 km north of Dzisna; Swolna of Zarakowski located 4 km north of Zaborze of Bernatowicz. Killed.

5. Anna nee Malkiewicz with the Korab coat of arms; b. 1865 in Oswiej, after in Malnow, from January 1873 in Stara Swolna, close to Zarakowski; 1879 in Pluszcze, married to Stanislaw Konstantynowicz of Miezonka; died after born of first baby in Miezonka.

At present we have got few figures with our last name in Latvia:

Athena Konstantinovics, Rafael Konstantinovics, Vladimirs Konstantinovics, Ewald Konstantinovics, Siegfried Konstantinovics, Viktors Konstantinovics and in Jelgavas - Edgars Konstantinovics
) www.surnameweb.org/registry/m/a/l/malkiewicz.shtml

2.

Nieciejewski

in farms Hrynica / Griniza and Usochy in the Ihumen district, and also village Luszewska Slobodka in  the Rahacou district (345 ha., here a family of Gorski lived, too) since 1881; the Russian and Soviet general, count  Bronislaw Nieciejewski who was  born c. 1870 in the Berazino parish came from Hrynica, and his  daughter worked as translator and interpreter as early as November 1917 (after completion of the  University of  Paris) at the first Council of People's Commissars under direction of Wladymir (Vladimir) Boncz Brujewicz who was the chief of the Lenin's office 1917 - 1918; either Nieciejovski or  Niecijevskij, Nicijewski and  Nieciovski, too.

Eugeniusz Nieciejewski, born 1826 in Hrynica / Grenica, close to Berezyna Ihumenska; killed by the Red Army in 1922; the Poraj coat of arms, nobleman in 1836. His children: Maria Nieciejewska married to Wladyslaw Szostak b. 1864 Miezonka - she was born 1871 Hrynica; Bronislaw Nieciejewski born 1870, Hrynica, the Russia general; killed in Moscow in accident; Stanislaw Nieciejewski b. 1872, Hrynica; he studied geology around 1892, ca 1895 engineer geologist, settled in Baku and here he worked at the oil fields before 1914; had Georgian wife before 1900, ca 1920 settled in Tbilisi, Georgia. His descendants live in Georgia today.

3.

Uminski 

or Uminskas with Cholewa arms in the Vilna and Vicebsk provinces (Manulki farm A.D. 1672), Bruslevo (or Bryjelov, Brialewo in the Berezina parish) and Smolarnia - Florian Czarnyszewicz has written the book "Nadberezyncy"  about this village; Smolarnia was situated next to Krasny Brzeg in the Babrujsk district,  property of the Korzeniewski  family and also of

Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski
- he was born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov and he was related to Hotowski i.e. Gatovskij, Slotwinski from Ravanicy and Malkiewicz / Малькевич, too.
The second son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski: Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski was born 1868 and died after 1930, in 1897-1901 Tokio, 1901-1909 London, 1909-1912/13 Persia, 1913 to November 1917 in Romania!

His father Alfons Koziell Poklewski had 4 or 5 children:

4 or three sons

(Poklewski - Koziell Wladyslaw, b. 1866 in Belarus, tsarist colonel, served in Russian Army as engineer; Polish Army since November 1918, general in 1919;
and Wincenty Stanislaw and also Stanislaw)

and one daughter: Anna Poklewska - Koziell born ca 1860 married

to Antoni Riesenkampff b. ca 1860 with daughter Aniela nee von Reisenkampf 1890 - 1963 married to Jozef Aleksander Wielopolski 1886 - 1961. Above Alfons, the Roman Catholic religion, was born 1809 or 1810 in the Bykov area of the Vitebsk District that is Bykowszczyzna, in the Vicebsk government, after high school in Polock, after in Vilnius, and St Petersburg, 1838 West Siberie and Perm, Ural, Tobolsk, Tiumen, Jekaterynburg (near to the Szumski family), Omsk, Tomsk, Czelabinsk acc. to Antoni Kuczynski. Died in 1890. His father name Фома that is Foma Koziell Poklewski, officer in Polock and was born ca 1780.

His next of kin: Jozef son of Jan and Jozefa nee von Tolensdorff, was exiled to Siberie after 1863.

Vincent Stanislav Koziell Poklewski 1853 - 1929. State Councillor, entrepreneur, since 1890 managing 'Heirs of A. F. Poklevski Kozell' Company.
Since 1878 in the public service. Shadrinsk 1878-1881; Ufa 1885-1886; Vjatsk classical gymnasium 1892-1898; Since
1883 - of the Perm province;
the Shadrinsk County in 1905-1907,
the Kamyshlovsky County;
1903 to 1918 Yekaterinburg classic men's gymnasium. Honorary member of the Ural Society of Naturalists; Chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Yekaterinburg Trade Bank, a member of the board of the Volga-Kama Bank.
Tyumen, Yekaterinburg;
in 1907-1912 Member of the State Council of Trade. He owned in 1903 in Vitebsk province, the Bykovschizna estate / Быковщизна; in the Minsk province in
Bobruisk County - Красный берег / Krasnyj Bereg;
in the Vyatka province - the iron mining and ironworks in Glazov County - Upper and Lower Zalazinskii iron foundry.
In Ufa province at the Sofia village farm;
the Orenburg province - Demarin estate. In the province of Perm - Tyushevskii estate. In Tobolsk province of Turin county; in the district of Tobolsk;
in the province of Perm - Ertarskaya and Sarsinskaya factory.
Stone houses in St. Petersburg, Perm, Ekaterinburg, Kamyshlov, Shadrinsk, Verkhoturye, Krasnoufimsk, Nizhny Tagil, Kushvinsky plant, Birsk, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Kurgan, Semipalatinsk, Omsk, Pavlodar. He also owned gold mines in several provinces, copper and silver mines. Since 1919 in exile. His wife Ж-Мария-Юзефа / Jozefa Maria, daughter of Michael Gatovsky, that is
Maria Hattowska 1858-1949,
lived in Yekaterinburg.

Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Born ca 1880?

Probably a daughter of Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade in 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov.

The Riesenkampff family from Estland / Estonia:

A.

Friedrich Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1839 in Vööla mõis, Lääne County - d. 1902 in Vladikavkaz of Severnaya Osetiya, his mother Anna Charlotta Ottilia von Riesenkampff (1801 in Tallinn - 1852 Tallinn), his father Georg Magnus von Riesenkampff

(1780 Tallinn - 1846, Tallinn, he sold Voola / Bysholm, and next arrendator of Moik [10 km north-east of Nomme, Mõigu manor / Moik / Moick is located in the Tallinn suburb of Mõigu, Rae Parish], Colonel in 1827, inf. by Andrey Masing)

Officer 1857, Captain, Major; his wife Josephine Sacharow, daughter of Григорий Сахаров. Her son Fedor von Riesenkampff (b. 1870 in Slonim - 1908), with wife Katharina Heintz (b. 1872 from Kowno / Kaunas).

Children of Georg Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1780 Tallinn: Maria Karoline Lichonin / Мария Георгиевна Лихонина b. Tallinn 1827; Konstantin Berend von Riesenkampff b. 1843 in

Mahtra, Juuru Parish, Rapla County - ca 38 km south-east of Saku;

Justus Wilhelm Ernst von Riesenkampff b. 1833 in Tallinn; Friedrich Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1839 in Vööla mõis; Elisabeth Valerie Justine Petraschewski / Pietraszewski b. 1836, d. in USA; Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff 1824 in Vööla mõis; Helena Charlotta Friedberg b. 1841 in Tallinn; Nikolai von Riesenkampff b. 1826 in Tallinn, Major served in Caucasus, d. in USA; Alexander Otto Eberhard von Riesenkampff b. 1821 - 1895, born in Vööla mõis, served in Tomsk.

Saku / Sack - owners von Scharenberg, von Hastfer, von Rehbinder and von Baggehufwudt.

Vööla mõis, Lääne county, Estonia - neighbours:

1. Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa. Note: Jula Dunkel b. 1840, from Ridala Parish, Lääne County, Estonia - her father Kustas Dunkel b. 1814 from Haeska, 7 km east of Kiideva (Gernet) and south-east of Haapsalu, about 23 km west of Vaikna.

2. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jőgisuu - Jőgisoo ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.

3. From Piirsalu, Läänemaa east of Haapsalu, connected to Mari Masing and from Roela, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia. Mazing - Korkus in Livonia, from Estonia: Revel, Dorpat, Narva and Viru / Wierland - Varstu Parish in Vőru County, and from Riga, St. Petersburg in Russia. Motherland - the former Livonia, Estonia present. According to legend from the Swedish soldier who settled after 1630 in St. Mary Magdalene in Kayavere in Livonia.

4. Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland).

5. Pilar von Pilchau family was owner of Enivere, a village in Martna Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia, north-east of Kiideva and Haeska.

6. Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, has brothers:

a. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830;

b. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and

c. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - died 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

7. Marie Dagmar Pilar von Pilchau born in Sternberg, Lääne County in 1887. Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia. His son born February 28, 1887 in (Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau) Kuressaare (Arensburg), Saaremaa, Estonia. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland.

8. Von Gernet family. 1859 in Sellenkull. Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu, 27 km. And south-west of Lehola. Seljaküla is a village in Oru Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia; Lääne County / Ляэнемаа / Lääne maakond / Läänemaa / Western land / Wiek (Pastorat Poenal - Nurme 38 street - is in Taebla Municipality, Lääne-Nigula Parish, east from Haapsalu).

Sergey Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет / Sergei Gernet: a midshipman in the 1st Baltic Naval Depot. Sergei Pavlovich Gernet born 1859 and d. 1918; his father: Paul Bernhard Friedrich Gernet b. 1819 d. 1860. His son: Eugene S. Gernet b. in Kronstadt on October 31, 1882 d. on August 8, 1943 in Spartacus village, Pavlodar area, Kazakhstan. The captain of the 2nd rank in 1917.

9. Friedrich August Siré 1843-1916, an accountant, railway official, most recently in Baku; and his wife Louise Rosalie Fabricius 1842-1919 / Luise Rosalie Siré (nee Fabricius) - she was from Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti; her father Johann Carl Fabricius b. ca 1812 from Pernau / Pärnu. Daughter Elfriede Luise Caroline Rosenberg nee Siré 1868 St. Petersburg - 1893 and her son Alfred Ernst Rosenberg 1893 - 1946 from Tallinn. Above Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti, north-west of Parnu, and south-east of Haeska ca 24 km and Kiideva; south-west of Keskkula.

B.

Alfons Riesenkampff 1889 - 1936 son of Antoni Riesenkampff b. 1849, and Anna Koziełł-Poklewska b. ca 1860.

Mentioned above Antoni Riesenkampff / Антон Егорович Ризенкампф / Anton Johann Gabriel b. 1849 - d. 1919 in St Petersburg, General-Leutenant, his wife in 1880 was Anna Koziełł-Poklewska; his son Alfons von Riesenkampff 1889 - 1936, daughter Angelika Aniela Anna Antonia Maria Wielopolski or Aniela b. 1885 or 1890, married to Józef Aleksander Wielopolski of Zabełcz, she died 1963 in Warsaw; Lydia von Riesenkampff b. 1900, and next son Anton Alfons von Riesenkampff 1886 - 1955 in Zabrze.

Above mentioned Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff nee Poklewski-Koziell 1860 - 1908. She died in the Hrodna government, acc. to Andrey Masing. Her mother Angelika Rymoza / Рымша Анжелина Иосифовна / Rymscha / Rymsza, 1830 - 1901, (she was mother to Jozef Poklewski-Koziell, Wincenty Stanislaw, Iwan / Jan, Anna Antonina Alfonsovna, Stanislaw). Father of above named Antoni Riesenkampff / Антон Егорович Ризенкампф / Anton Johann Gabriel von Riesenkampff b. 1849, was Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff 1824 - 1878, born in Vööla mõis, Lääne County, Estonia; died in St Petersburg; Sergeant of Riga's dragoons regiment in 1838, lieutenant of the Prince Chernyshev / Czernyszew regiment, the campaign of 1849 in Hungary, Staff Captain, 1867 - Titular Counselor in Petersburg. His 1st wife was Hedwig Nesselowski or Ludowika / Ludwika Niesiolowska / Неселовская / Jadwiga Gräfin Korzbeck / Ядвига, daughter of Anton Nesselowski / Antoni Niesiolowski, Count. His second wife: Warwara Pawlowna Naumow / Варвара Павловна Наумова 1833 - 1909. Children of above Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff b. 1824: Михаил Георгиевич Ризенкампф / Michail Georgievich b. 1866, Anton Johann Gabriel b. 1849, Anatolij Egorovich (Анатолий Григорьевич or Егорович Ризенкампф, 1868 - killed 1918 in Sevastopol, he was the Black See naval officer, his wife Natalia Voronine / Воронина; her children: Nina Anatolievna von Riesenkampf de Almeida b. 1905 died in Sao Paulo, Мария Анатольевна Ризенкампф / Marie Pinto Alves / Moussia Pinto Alves 1901 - 1986, Olga Markow / Ольга Анатольевна Маркова 1899 - d. ca 1946), Alexander 1872 - 1895 with wife Vera Kozhewnikow / Вера Васильевна Кожевникова.

Family of above Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff b. 1824: Anna Katharina Riesenkampff b. 1822 in Tallinn; Nikolai von Riesenkampff b. 1826 in Tallinn - Major in Caucasus; Alexander Otto Eberhard 1821 in Vööla mõis, Lääne County - d. 1895, school in Reval 1833-34, studied in St. Petersburg, served in Tomsk, 1875 in Pjatigorsk, wife Елизавета Анисимовна, was friend of writer Dostoewski / Dostojewski; Maria Karoline Lichonin / Лихонина 1827 in Tallinn - 1882 in Petersburg, her husband Николай Александрович Лихонин died 1872 in Kronshtadt, Captain 1st Class.

Above Vööla mõis, Lääne County - that is Vööla (Bysholm) in Noarootsi Parish, Läänemaa County - 17 km north of Haapsalu.

Note:

Iwan Poklewski-Koziell (1865 - 1925) / Иван Альфонсович Поклевский-Козелл: his mother Angelika Rymoza (1830 - 1901).

His father Alfons Poklewski-Koziell (1809 - 1890), grandfather Tomasz Poklewski-Koziell b. ca 1780 / Foma / Томаш Поклевский-Козелл; grandmother Anna Spink b. ca 1790.

His sister Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff (1860 - 1908).

Jan Koziełł-Poklewski / Jakub Skała / b. 1837 in Serwecz Wielki, d. 1896 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk; Colonel in 1863; 1852 studied in Petersburg, next in Paris / Paryż; friend of Ludwik Mierosławski; 1861 Wilno, Moscow; Petersburg, 1863 in Warszawa / Warsaw; Augustow; Grodno and Belgium; 1864 Dresden and Paris; back to the Congress Poland in 1872 and jailed in Alma Ata / Ałma-Ata.

Вялікая Сэрвач, Великая Сервачь, Wielki Serwecz, Vialikaja Servač, Siervacz Servach: close to Liudvinovo, Kostienievichi, Stieszicy; ca 18 km south-west of Dolginovo; north-east of Vilejka, north of Minsk in Belarus.

The Uminski family
was related to Sarnecki (or  Sarneckis  from  Skierniow estate in the Trakai district) family with Slepowron arms.

After 10 years, I need specifies the base of the Krasny Brzeg village and the village of Smolarnia. Krasny Brzeg is situated in an area of Zlobin that is now the Gomel Province. Here is a palace of Koziell-Poklewski. Smolarnia / Смолярня / Smalarnia is a village in Belarus, a former Polish nobility locality, located in Mogilev Province at present, in the area of Kliczow / Klitshev, 3.5 km to the south-west of Kliczow, next to Niaseta / Niesety, Budniewo, about 30 km south - west of Miezonka. The village is sheltered from the north by forest. Smolarnia and its people during 1905-1920 is describes by Florian Czarnyszewicz.

4.

counties Zarako Zarakowski

i.e. the Zarokovskij family e.g. during war 1878 - 1879; properties: Holubovo palace, Kniazievo village and the great Svolna / Swolna estate - the chief  military state prosecutor of communistic Poland (after - see http://konstantynowicz.info/September_1939 - 1939 P. O. W. in Russia and next Military Attorney in Warsaw / Attorney General) and Soviet general, count Stanislaw Zarako Zarakowski  was born here in 1909 or November 1907; neighbourhood of them: Lipski Jan who  was the noble marshal of the Vicebsk government, Alina Rykow, Maryia Zabiella, famous Czerski by 1835,  Szczyt since 1725, Rudomin, Korsak, Dluzniewski; Jan Zaraka(o) - Zarakowski b. 21.02.1857, Russian general,  stayed in Vicebsk  in June 1918, next Polish division general 1923, d. in Warsaw before 1934 according to T. Kryska-Karski; Soviet and Polish general  Boleslaw Zarako -  Zarakowski was chief of the main staff of the Polish People Army in 1944, b. in Polack 1894.

Count Jozef Zarakowski / Zarako - Zarakovski. Born ca 1833 (like Antoni Konstantynowicz b. ca 1833), owner of Holubowo palace, Kniaziewo estate, big Swolna lands, Wasilewo village in the Dryssa ujezd, the Witebsk government, Russia. Wife Teofila.

His children:

1. Anna Zarakowska, Zarako; b. 1865 in Wasiliszki, the Lida ujezd. She was living in the Dryssa county, Holubowo. After marriage in Swolna, her property; also estates by the Berezyna river and two homes in Daugavpils / Dyneburg. In the summer of 1918 moved from Witebsk / Vicebsk to Warsaw. Next she was living in Wolkowysk. Died in Bransk, Poland, on 10 August 1950.

Her husband Jozef Konstantynowicz son of Antoni Konstantynowicz, b. ca 1833. He was born ca 1857. Second son of Antoni Konstantynowicz from Miezonka.
He was living in Swolna of Zarakowski. Very rich man. Two homes in Dyneburg. Big estate by the Berezyna river. He had three brothers. Summer 1918 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, died in Russia.

2. Hieronim Zarako Zarakowski / Zarakowski Jeronim, godfather of Czeslaw Konstantynowicz in 1901 in Vierchnij Dvinsk / Dryssa.

3. Jan Zarako - Zarakowski / Zarako-Zarakowski, b. 21 February 1857; Russian General and Polish Army General. 1923 div. general retired. Lived in Warsaw, died before 1934, at Powazki buried.

5.

Zbieranowski

Igumen, Berazino (Michal born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904), Riga and Miezonka; they were relations of Sarnecki (or Sarneckis)  family  with Slepowron arms.

Leon Spychalski was godfather of Piotr Zbieranowski. Leon was brother of Marshal Marian Spychalski and friend of the Andrzejak family. Piotr is grandson of Wiktoria Konstantynowicz from Miezonka / Viktoria Konstantinovich of Meshonka in the Berezino parish.

6.

Szostak

Miezonka and (acquaintances of  Raczkiewicz)  Babrujsk = Bobruisk or Bobruysk   www.surnameweb.org/registry/s/z/o/szostak.shtml

7.

Konstantynowicz

Miezonka, Petersburg, Svolna = Svol'na or Swolna, Krycau, Daugavpils, Kovalki, Riga, Omsk, Borovina.

Borowina village:

1. Jan Konstantynowicz b. 15-02-1888, the Berezyna parish, Ihumen district; 1917 officer in Moscow; married to Afina from Georgia, she was living in Moscow, too; ca October 1917 back home to Borowina; escaped with brother Franciszek Konstantynowicz in December 1918 from Borowina / Borowica to Bialystok; in 1920 he served the Balachowicz Army. Pawel / Paul Konstantynowicz Adolfovich, b. 1885 in the Minsk Province, Igumen county, Borovin; Pole, individual peasant, place of residence: Tara district, M - Noble, Sibkraya after arrest on 02/10/1930, convicted 04/08/1930 at Sibkray on 5 years labor camp, sent to Siblag of the Omsk region, source: Memorial Book of the Omsk Region. See http://iberezino.ru/Represed2.html and http://iberezino.ru/Repressed10.html. Also about Konstantynowicz Tomasz son of Ludwig Konstantynowicz / Thomas Lyudvigovich; born 01/01/1893, Borovin in the Berezinskii district, Pole, lived: Berezinski region, village Borovin / Borowina and arrested on September 25, 1937, sentenced: The Commission and the Prosecutor of the NKVD of the USSR December 17, 1937 for espionage, verdict: he was shot January 19, 1938 and place of burial - Cherven. Rehabilitated April 29, 1989 by the military prosecutor. We know now that Ludwig Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms was born ca 1850 / 1860. Ludwig is a descendant of Dominik Konstantynowicz.

2.
Franciszek Konstantynowicz b. 17 / 30-10-1900 in Borowina, son of Ludwik Konstantynowicz, 1915 - 1917 military college in Moscow, 1917 met with Lenin in train to Petersburg; October 1917 back to Borowina; December 1918 escaped to Bialystok, 1920 served to the Balachowicz Army, maybe from 1919. 1921 - Szczypiorno, Plock, Tuchola, Bialystok, Warszawa, 1945 Wroclaw.

3. Ignacy; Tomasz; Paulina born in Smolarnia 1894; Pawel; Piotr; NN daughter; NN son - Adam?

Some additional information about the Konstantynowicz family on the Minsk province and other areas of Belarus:

1. 1921, the Mogilev oblast, the Bialynicze area, Pankov / Pankowo village - (probably Lankovo, 8 km north-east of Bielynichi);
2. Talkachevshchina near by Kojdanov - SW of Minsk;
3. Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;
4. 1910, Novogrudok region, Korchevichi;
5. Kossovo region, Golenchitsy;
6. Novogrudok prov., Slodchyu / Slodcze; Poles, lived in the Kossovo region in Golenchitsy;
7. 1880, Spustik village in the Minsk district, Byelorussian, peasant, after lived in Puchowicze / Pukhovichy district, Francuska Grobla / Griebla;
8. 1888, Minsk Province. Puhovitskaya parish / Puchowicze area, Podkosie village;
9. Novogrudok area, Gnoinskaya village, Pole; the resident in Kossovo region, Golenchitsy;
10. 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;
11. 1885, the Minsk Province, the Igumen county, Borovin / Borowina village;
12. 1875, Bolschaya Glushitsa or Gluszuca;
13. 1893, Borovin village in the Berezinskii district;
14. 1901, the Dvinsk in Latvia now;
15. Wladyslawa Saturnina Konstantynowicz, b. ca 1861, marrried on 26 July 1884 in Warsaw;
16. Szymon Konstantynowicz Sosa - from Georgia? "Sosa" is nickname only.

8.

Pilecki

Pileckis with Leliwa arms in the Vilna region in 1632 and the Trakai district in 1648, Navahrudak in 1674; first  information of 1484 and 1511; they verified the Swan coat of arms in Vilnius and Kaunas in 1807, and also the family  possessed a farmland near by Lida and close to an estate of Marshal Edward Rydz Smigly west of  Lida in the thirties of the 20th cent. 

9.

Stankiewicz

The Stankiewicz ancestry with the Wadwicz coat of arms lived in the Minsk and Mscislau provinces, according to Kasper Niesiecki, vol. 8 (among others 1648 and 1661) as early as the 17th century; the Mazyr district, the province of Polack A.D. 1674. They were related to Kotowski and Oginski families. According to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 5, p. 134 - 135: Stankiewicz or Stankevicius of the Mogila, Boncza and Wadwicz coats of arms; they were near related to Bilewicz (or Billewicz) family from Samaites at the turn of the 16th century. There are information about Jan Stankiewicz in Samaites and Vilna A.D. 1635 and about Michal and Adam Mikolaj here in 1648; Jan Mikolaj from Raseiniai region in 1646, and also Kazimierz in 1658; about Stefan from the Minsk province in 1697 and Adam Stankiewicz in Samaites 1788. They verified the Mogila coat of arms on March 16th, 1835 and derived from Samaites territory in Lithuania. Here they owned Raseiniai in 1535 and next moved to Vilkmerge district (Kirbutiszki and Krekszle farms). The noble Stankiewicz family with the Wadwicz coat of arms came of the Orsa district, and next in the Asmjany one, also the Minsk province and the Mscislau one. They verified the Wadwicz coat of arms in Minsk on February 25th, 1828; besides they lived in the Braslau region.  
   You can to see interesting website on the Stankiewicz family,
http://republika.pl/aord/stankiewicz.htm among other things about: 1. Wladyslaw, Adam and Witold Stankiewicz from Vilna; 2. Antoni from the Minsk government (b. circa 1870, the member of the Civil Guard in Minsk in 1918); 3. Feliks b. 1927 in Babrujsk;
   4. The  Stankiewicz family from Przydrusk village near by Daugavpils was related to colonel Jan  Stankiewicz. Przydrusk = Przydrujsk or Piedruja in the former Grand duchy of Lithuania, and Latvia now, 44 km West of Malkiewicz's Old Svolna = Stara Swolna; Jan Stankiewicz born 04.04.1862 in Vilna / Wilno as son of Franciszek Stankiewicz with the Mogila coat of arms and Pelagia nee Sienkiewicz, got married to Maria Odrowaz in 1886 and  next  as colonel served and  lived in Riga / Ryga 1887 - 1909 / 1910 and possesed the Awocin property in Latvia to c. 1910;  the friend  of   parents of  minister Jozef Beck  from Riga and acquaintance of Jozef Pilsudski  in August 1919 in Wilno;  the relation of  Butrym  family. Colonel Jan Stankiewicz was Polish educational activist and freedom fighter within the Pilsudski undercover movement before 1910 in Riga. Colonel Jan Stankiewicz had withdrawn from the  Russian Army on 01.01.1918, and the Bolsheviks assented to this discharge on 28.02.1918; reunion with family in  Smolensk  after January 1918; and next after settled  himself  in Vilna / Wilno / Vilnius in 1918 or maybe spring 1919. But he served for the Polish Army just since April 1919 and as brigade-general in October 1923; died in Milanowek near to Warsaw in December 1945.

He was mistaken for colonel Gustaw Stankiewicz  son of Marian  from the Siedlce government   b. 1860 - 1918 who was maybe commandant of the 2nd  Polish Corps in  Ukraine in  accordance with Nicman of 1995 and with a Moscow Archive of 2000, and Gustaw died in 1918 over a fight against "reds" somewhere in Ukraine;  
also he was  mistaken with  Sylwester  Stankiewicz, according to Vronskya J. of 1992.
. Sylwester Stankiewicz born 1866 and died in Taganrog close to Rostov-na-Don in March 1919;  maybe since 10th January 1918 to 28th March 1918 as the commandant of the 2nd Polish Corps in Moldova and Ukraine; General-Lieutenant Sylwester Stankiewicz after served for general Anton Denikin in the Voluntary Army with 3000 Russian soldiers; maybe since January 1919 under command of general Piotr Vrangel.  It's not plain statement seeing as turned up just now and come in from East surely. Entries in Wikipedia of  September 2008 on Gustaw and Sylwester (!) have got only currently edited references and there are mistakes in details.

Main former historians: Baginski H., Dowbor - Musnicki J., Holowko T. of  1931 and Michaelis E. of 1929 point out Russian General-Lieutenant Jan Stankiewicz as the commandant of the 2nd Polish Corps in Moldova and Ukraine during December 1917 - March 1918.

 Who was a Commander of the 2nd Polish Corps in
Soroka (Soroca by Dnister in  present north Moldova id est Soroki) and Iasi (east Romania now) in the end of January 1918 till March 08th,  1918?  Colonel Jan Stankiewicz from Riga? General Jan Stankiewicz? Old Gustaw Stankiewicz or an unknown Stankiewicz?  Sylwester Stankiewicz? 

Commander of  the 2nd  Polish Corps retreated front of Germans (a withdrawal of military forces after 
acceptance the Ukraine as ind. state by Germany on 09 February 1918 and 03 Mar. 1918) and after stayed in Iasi on  March 02nd, 1918 and came into contact  with Haller in Jaruga on
March 05th, 1918; when Romania
on the same day March 05th, 1918 concluded an alliance with  Germany - Haller and Stankiewicz with the 2nd Corps on 08th March 1918 launched  a march east and crossed Dnister river going into  Ukraine evading a disarmament in the then Romania. On the other hand General - Lieutenant Jan   Stankiewicz went out from  Czeczelnik to Kiev on March  25th, 1918, to Gen. Michaelis, and next he joined the  White Russian Gen. Aleksiejew / Alekseev by the Kuban river in April 1918 He fought north of  Stavropol in  September  -  October 1918, e.g.  battle  near by Ternovka on  October 14th, 1918 with White  Russians against "reds".  Stankiewicz took the offensive against Stalin's troops for  Astrakhan in middle of  November  1918, and after a retreat of the Voluntary Army, fought at Stavropol "White" Territory in  December 1918 and at the beginning of 1919. General Jan Stankiewicz evacuated himself  from Novorossijsk and probably arrived close by Odessa in March 1919.

 Note: the retreat of 3500 soldiers of the Voluntary Army from under Odessa commenced  at the beginning of April 1919 towards Bessarabia - it was a province of the then Romania between 1918 and 1940/44  - where the Romanians had disarmed "white" Russians, and a  part of this "Army" joined in  General 
Zeligowski 4th Division transcending Dniestr / Dnister river on 10th April 1919;  made Tschernowzy (= Chernovits, Cernivci) and Stanislavov in Poland  in June 1919.  See   Berezyna
5. Bronislaw from Riga (b. 1913, his  grandfather Nikodem was policeman in Riga).  

10.

Spychalski

The Spychalski family from Lodz, worked in a garage of Andrzejak at the beginning of the 20th century and they were acquainted with Pilsudski

Miezonka na mapie sowieckiej 1951 / 1982. Copyright by http://download.maps.vlasenko.net/smtm100/n-36-063.jpg


История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz, Trubetzkoy / Troubetskoy / Trubecki, Orlov-Denisov / Orlow Denisow, Dadiani, Nikitin, Wittgenstein, Golicyn / Golitsyn, Bagrationi / Bagration-Gruzinski / Bagration Gruzinsky, Pashkovsky / Paszkowski, Duflon / Dyuflon, Siedych / Sedoch / Staroch-Siedoch, Armand, Demonets / Demonet in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia. The Lenin Revolution 1917 - 1918.


История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Wernadski, Modzelewski and Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Dubbelt / Dubelt, Pushkin / Puszkin, Gernet, Toll, Croy, Rehbinder, Konstantinovich / Constantinovich / Constantinowitz, Armand, Paszkowski, Demonet, Kalinowski, Trubecki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoj, Sedykh / Siedoch, Zarako Zarakowski / Zarakovskij, Dyuflon / Duflon, Nobel, Vernadskij, Modzelewski families in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia (Moscow, St Petersburg, Alexandrovsk, Miezonka, Berezyna, Orsha, Mahileu, Mscislaw, Riga, Tallinn, Kronstadt, Viljandi, Parnu / Parnawa, Daugavpils, Harku, Saku, Nomme, Kazan).

My grandfather Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Jurij Konstantinovich / vel Marian Konstantynowicz was a regular.
On 04 December 1918 he owned document in Marian Konstantynowicz name but he wasn't this person surely over military service in voluntary Lithuanian - Byelorussian Division. My grandfather was born on 23 April 1898 either 1897 or 23 April 1900 in the village MIEZONKA, at present Belarus: the Bjalynicy (= Belynichi) region in the Mahileu (= the Mogilev or Mahilyow province) 'oblast'; the village is situated among grand forest and southwards was big marsh - Miezonka was at a territory of the Radzivilles enormous estates before A.D. 1840. He has got papers that was born in Warsaw in 1898 or in Pohost / Pogost close to Berezyna / Berazino.
At first he learnt - Autumn 1908 - in the secondary school in
Mahileu by the river Dnjapro,

next he was transfered to Parnu / Pernau at the end of 1908: 1908 / 1909 - to 1912 a real school - Gymnasium in PÄRNU / Pernau / Parnawa / Пернов or Пярну

(
the Livland government, and Estonia present; Феллин / Fellin that is after 1917 - Вильянди / Viljandi is situated close to Parnu, and the Konstantynowicz's vel Staroch Siedoch / Sedykh / Siedoh /
Седых / Siedych
lived here. At margin: the Commander-in-chief of the Estonian Army Johan Laidoner was born 1884 in Raja farmstead near Viiratsi, site now located in nearby Vardja village in Viljandi / Viiratsi area, 2 km from Viljandi in the south. President Konstantin Pats born 1874 in Tahkuranna, Parnumaa - the Parnu district, and his grandfather Hans Pats was born 1819 in Holstre - Viljandi County / Viljandimaa - Holstre in the Paistu Parish, is situated about 10 km south east from Viljandi, Estonia.

Pärnu Coeducational Gymnasium / Pärnu Ühisgümnaasium / Boys Gymnasium of Pärnu / Pärnu Kuninga Tänav Põhikool School is located in Pernau. The school was founded in 1861 and is the eldest school in town. It started as a school for boys. Here has studied: Tiit Kuusik, Paul Keres 1930-1934, Konstantin Päts b. 1874, graduated from Pärnu Gymnasium, 1894-98 studied law at Tartu University, 1918-38 Prime Minister, 1905-06 in Switzerland, 1906-09 in Finland. The beginning of scouting in Estonia, in 1912 back to the first troop was formed in Pärnu. The first article in the Estonian media about scouting was published in 1911. Anton Õunapuu described there the principles of scouting, and soon 'Junyi Razvedtchik' was obtained. The Pärnu troop stayed functioning as the one and only troop during the first years of scouting in Estonia, attracting 80 - 100 boys on its best days. In 1916 a troop was formed in Tartu and in 1916/17 Anton Õunapuu started scouting activities in different schools in Tallinn, where he was teaching gymnastics. Some scouts and leaders joined with Kalevlaste Maleva in 1918. In Parnu has studied: Jeannot Schotz, had been a gold medal student at Gymnasium (High School) in Pärnu before going on to Riga University; Schotz, Benno b. 1891, sculptor, at the age of two he moved to Pärnu and attended the Gymnasium there until 1911. Vilms, Jüri b. 1889 Kabala parish, Viljandi county, studied at Pärnu Gymnasium and was expelled for participating in the revolutionary events of 1905. After studying privately, he graduated from school in 1907. On 19 February 1918 Vilms, together with Konstantin Päts and Konstantin Konik, was elected a member of the Estonian Salvation Committee / the Rescue Committee. Boris Berg, Earl b. 1884 in Eastland. As a child, he lived in France, then studied at a grammar school in Pärnu. In 1901, in the footsteps of his father, George Berg, entered the Parnu Gymnasium / Lyceum, of the course 62. He served in the Office of the Ministry of Justice. Additional info on Anton Õunapuu: Anton Õunapuu born in the Vana-Vändra borough in Pärnu County, Estonia, the Liivoja farm / talu, Liivoja farm is located close to Võhma, Imavere, Kabala / Kabbalah and Arkma village; his wife Ella Ksenia, his sister Emmeline Kald, his half sister Anna Milvek, his father Hans Õunapuu b. 1844. He started his studies in Vaki Municipality School 1897, graduatuated from Vändra Parish School in 1903. In 1908 he continued his studies at evening courses. Graduated in 1913 from Helsinki University. Worked at gymnastics schools in 1913-18; he promoted the Scout Movement in 1916 in schools of Haapsalu, Pärnu, Tallinn and Viljandi. In 1917 Õunapuu formed a Student Home Guard Squad. His friend Anton Jürgenstein b. 1861 Vana-Vändra vald, Pärnumaa, was an Estonian journalist, literary critic and politician. Jaan Tõnisson close friend and companion. Anton Jürgenstein was elected in 1907 to the Russian State Duma. Jaan Tõnisson b. 1868, near Tänassilma, Viiratsi Parish, Viljandi County, Foreign Minister of Estonia from 1931 to 1932
)

-
he knew very well spoken and written Estonian according to the Polish Ministry of Defense in Warsaw
- and

the Naval Corps (or at the Petrograd Naval College = the Naval War College; Course of Navigation Officers 1912 - December 1916) in St Petersburg and 

Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania. Константинович - биография. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Pushkin, Troubetzkoy, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Sedykh from Kazan, Soltan, Oginski, Paszkowski and Kalinowski from Cracow, Zbieranowski, Zarako-Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Dunkel / Tunkel from Estonia, Dubbelt / Dubelt from Riga, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, Azbelev, Holynski of 18th cent., Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.

he first served in the Kronstadt Stronghold (the Bureau of Navy Transport - in a navigation ensign capacity, i.e. concretly "pra'porchik", this is a temporary rank, about equivalent to Sub-Lieut., R.N.R. in British Navy, one 1/2-inch gold stripe without curl - Dec. 1916 / March 1917). After the March (1917) Revolution and during the First World War he escaped on powerboat from the Kronstadt Stronghold to Tallinn (Reval = Revel, the capital of autonomous Estonia = Estland since March 1917) with Estonian engineer Jansen / Jannsen and stayed here since 02nd April 1917 by 02nd June of 1917; next in Petrograd on 03rd June 1917 by November 1917

Curiosity: 1. Among seamen writers was Captain 2nd rank Konstantin Konstantynowicz. 2. 1907 - first plant in Estonia built to provide power for household electric power on stream in Parnu. 3. 1908 - first radio transmission station in Estonia is built at the Russian imperial Baltic Fleet's Tallinn port. 

St Petersburg and The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company 1892 - 1918

During the fighting between the "whites" and "reds" after the Bolshevik Revolution towards the end of 1917 (Minsk Litewski - he has been assigned on 11 December 1917 to the Cadet Legion, here in December 1917 - and at a later date in Orsha / Orsza [Christmas?] and ca 15 December 1917 in Old Bychau / Bychow) by summer 1918 my grandfather 'Marian' or Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Yuri / Георгий / Юрий Константинович served for

secret service of counter revolutionary White 1st Polish Corps 

under general Dowbor Musnicki (a scout troop of the 1st Division and next - on 27th January 1918 - under command of engineer Wroblewski - who later worked in an armoury in Pionki  in the thirties of the 20th century  keeping in touch with the Wankowicz family still - recognized Mahileu and Babrujsk) and  fought (Orsa = Orscha / Orsza, colonel Frej 16/20 January 1918 and Rahacou / Rochaczow 03rd/10th January 1918 - 4th infantry regiment, the 1st  Division of Polish Rifles, Hradzianka / Grodsjanka / Grudzjenka - North of Ossipowitschi Mahilyow google satellite maps) against the Bolsheviks for freedom of this  country; he carried out duties of courier (Minsk, Babrujsk, Barysau) for the Polish Women Rings. We must back now to Aldona nee Dzierzynski who was living in the Bobruisk district near by Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, who was brother of Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829
or (date of birth is mistake maybe) Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882 (born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ.).

Next in the  

Civil Guard of the Minsk Government and the Government of Mahileu on 08th July 1918

- then met the family of Wankowicz (quod vide Appendix D about this family) in Old Kaluzyca = Kaluzyn because Mr. Witold "Tolo" Wankowicz was chief of the Union of Weapon in the Ihumen district  -  

autonomous section of the Polish Military Organization 

- and my grandfather was courier between the Luboszany (= Libuschany) estate and Kaluzyca in fall 1918;  see: Berezyna ; here you  can to acquaint with information about former Ihumen district and with data on the Polish in the parish of Berezino; it's a large part devoted to Polish senior officers in Tsarist Army and which next served for the 1st Polish  Corps in Belarus in 1917 - 1918;  Jerzy Konstantynowicz vel Marian Konstantynowicz

my grandfather was near to general Wejtko (ensign of orderly in Minsk and Vilna 1918) in  the  

Self-defence of Lithuania and Belarus - on 22nd November 1918 from Minsk Litewski to Wilno / Vilnius, and 04th December 1918 in Lapy close to Bialystok to Polish Army - 15th December 1918 a school of the Kowno Regiment

- after the collapse of tsarist Russia, Poland regained its independence after 123 years  of  foreign rule and he was professional officer in the 

military intelligence service of  Polish Army 

(namely IInd Bureau of the General Staff - determination according to "The Secret Story of SOE (...)" by W. J.  M. Mackenzie, U.K. 2000, p. 312; 04 December 1918 he owned document in Marian Konstantynowicz  name but he wasn't this person surely over military service in voluntary Lithuanian - Byelorussian  Division) 1918 - 1947; military oath in Vilna on December 29th, 1918 during defense of  the town against Soviet troops; the 77th Kovno Regiment next; he served when Poland  was fighting with the Bolsheviks in defense of its independence (20 February 1919 Rozanka, Slonim, Nowogrodek, Minsk Litewski, 11 March 1919 to 10th May 1919 ? - 1920). 

The LIDA garrison (the barracks had name of Marshal Edward Rydz Smigly; the 77th Infantry  Regiment handed over an estate to the Marshal west of Lida near by a farmland of famous Pilecki family;  a pilot and the pioneer of Polish air force Witold Worbek Lettaw from Lithuania (the Lettowt family was verified  in the Kaunas government in 1844 - 1847 and in Vilna on 03.05.1827 as Letowt; also as Letovt Vorbek or von Lettow Vorbeck, v.  Lettow-Vorbeck, Lettow von Vorbek) acted in this garrison) by morning 18 - 09 - 1939; my grandfather at the night 17 / 18 September 1939 co-organized burning of the LIDA  garrison's documentation and next was in Landwarow (= Lentvaris) on  September 19th, 1939,  ZAWIASY, probably arrived at the Rudziszki (= Rudiskes) station and to Grodno 20th  September 1939. He gone on Lithuania on September 21st (= Litauen; was interned and after registered  at the Vievis station 21st   September 1939; see more information about Polish September 1939: http://konstantynowicz.info) 1939; he was in  camps for prisoners of war in: Palanga, relocated to Vilkaviskis Ponoj (= Ponoi in USSR   Karta), Archangel / Archangelsk and Viazniki / at the Wjasniki station (here in August 1941; that is  the Jusha camp = Jusk); 

  Walki z sowietami po 23 wrzesnia 1939  New website! © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

September 1941 - May 1947 Army of general Anders. 1947 -- 1948 émigré from Italy to ARGENTINA. He lived after in Mexico or New Mexico, too. I am unclear about where he died; he used pseudonym Stankiewicz / Antoni Stanislaw Stankiewicz ? as though a second surname.

A few details after 10 years of my websites:
My grandfather was rarely at home before The Second World War. He traveled often for longer. With these expeditions brought particular trophies. What it was? These trophies from the trips were the Bolshevik guns called "revolver" or "Nagan" with a large caliber. He had a drawer in his office in the garrison of the 77th infantry regiment in Lida, full of them always. Probably, he killed enemies acc. to my father, on behalf of the Polish state. So my father spoke to us, grandfather often had to be on a secret trip to the Soviet Union. When he left the garrison and was in the central Poland, it received the nick-name Stankiewicz. For his interlocutors he took as a gift the Bolshevik guns. Once he was at the anniversary meeting of the members of the Polish Military Organization in Krakow and he was wearing a colonel's uniform. He had several biographies: according to one worked for the mobilization department of the Ministry of Defence. According to another legend, was an accountant. Still other data said that already in Tsarist Russia was learning to future employee of military intelligence, probably in the range of encryption and radio. The course includes swam on the Russian battleship - "Petropavlovsk". During World War I it was stationed in Helsinki. In 1918, in Miezonka and Bobruisk he walked in uniform of the tsarist army probably "junker", very decorative, according to his colleague from Miezonka. Also he used the birth certificate of Marian Konstantinovich, who died shortly after birth, but he was baptized. The new born baby died when his mother Anna also died - she was from the home of Malkiewicz family. These false documents indicated to Stanislaus Konstantynowicz as his adoptive father. When in 1939 he was in a camp for Polish interned soldiers in Palanga, Lithuania has used for identification in contact with the family, a sailing ship picture. In 1947 Marian Konstantynowicz settled near to Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Acc. to KONSTANTYNOWICZ Immigration Records on the Port of Buenos Aires in Argentina, at http://www.hebrewsurnames.com/ we read: KONSTANTYNOWICZ, JAN aged 25, ORTODOX, Polish, on 01/02/1929 arrived to BUENOS AIRES; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, MARIA aged 57, householder, Catholic, from Italy, ship EMPIRE HALBERD, dep. GENOVA, arrived on 20/11/1947 to BUENOS AIRES, was born in ROMA; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, MARIAN aged 47, Catholic, Polish, ship EMPIRE HALBERD, dep. GENOVA, arrived on 20/11/1947 to BUENOS AIRES, born in MIEZONKA; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, STEFAN aged 22, Catholic, Polish, from CHERBURG, arrived 03/08/1927 to BUENOS AIRES, born in ZYDOWSKIE; and again KONSTANTYNOWICZ, STEFAN aged 28, from TRIESTE arrived on 18/09/1932 to BUENOS AIRES, was born in ZYDOWSKIE. These data were obtained from www.cemla.com.

After 1948 all marks after Marian Konstantynowicz are interrupted. It is known, however, that Marian Konstantynowicz next was in Mexico. No one knows where or when he died.

Before the Second World War my grandfather did not have in the then Poland any family of his parents. My family in the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century, was running an extensive exchange of correspondence mainly from Estonia and in second place with Finland and Latvia. At a later point were letters from Lithuania.

More about Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Latvia in combination with radiotelegraphy, communications, telephone, radio tubes, wiring, and transmission of information by radio to the next page of my genealogy.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Latvia in combination with radiotelegraphy, communications, telephone, radio tubes, wiring, and transmission of information by radio in Russia 1892 - 1918. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz.

His particular personal signs acc. to UK Ministry of Defense (photo of 1934): 

- his blood - group: A

-  a scar under right knee

- he was 160 cm tall.



The Sedoh / Siedoh / Sedykh / Седых / Siedych family in Estonia and in Tatarstan now.

Victor Konstantynowicz vel Wiktor Konstantynowicz or Wiktor Konstantynowicz Staroch Siedoch vel (nickname) Starych Siedych / Sedykh (acc. to me he changed the surname because Viktor Konstantinovich has the documents named Constantine and scans of Estonian passports with the Starych Siedych surname), was born on 20 October 1874 in Kazan, his father unknown name, but mother was Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Duchess Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya born ca 1853 (or circa 1840). Wiktor Konstantynowicz was married to Alexandra Nikolaevna nee Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, born 03 February 1877 in St Petersburg, her father Nikolai Ivanov Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Riabczynski; on 09 June 1934 lived in Estonia, Nomme, the Harku street No (tn) 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu (by the order of Nomme Small Town Council, Hiiu-Rahu Cemetery, which was established in 1919, is the smallest among the cemeteries in Tallinn) in Tallinn: Victor on 19 January 1945 buried by Rita Tunkel / Tungel, address Apteegi 14-2 and Alexandra - 09 December 1948 buried by Galina Tunkel.
Inf. among others things by Inga Ilves (she is from Moscow / Москва, Russia but with roots from Järva County and near by families from Odessa, Tallinn - Hiiu [Hiiu is a subdistrict / asum in the district of Nomme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia], the town of Elva in Estonia) and 'http://forum.vgd.ru/'.

There are 10 people in Estonia with the Trubetskoi / Trubetskoy (Трубецкой и Эстония) last name now, in Harjumaa. Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland; Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is included in the county.
See also: 'genealogy.euweb.cz' acc. to Josef Zvonecka and 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3ATrubetskoy_family' "...but then the page was attacked by Polish nationalists who turned it into a mess, starting a bunch of unnecessary stubs with Polish names. They also extensively used the Trubetskoy genealogy which I had compiled and posted at 'genealogy.euweb.cz'. I am sorting this category and some of it's members have really more connection with Russia then Poland..." (?!). "Someone give a bibliographic reference for this genealogy" at 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trubetskoy_family'. My correspondent was writing to me in June 2012: "...The Library of Congress as well as some other world libraries own the official Troubetzkoy family genealogies. The most recent one was published in 1976 and has full information about Princess Maria and was written by a nephew. In addition, there are 3 books about the descendants of that particular branch of the family, with the latest book published in 2006".

Bedrich Vilem Urban was born on March 18, 1880 in Senice in Austria / now Czech Republic and died 1955; in 1904 worked for 'Tallinna Volta' and 1908 for 'firmas Duflon ja Konstantinovitsch' that is the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company, 1911 'Siemens-Schuckert'. In 1918 back to Estonia. His wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban; his children: Dalibor Dalka Urban, Jean Boris Urban, Zdanek Zdenya Urban; his parents: Marie Urban and Stepan Urban father. Above named his wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg born on June 29, 1882 in Tallinn, Harjumaa county - her father Gustav Kustas Steinberg b. on March 2, 1850 in Üksnurme - Üksnurme is a village in Saku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, close to Tallinn, Üksnurme is 2 km south - west from Saku; Saku is 12 km south of Nomme, and 16 km from Tallinn. Saku is a small borough in Harju County, Estonia. Her mother: Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt b. June 21, 1862 in Harku; Harku is 6 km west of Nomme, where lived the Sedykh and Konstantynowicz families, next of kin with the Troubetzkoy family. Wiktor Konstantynowicz was living on 09 June 1934 in Estonia, Nomme at Harku (the Harku street in Nomme located in north of the town, near to the Hiiu-Rahu kalmistu Tallinnas) tn 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu. Above named address: Hiiu, street Harku tn (No) 28, apt. 2, Nõmme - Tallinn, Harjumaa district, Eesti / Estonia - Harku str. No 28 crossroads streets on Vahtra str in north part of Nomme. Nomme is one of the 8 administrative districts of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Harku / Hark is a small borough in Harku Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt died in the Czech Republic. And a grandmother of wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg: Mina Salwelt nee Mamers b. on October 7, 1836 in Parmel.


Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Estonia and Latvia. Константинович - биография. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, and Kalinowski from Cracow, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Dunkel / Tunkel, 
Rehbinder / Rebinder, Benkedorf, Urban, Steinberg, 
from Estonia, Dubbelt / Dubelt from Riga, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, 
Azbelev, Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.

An information from a database of the White movement:

Starych Siedych Victor Konstantynowicz born 1874, in service since 1904, an officer since 1912, 'ensign' that is praporschik by Admiralty,
in the North - Western Army of White movement enlisted on May 20, 1919 and in December 1919 at the headquarters of the 4th Infantry Division

(by Michael Kihntopf: 

'...The Russian counter-revolutionary Northwest Army ... had started near the Estonian and Russian frontier ... The Northwest Army had its origins in ... October 1918 in the occupied city of Pskov. ... the German General Staff authorized the organization of nearly 2500 prisoners of war and former tsarist officers who had sought shelter from the Bolshevik secret police in German occupied territory into a unit it designated as the Northern Corps. ... Konstantin Pats, the Estonian prime minister ... had formed a fledgling army of two 300 man companies. ... White movements, the Corps ...contained 36 former generals ... The first was General Aleksandr Rodzianko ...The second to rise to the top was a product of the revolution, Major General Stanislav Bulak-Balakovitch who styled himself as the Ataman of Peasants and Partisan Legions. He had begun his military career in 1915 as a private gaining an officership as a reward for organizing Polish guerilla units in German occupied territory. When the revolution came, he had thrown his support to the Bolsheviks only to desert with 1000 men, four machine guns, and 120 horses and join the Northern Corps at Pskov where he promoted himself from captain to major general. Bulak-Balakovitch became the corps' co-field commander. ... Rodzianko attached his men to the Estonians. On 4 January 1919, the Estonians (struck)... Rodzianko began to organize the liberated territory. ... nearly 5000 bayonets were added to the corps. ... British observers placed the corps numbers at just under 7000. The corps, considering its claimed numbers, declared itself the Northwest Army. ... Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak, the supreme commander of Russian counter revolutionary forces, gave his approval to Rodzianko and ordered General of the Infantry Nikolai Iudenich, who had escaped to Finland in 1918, to take over the administrative command of the army. ... he was relying on an army of 25,000 divided into six columns. ... Column D (4th Division) would advance east to Luga and column E's purpose was to cut the Pskov – Luga railway. Column F was to protect the right flank of E and (4th Division) D. Each of the columns consisted of a division ... The offensive began on 11 October 1919 all along the front. ... (4th Division) Column D captured Luga on 13 October ... For a few months, Iudenich was held under house arrest ... Iudenich left Estonia aboard a British ship ...' -  

Copyright © 2008 Mike Kihntopf / Michael P. Kihntopf at: kihnt@swbell.net. ... veteran of the U.S. Air Force. Published online: 06/27/2008).

In 1917 Wiktor Konstantynowicz was living in Peterburg / St. Petersburg but on June the 14th, 1924 they lived in the town of Viljandi.
Daughter of Alexandra and Victor Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovitsch:
Galina nee Konstantynowicz born approx. 1900 / 1902 died in Nomme after 1968 and was married to a Latvian; she had two daughters, one married to a Latvian, another to a German (Irena?).

Below inf. by http://forum.vgd.ru/ September 2004 to August 2011, but with few (!) mistakes:
Victor Konstantynowicz vel Staroch Siedoch Viktor Konstantinovitsch was born 1874, the husband of Ивановой Александры Николаевны / Alexandra Nikolaevna Ivanova, born in 1877, whose daughter Галина Седых / Halina Sedykh / Galina Siedych, born between 1901 and 1903, went from St. Petersburg in Tallinn, where she married to an Estonian and gave birth to two daughters, the youngest of whom was named Irene / Iren. Wiktor Konstantynowicz vel Victor Siedych, Navy ensign, who lived in Geslerovsky lane / Геслеровском пер. No 29, in Petersburg in 1917. The Geslerovsky lane now has the Chkalov prospect name. Victor Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich was confirmed in a letter of 1944.
Galina Sedykh in 1968 lived in the center of Nomme, now Tallinn Nomme.
Victor Starych Siedych Konstantinovich was born on 20th October 1874 in Kazan, his father Staych Siedych Konstantyn / Constantine (??), mother Duchess Mary Trubetskoy / Maria Trubetskaya; a sailor, Petrograd. And Alexandra was born on 02nd March 1877 in St. Petersburg, but her father Nikolai Ivanov and her mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Ryabchinsky; resided on 09 June 1934 at Nomme, Harku street No 28-2.
Above Victor Konstantinovich b. 1874, in service since 1904, an officer since 1912, ensign by the Admiralty, in the North-Western Army enlisted May 20, 1919, in December 1919 at the headquarters of the 4th Infantry Division.

Alexandra Konstantynowicz was buried by mentioned Rita Dunkel, and in the recording of Constantin (Wiktor Konstantynowicz) is Galina Dunkel / Tungel or Tunkel.

Rudolph Dunkel b. 1881 in Kurtna - d. ?; his brother: Carl Johann Dunkel b. 1872 in Riisipere - d. ?, his children: 1898 Harald Johann Dunkel in Tallinn, 1899 Marga Helene Dunkel in Koogi / Jõelähtme ca 25 km east of Tallinn. Riisipere - close to Nissi; 23 km south of Lehola.
Dunkel, Johannes was living in Tallinn, 1904.
By Georg Dunkel from Suomi: Elisabeth Dunkel nee Kõplas (her father Michel Kõplas 1840 in Vastseliina, area of Võru, Eastland - south-east part of Estonia now, and west of Pskov 70 km) b. 1878 in Hürsi, Võrumaa, Estonia but west of Pskov and died 1953 in Helsinki; her son: Voldemar Dunkel b. in St Petersburg and died in Helsinki; her husband Georg Otto Dunkel, he was living in Viipurinlääni, Suomi / the Viipuri Province was a province of Finland from 1812 to 1945; her grandson Georg Dunkel. Above Voldemar Dunkel was born 1903 in St Petersburg - 1964 in Helsinki, Finland; his father Georg Otto Dunkel b. 1873 in Szczecin, Western Pomerania - d. 1941 in Kirkkonummi, Finland - municipality is located just outside the Helsinki Metropolitan Area; Voldemara's wife Taisia Dunkel nee Stanovaja / Stanovay b. 1902; her sons: Albert, Eugen and Georg Dunkel - Finland - his son Manuel Dunkel.
Juhan Tunkel 1862 - 1930, by Henryk Manicki. Nicknames: Juhhan, Dunkel, born on March 4, 1862 in Humala, Keila district, Harjumaa and d. April 1, 1930. His children: Annette Rosalie Türberg in Baltisch Port / Paldiski, Harjumaa, next on February 11, 1897 birth of Julie Tunkel in Paldiski, he married to Mari Dunkel and second time to Juula Dunkel. Next children: 1898 Maria Dunkel and 1901 Hermine Dunkel in Humala, Harjumaa; and 1903 Johannes Dunkel in Humala, Harjumaa. Johannes Dunkel b. 1903 died ?, Humala, Harjumaa and his halfsister: Annette Rosalie Türberg b. on June 27, 1893 in Baltisch Port / Paldiski, Harjumaa; m. 1920 to Johannes Türberg, children: 1926 Vilma Rosalie Türberg in Lehola, Harjumaa. And her halfsister: Julie Tunkel 1897 - d.?, Paldiski, by http://www.geni.com/people/Julie-Tunkel. Her sister: Hermine Dunkel 1901 - d.? from Humala, Harjumaa and son of Hermine: Heldur Jakob.
Some details on different person: Leeno Dunkel nee Trauerberg b. on August 27, 1844 in Rannamoisa, Harjumaa, her husband Jüri Tunkel and her father Jüri Trauerberg. Her daughter Maria Pauline Hindreus nee Tunkel b. 1870.
Both women - Rita Dunkel and Galina Dunkel - lived in those years at Apteegi No 14-2 in the area Nomme. The Apteegi street (Apteek road) in Tallinn, close to Vene str., and the Tallinna Kultuurivaartuste Amet in Old Town. See 'A Rambling Dictionary of Tallinn Street Names' by Simon Hamilton.
1825 - restored merchant's harbor Baltic port / Baltijskij Port / Paldiski. 1842 - Lutheran Church of St. Nicholas was built at the expense of Nicholas I, on the proposal of the chief of the III Department of His Majesty's Office of General A. H. Benkedorf / А. Х. Бенкедорф, a native of this place, the owner of the estate located near Keila-Joa. Created in 1856 by a special committee 'to improve on the military side', examining the question, '...where there should be first-class marine facilities', for the Baltic Fleet, near to the mouth of the Gulf of Finland. The Baltic port converted into the base of the main forces of the fleet. 1857 in the Baltic port began research under the direction of Admiral Panfilov, were taken successively in 1881 and 1889. Here was the headquarters of the Baltic Coast Defense district. 1893 - 1897 here lived Dunkel or Tunkel.

Close to Humala, in the Keila Parish, was an estate of Abram Hannibal. In Estonia, Abram Hannibal taken a family crest when he bought an estate Karyakyula / Vana-Karjaküla mõis / Alt-Hohenhof - Ivan Gannibal (1735-1801), was born in Karjaküla Manor (Pushkin), after: von Glehn, von Gernet, von Krause / Kraus. Karjaküla is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It is known that Hannibal was the chief commander of Tallinn for 10 years and married Regina Christina Sjöberg / Sheberg in 1736; she was the daughter of the Swedish army captain Mattias Sjöberg (the female line from the family Albedil) but her first son was born on 5 June 1735 in Vana-Karjaküla mõis. The three eldest sons (Ivan, Peter and Osip) were born in Eastland, and two younger (Isaac and Jacob), on the estates of Pskov province.

Count Alexander von Benckendorff / Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf, b. 1781 or 1783 d. 1844, was a Russian Cavalry General; he is most frequently remembered for his later role, under Tsar Nicholas I, as the head of the Gendarmes and the Secret Police in Imperial Russia. Alexander von Benckendorff was born to a Baltic German family in Reval / Tallinn. His brother Konstantin von Benkendorff was a general and diplomat, and his sister Dorothea von Lieven. He was the first Chief of Gendarmes and Executive Director of the Third Section from 1826 to 1844. His family possesed Schloss Fall / Keila-Joa from 1827 or 1837 and in 1830s Meremõisa / Merremois / Meremoisa, close to Keila-Joa. After his death, the castle was owned by prince Volkonsky family.

"Konstantyn" and Alexandra were buried at different sites; on the site of Konstantyn were: Lewashow Weera / Levashov Veera in 1933, 1972 and Kuznetsova Kalina 1976, Lewaschov Konstantin / Lewasow Konstantin 1936, Straro, Sedo or Straroh Sedoh Konstantin (Constantine) and Ma'nnik Eugen 1986. On the site of Alexandra: Aleksandra and Ivanova Maria 1991, Donskov Peeter 1993, Mary Grigorevna 7.11.1914 - 27.10.1911 and Peter / Pietr 09 January 1920 - 25 September 1993. It is possible that this place was sold to a new owner. A date : 11 September 1948 and 1991 not confirmed. Sedykh were Orthodox.
Dunkel Galina at the cemetery of Siselinna on 13 August 1982; here name of Rita Krause. Maybe Rita is a daughter of Galina, and Rita Irene and Rita are the same person. Rita Irene, daughter of Heinrich / Rita Irene Heynrihovna b. 1927 / Rita-Ireene at cemetery of Siselinna that is Krauze Rita-Ireene died on 21 November 1998.
Heinrich Dunkel, a father of Rita, Irene; captain. Heinrich Georg Dunkel / Heinrich Dunkel / Baldwin-Heinrich Dunkel was a reserve captain; Heinrich Dunkel was poisoned in the central prison of Tallinn by the communists. On January 10, 1934 or 1935 - a funeral of the union officers leader, a reserve captain Baldwin - Heinrich Dunkel took place in Tallinn. He had died in prison.

From Riga, Latvia: daughter of Galina Sedykh / Dunkel was Irena. Sabine from Riga is the Sedykh family relatives. After Irene's death from Tallinn brought some pictures, among them there were, pre-revolutionary.

On the Baltic German family von Krause and the Siselinna / Siselinna kalmistu Cemetery, str Vana Kaarli kalmistu, place K VI, 11-1. That is the Defence Forces Cemetery of Tallinn, sometimes called the Tallinn Military Cemetery, is one of the three cemeteries of the Tallinn City Centre Cemetery. It is situated about 3 kilometres outside the centre of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Dunkel Galina at the cemetery of Siselinna was buried on 13 August 1982; here name of Rita Krause. Maybe Rita is a daughter of Galina, and Rita Irene and Rita are the same person. Siselinna Cemetery No K VI 11/1 11/1 - Dunkel Galina on 13.08.1982 by Rita Krause. Siselinna Cemetery No K IX 4/5 buried Krauze Rita-Ireene on 21.11.1998. Dunkel, Balduin-Heinrich, captain, reg. file ERA.554.1.139 - ERA.1868.1.1361 on 16.03.1934-15.01.1935 that is Heinrich Dunkel, father of Rita Irene nee Dunkel. Victor Konstantinovich born on 20.10.1874 in Kazan, his father Konstantinovich, mother Mary Trubetskoy / Trubetskaya, was sailor, Petrograd, Alexandra b. 03.02.1877 in Petersburg, her father Nikołaj Iwanow, mother Olga Ryabchinskaya, Victor was living on 09/06/1934 in Nõmme. The Krauze / Krause family, Latvian-German origin, before the Second War in Latvia and Estonia:

1. Christina Sofia Krause / Христина-София Краузе b. 1755 in Revel / Tallinn, d. 1825;
m. Frideriks / Фридерихс b. 1749; her children: in Ревель, was Евстафий Иванович Фридерихс / Якоб Иоганн Август, b. 1776, d. 1834, and Генрих Якоб Фридерихс b. ca 1780; in Avandus / Авандус, was born Элизабет Катарина Фридерихс in 1784. They were living in Lasinurme (Lassinorm) - close to Avandus, knight manor in Simuna Parish, Virumaa County - south of Rakvere;
Thula / Tuula, Saue Parish, Harju County, Estonia - 3 km south of Keila, 8 km soth-west of Saue, 8 km east of Lehola.
Her husband - mentioned above - Иоганн Иеремия Фридерихс b. 1749, Dorpat; he was living in Лассинорм, Авандус, Ревель, Тула of von Toll. Above Евстафий Фридерихс b. 1776, married in 1803 (div. 1807) in London to

Josephine Mercier (Friderichs, Aleksandrova, Weiss) b. 1778 d. 1824; she married second time in 1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss
/ Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс - son of Сергей / Андреас Отто Георг фон Вейс b. 1760; her son Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917; her grandson (stepgrandson, acc. to me) Aleksandr von Weiss / Александр фон Вейс b. 1870.
History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives in Estonia: Tuula, Saue, Ohtu, 
Harku, Nomme, Saku, Uksnurme, Lehola, Tallinn and the Harjumaa district: Krauze, Mercier, Troubetzkoy, 
Sedykh from Kazan, Gernet from Estonia. The Baltic German families in Estonia: Schilling 
von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt /  Schilling von Canstadt, von  Pillar-Pilchau, Gernet, 
Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss.
Her partner Константин Павлович Poманов, 1779 - 1831.

We know about: MERCIER, 1666 in Paris. Mercier, Louis Sébastien, 1740-1814. They come from Levallois-Perret - in the northwestern suburbs of Paris. And from Meurthe et Moselle, and Vosges, Lorraine, France. General Auguste Mercier (1833-1921) married Fanny Isobel Tremayne Simons at Versailles in 1871. His son Evelyn Gabriel Tremayne Mercier, born 1876, was Lieut-Colonel in the infantry.

Samples only. Pierre-Mathurin Mercier born 1774 at the Lion d'Angers in France, north-west of Angers, died 1801 in La Motte in France, is a military officer, commander of the legion of Vannes and the Catholic Army during the War in the Vendée, south-west of Angers; he joined in June 1793 Vendee army, going on Nantes. Pierre Mathurin Mercier was the son of Pierre Mercier and Lucretia Touze / Lucrece Touzé, from a middle class family, moved to Château-Gontier in 1784, north of Angers; relatives: Frédéric Mercier, his brother, one of the leaders of Fromentieres; Mary Lucretia Mercier (1776-1831), and Felix Elias Mercier / Felix Elie Mercier, brother of Peter / Pierre, attach to his name 'Vendée' in memory of his brother. The Mercier Vendée: in Grammont south-west of Angers, La Péraudiere, La Noue, Toulouse. Next of kin with Huet, Picault, in 1701 to Bouvet, Guillot. Louise Huet, b. 1714 in Le Lion d'Angers, d. 1764, her mother Bouvet; Louise married to Mathurin Mercier, his sons: François Mercier (la Vendee) in 1766 m. Françoise Hantri, and Pierre Mercier in 1773 m. to Lucrece Touzé.

Josephine Mercier (Friderichs, Aleksandrova, Weiss) b. 1778 d. 1824; she married second time in 1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс (son of Сергей / Андреас Отто Георг фон Вейс b. 1760);

her stepson Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917; her grandson Aleksandr von Weiss / Александр фон Вейс b. 1870.

Above mentioned Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс / Александр Сергеевич b. 1792 d. 1845, his father Сергей or Андреас Отто Георг фон Вайсс b. 1760 d. 1821, and his mother Анна Мария Альбрехт b. ca 1768; he was married 1st to

Анна Элизабет фон Врангель / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell b. 1804, 2nd time in 1820 married to Жозефина ле Мерсье or Лемерсье b. 1778 d. 1824;

his children: Николай фон Вейс b. 1833, Александрина Элизабет фон Вейс b. 1837, Константин Александрович / Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839, Александр Карл Клеменс / Александр Александрович b. 1840.

Анна Элизабет фон Врангель / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell Betsy b. 1804. Marriage with Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс b. 1792;
her children: Николай фон Вейс b. 1833, Александрине Элизабет Делингсхаузен b. 1837, mentioned Константин Рейнхольд b. 1839, and last Александр Карл Клеменс b. 1840 d. 1921. She died 1875 in Uchten. Her father Georg Johan von Wrangell from Uchten (1760 in Reval - 1836, his brother Karl Magnus von Wrangell); grandfather Reinhold Johann von Wrangell (1721 - 1767) from Koddil / Kodila, Raplamaa, Estland; great-grandfather Karl Johann von Wrangell b. 1691, by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.

Александров Павел Константинович / Aleksandrov Pavel K., Adjutant-General, son of Grand Duke Константин Павлович / Constantine Pavlovich and

Ульяна Михайловна Александрова / Жозефина Фридрикс / Ulyana Mikhailovna Alexandrova / Friedrichs Josephine,

was born 1808. Godfather was the Emperor Alexander I;

his mother Josephine Friedrichs nee Mercier b. 1778 - d. 1824; 1805, she arrived to St. Petersburg, as an actress, in search of her husband. In London she married to Colonel Alexander von Friedrichs, a personal aide-adjutant Emperor. She found her husband in 1807 and divorced. Constantine Pavlovich / Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov met her 1807, in 1816, she taken name Juliana M. / Ulyana Mihajlovna Alexandrova. In 1820, Juliana M. married Colonel Weiss. Her son Alexandrov in 1829 was appointed aide-adjutant to His Imperial Majesty, and in 1831 took part in the war against the Polish insurgents. 1846 - a major general; 1855 was appointed adjutant-general, and 1856 lieutenant general. Александров Павел Константинович / Aleksandrov Pavel K. married in 1833 to Shcherbatova, Princess Anna Alexandrovna; Pavel K. Alexandrov died 1857.

The count Albert R. de Gern / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company.

Neighbour of count Albert von Gern / Герн at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg:

M. N. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral

Weiss, Alexander Konstantinovich; he was born 1870,
was Rear-admiral on 12 June 1916; he graduated from the Maritime School; commanded a torpedo boat and destroyers; after the October Revolution in the service of the Reds. Chief of Staff of the Red Baltic Fleet to 1919. Arrested in 1931, 1933 and 1935 exiled to Orenburg.

His father:
Weiss, Konstantin / Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917.
He was born on August 5, 1839 in Tsarskoye Selo, came from the nobility of the province of Estonia / Эстония. May 14, 1896 was promoted to lieutenant general. June 6, 1907 Weiss was promoted to General of Infantry. General Weiss was living in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1917 at Nicholas Road, 59 where he died August 22, 1917.

And next of kin Konstantin von Weiss born July 29, 1877 in Tsarskoye Selo, died in Augsburg; during the Civil War, the commander of the Baltic Battalion of the Estonian Army. Baltic Regiment was formed in early 1919 in Estonia of the volunteers - Baltic Germans and since the spring of 1919 worked with the North-Western Army. October 1919 was part of 3rd Infantry Division, then worked as a part of the 1st Army.

The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch. Mary Josephine Carlier - maybe she is Mary Carlier, b. 1811, daughter of Daniel Carlier and Mary Marlain;
sister of Henry Augustus Carlier; William Evans Carlier and David Evans Carlier, half sister of Daniel Carlier - copyright by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com. Above Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India,

son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier;

inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst, Rachel Cowan, Stephen R Johnson and Stephen David Berryman.

Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 or 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India. Son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier. Husband of Mary Marlain; father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier; brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier, inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com in 2009; Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund; he was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India.

Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London; he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras from his third wife - her father may be William Evans.
Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

2.

Christian Sigismund Krause was born in about 1763. He was not mentioned in his father's will of 30 January 1765.

3.

JOHANN WILHELM KRAUSE, in Dome Hill [Estonia], was architect Johann Wilhelm Krause b. 1757 Alam-Sileesia / Lower Silesia and died in 1828, Tartu; lived in Dresden, and Estonia. June 6, 1925 from 'Latvijas Vestnesis' / 'Latvian Herald', on actress Irma Emma Krauze from Liepaja. Johann Wilhelm Krause b. 1757 in Lower Silesia - died 1828 Tartu, Krause had studied a little of theology, drawing and architecture. Krause had been a technician in the army of Prussia, and he came to Livonia as a home teacher in 1784 of Riga, worked as an architect in Aluksne and Kizbele, Tartu thanks to his family relations: he had married the sister of the wife of the future Rector of the University. In January 1806 Krause was elected Professor Ordinary of Economics until his death in 1828.

4. Now in Riga, Latvia:

tel. 67671523, Krause Ieva, str Ozolciema 12/1. Erich Krause owner of 'Erich Krause Finland Oy' (Latvian Branch), Riga, Ziemelu 4. Krauze I., an adviser, Terbatas 14, Riga. The proposed mayoral candidate from the Union of Greens and Farmers is Armands Krauze from Riga, he also holds a Masters degree in agriculture. Krauze is a long-term Chairman of the Latvian Beekeepers association, was deputy Chairman of the Agricultural Organizations Cooperation Council, work at the Finance Ministry, Agriculture Ministry, Latvian parliament and Brussels.

5.
Dita Krauze - Assistant to the Chairman at Eligo International, Production Assistant at Tristana Media. Education - Latvian Academy of Culture, Riga State Gymnasium No. 1, born ca 1984. Otto Krause of Buenos Aires, Argentina; the engineer Otto Krause, son of German immigrants, the school was founded in 1897 and is the oldest technological school in the country.
Justina Helena Krause nee Topp 1794 - 1853, nick-name Christina Helena, birthplace: Pärnu / Pernau; her mother Anna Helena Nolte / Topp / Mollin from Testamaa / Tõstamaa, her sons: Magnus Wilhelm Krause 1826 - 1892 and Friedrich August Krause 1821 - d.?, her daughters 1822 Dorothea Elisabeth Knoch and Carharina Helena Hanson. Marriage of Justina Helena to Johann Friedrich Krause.
Maria Ernestine Krause nee Ellmann born 1907 - d.? from Kaelase, Pärnu-Jaagupi - Pärnu-Jaagupi is a borough in Pärnu County, Estonia, the administrative centre of Halinga Parish, ca 28 km north of Parnu - her father Jüri Ellmann, her husband Johannes Krause, her son Endel Krause 1929 - 1992.

Riina vel Irina Tomson nee Krause b. 1851 - d.?, her father Mihkel Krause.
Mardi Jurri 1799 - d.? from Halinga, married to Liso voi Rina 1827 and birth of Irina / Rõõt m. Krause. Daughter?

6.
The von Krause family now in Estonia: Vaike-Kamari in Jogeva, 1794 in Pärnu / Pernau, 1907 in Kaelase, Pärnu-Jaagupi in Pärnu County, Testamaa / Tõstamaa, Kulla in Parnu, str Parna No 5a in Parnu, and also in Tallinn, Narva and Tartu.
Marriages of Krauze: Graubner, Karl Alexander b. 1859 m. Berggrun, Freiderike Marie b. 1864 in Parnu. Vorhauer m. to Eisleben, Catharina Augustina b. 1802 in Wenden, Livland, Latvia, lived in Naukšeni / NAUKSCHEN, and her daughter Vorhauer, Wilhelmine m. Krause, Alexander (father: Vorhauer, mother: Eisleben, Catharina Augustina) and children: Krause, Elli and Krause, Arved. Above locality Naukšeni is close to Rujiena and north Latvia near by Estonia border. Krause Theodor 1848 m. Christine Daugschat 1843. The Baltic German family von Krause: "They were near the town of Valmiera / Valmiery. They also have been associated with the current Kaliningrad region, with the current Yasnaya Polyana. There was a connection with von Reither: Nina von Reither the wife of Yuri Arturovich von Krause, once with De Klerk - Daniel De Klerk was married to someone from Rieter, as well as the princes Telegino. Arthur von Krause was a lawyer in Riga in the 19th century. and he had a brother Robert".

The Estonian - Belarusian branch of the Troubetzkoy family (Трубецкой и Эстония):

Nicholas Nikitich Trubeckoj  b. 1744 and d. 1821 - his son Prince Petr Nikolaevich b. 1773 and d. 1801 (his mother Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Czerkasskaja / Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Tcherkassky).

Gregory / Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Petrovich Trubecki who - settled before 1832 in the Kingdom of Poland - was born in 1802 after death of his father, and died in 1879 or 11 January 1874 

-
his brother Prince Jurij Petrovich Trubeckoj / Yuri Troubetzkoy was born 1796, died 1859 (married to Olga Nikolaevna Tchaikovsky / Czajkowski daughter of Mikolaj Czajkowski).
His sister Anna nee Trubecki / Trubetsky / Anna Kozhoukhova born 23 December 1793 died 29 March 1827 (married to Alexandr Stepanovitch Kozhoukhov / Aleksander Kozuchow or Kozuchowski son of Stefan Kozuchow or Kozuchowski).
Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Trubetsky / Gregori Trubiacki / Grzegorz Trubecki was a Prince of the Troubetzkoy family. He married M. Kalinowska

(Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow)

and they lived before 1840 in St. Petersburg.
Grigory / Grzegorz Trubecki was the son of Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy / Prince Petr Nikolaevich Troubetskoy born 18 November 1773 and died 16 November 1801 and Nadezhda Ivanovna Pestov / nee Pestova born 1793.

Next generation:
Prince Nestor Grigorievich Troubetzkoy / Nester / Nestor Grigoriewicz Trubecki, a landowner and revolutionary, international journalist and from 1901 "correspondent of Freiheit, Neues Leben, Der Anarchist, Der Freie Arbeiter, Wolny Swiat, Der Generalstreik, Der Weckruf, member of Jan Machajski’s squad
(Acc. to Marcel Duchamp:
"The anarchist period in Nestor Trubecki's life is just a compilation of Max and Siegfried Nacht biographies... there is no any book about I Proletariat, where the name Trubecki / Trubeckoy is mentioned...".
Max Nomad is the pseudonym of Austrian author and educator Max or Maximilian Nacht. Born in 1881, into a wealthy Jewish family from Buczacz, eastern Galicia, Poland. He lived in Austria. His older brother Siegfried Shlomo Nacht was born in Vienna in 1878 and died in 1956, with Senna Hoy in Zürich from 1903 to 1907 edited five volumes of the militant journal Der Weckruf / The Alarm. Siegfried, later Stephen, Nacht emigrated to the United States of America at the end of 1912, Max followed in 1913.
Max Nacht from 1902 on contributed widely to anarchist periodicals, e.g. 'Neues Leben', 'Wolny Swiat' in 1904; fled arrest in August 1904 and went to Zurich, where he became an editor of 'Der Weckruf'. He become a member of Jan Machajski's group in Geneva; active in the Polish-Russian underground 1908-1909; went to the USA in 1913, where he changed his name into Max Nomad.
Shlomo Nacht was delegate for Eastern Galicia to the International Socialist Congress in Paris 1900; went to Spain in 1903; in Amsterdam in 1904; active in Bohemia where he edited 'Der Generalstreik'; 1906 expelled from Switzerland, lived in several European countries; emigrated to the USA in 1912.
See: http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/n/ARCH00915.php
Johannes Holzmann / Senna Hoy, according to Walter Fähnders, a professor for German literature, he wrote a short text and published in 'Der Kampf' that was a depiction of a homosexual encounter; deported to Zurich, he worked for a newspaper 'Der Weckruf' / 'The Wake-up Call'; he decided to leave Zurich, after in Paris, and Russia where he joined an anarchist federation in Poland for several weeks, robbing rich merchants but in June 1907 he was caught and sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor; in 1913 he was in an insane asylum near Moscow and died in 1914.
Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881.
Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski.
Details on Machajski: 1891 was leaving Warsaw to Cracow, but is arrested, expelled from Austria, he went to Zurich, in June 1892 arrested again on the border of Russia and exiled to Yakutia in Siberia, Machajski in 1903 from Irkutsk came to Geneva with
Sycia Rosa Lewin vel Wiera Machajska,
in 1905 he moved to St. Petersburg, in 1907 he fled to Galicia in Austria and from here he moved to Switzerland.
And short about above Kropotkin:
Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of Orthopedic Clinics, populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. the 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin, he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison, it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years, he died in prison at Kara, his wife Wiktoria nee Konstantynowicz / Victoria Konstantinovich daughter of John / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantinovich - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899/1900)
in Geneva", who was born and died in Poland, b. in 1832 (?) in Free City of Cracow or in 1840 (!) - died in 1907 Warsaw
.

Above named Nestor Troubecki vel Nester Kalinowski in 1857 went to Vienna, in 1859 returned to Krakow, promote the Ruthenian Catholic Church, the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church and Ruthenian language; 1863 the outbreak of January Uprising and he was involved in the secret 'Prowincjonalny Litewski Komitet' in Vilnius / Wilno; Trubecki was a member of the 'Miedzynarodowa Socjalno-Rewolucyjna Partia Proletariat' and a contributor of the 'Wolny Swiat' in 1904; 1905 went to Warsaw in the Congress Poland and next fled arrest in April 1906 and went to Zürich and Geneva; "...lived in several European countries and returned to Congress Poland; active in the Polish-Belarusian underground resistance until his death in 1907".

Nestor Trubecki was a member of the 'International Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat' - the first Polish labor party based on the assumptions of Marxism. The party was founded in 1882 in Warsaw (L. Warynski, Stanislav Kunicki, Maria Bohuszewicz, Marian Stefan Ulrych, Edmund Ploski, Tadeusz Rechniewski, Henryk Duleby, Alexandra Jentys, S. Kunicki, Alexander Debski, Kazimierz Puchewicz, Bronislaw Slawinski, Felix Kon, Strzeminski, Felsenhardt Rosalie, Joseph Razumiejczyk, Julia Razumiejczyk, Vincent Buksznis, Michael Zynda, Wladyslaw Wislocki, Theophilus Bronikowski) and the group was arrested in July 1886. Next in February 1888 until March 1893, Nestor Trubecki was a member of the 'Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat' / the 'Second proletariat' (Ludwik Kulczycki, Marcin Kasprzak, Adam Dabrowski, Wladyslaw Anielewski, Napoleon Zelcer, Stanislaw Kassjusz, Stanislaw Mendelson, Maria Jankowska-Mendelson, Alexander Debski); in 1893 other members of the Proletariat II entered among others things the Polish Socialist Party of Jozef Pilsudski.

Mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski:

countess Maria Kalinowska.
Probably she was born after 1805 - ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski. The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Czeliszczew; father Josif / Jozef / Osip Kalinowski b. after 1780 ? and died 1825. Grandfather Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 and grandmother Elzbieta Bielska from Olbrachcice b. ca 1760.

The Kalinowski family in 1818 under the Austrian Empire acc. to Okolovich taken the count title with the Kalinowa coat of arms, given on 17 August 1818 by Franciszek I / Francis emperor of Austria. The first with this title was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski from the Volhynia and Ukraine branch of the Kalinowski / Kalinovsky family. Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:
Josef / Osip Kalinowski general of Polish Army, b. ca after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790, Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and Justyna Kalinowska m. Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876. Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Władyslaw Kalinowski
(Józef Kalinowski b. 01 Sept. 1835 in Vilnius / Wilno, his father Andrzej Kalinowski b. 10 Dec. 1805 or January 10, 1805 in Grodno and died in Hrozow 1878 (Trokiele), the Wilno Uniw.; his grandfather Jerzy Kalinowski b. ca 1780 or 1773 by wife Dorota Kulakowska - Kosciesza / Rosciesza; great-grandfather Krzysztof Kalinowski - b. ca 1750.
See also: http://elonka.com/family/saint/genealogy.html by Elonka Dunin: elonka@aol.com from St. Louis, Missouri, USA and http://www.sejm-wielki.pl/b/sw.65063
).
Ancestors: Ignacy Kalinowski from Wielka Kamionka born ca 1720 died 1782 and Justyna Borzecka born (ca 1710 is error date) ca 1735. Kamionka Wielka is situated in south east Poland.

Above named count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759; his father Ignacy Kalinowski ca 1720 died 1782 and his mother Justyna nee Borzecka ca 1735 (1710 it's error) - Justyna was daughter of Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) and Ludwika Marianna Pociej (ca 1715), and married ca 1765 to Ignacy Kalinowski, she died after 1780?. The father of above Ludwika Marianna Pociej - Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.
A brother of above Justyna nee Borzecka: Aleksander Maciej Borzecki in 1773 made agreement with Ignacy Kalinowski on a will and testament of Emerencjanna Warszycki who was married first to Pociej, and she was great-grandmother of Ignacy Kalinowski, acc. to: http://www.redbor.pl/.
Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Jozef / Osip Kalinowski's (was born ca 1780) brothers and sisters: Justyna Kalinowska b. 1790 married to Jozef Tomasz Russocki, and Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831.
Grandfather of Olga, Jozefina and Seweryna:
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Grandson of Seweryna nee Kalinowska: Mikolaj Plautin / Николай Сергеевич Плаутин b. 1868 and married to Maria Michajlowna Rajewska 1872 - 30 December 1942; her mother:
Marija Grigorievna nee Gagarin - her sister Anastazja Grigorievna nee Gagarin b. 1853 died 1876 married to Piotr Michajlovich Orlov Denisov born 1852 who was son of Michail Vasilievich Orlov Denisov born 1823, who was brother of Nadiezda married Katenin. Grandfather of above Marija nee Rajewskaja: Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg b. 14 September 1801; and the second grandfather of above Maria nee Rajewska: Grigorij Grigorievich Gagarin b. 1810 d. 1893.

Children of count Jozef Kalinowski:

Seweryna
b. 1814 d. 1852, Jozefina married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844 and also Olga born 1822 died 7 April 1899 in Retow

(Bohdan Michal Oginski duke b. 1848, married on 28 Apr. 1877 to Gabriela Maria Potulicki in Cracow, died on 25 March 1909 in Retow in the Rosienie district in Lithuania now / Zmudz, owner of Retow and Zalesie that is Retowo or Rietavas, 25 km from Plungian; 1775 to Ksawery Oginski. In 1863 here died Ireneusz Oginski and in 1892 the first telephones in Lithuania).

From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the property Mickuny belonged to August Becu (1771-1824) - Professor of Medicine at the Imperial University of Vilnius (he was in Scotland 1803 - 1804), the second husband of the Salome / Salomea Slowacki, the mother of the famous poet Juliusz Slowacki (he was next in Switzerland in the years 1834-1835). Probably about 1815 Mickuny / Mickūnai became the property of Alexander Pillar von Pilchau / Pilar Pilchau, then judge of the district of Vilnius. Alexander Pillar, in Mickuny in 1826 built a new chapel. In the mid-nineteenth century Mickuny / Mickunai belonged to Stanislaw Pillar, the son of Alexander. 1923 owner of Mickuny - next Alexander Pillar. But his brother, Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.

Probably M. Kalinowska (Maria) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course!

 Above countess Olga / Ольга Осиповна Калиновская born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński  b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander IItsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Bogdan Ogiński died on 25. 03. 1909.


Sister of Olga:
Jozefina Kalinowska born 1816,  was also married to duke Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński who was born 1808.
And Северина Иосифовна Калиновская / Seweryna Kalinowski b. 1814 d. 1852 was married to Mikolaj Plautyn
/ Плаутин b. 1794 or 1796 d. 24 December 1866, son of Fiodor Sergiejewicz Plautyn / Plautin died 1807? Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin was an outstanding military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, General of Cavalry 1856, Adjutant General 1849, a member of the State Council in 1862.

Above
Emilia Potocka married first to Kalinowski and second time to Czeliszczew, was born 1790 and her parents: Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 and mother Marianna Lubomirska (Zubow, Potocki, Uwarow) born 1773 or Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766 - 1810.

The Chelishchev family (Czeliszczew / Tchelischev):
Ольга Васильевна Константинович / Olga Vasilievna Konstantinovich was living in Pskov, str Kalinin, No 15/11, Apt. 1. Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich / Olga Tchelischev daughter of Vasilij Chelishchev and she was married to Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875. Olga b. ca 1875, her son Lew Lwowicz Konstantynowicz born 1900. Above named Vasilij Chelishchev was born ca 1840 / 1850.
And mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski: countess Maria Kalinowska.
Probably she was born (after 1805) ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski.
The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Chelishchev / Czeliszczew. According to statements the Church of the Holy Trinity was built in 1740 by Major Joann Chelishchev / Ivan Sergeyevich Chelischev at his own expense. In 1840, the Holy Trinity Church (Novo-Troitsk) was assigned to a Church which is 4 miles away in Piesna. A detailed description of the temple, published in the 'Pskov diocese statements' for 1896.
About von Rebinder / Rehbinder / Ребиндер family from Estonia:
In Estonia in 1820, Count Carl Friedrich von Rebinder / Rehbinder / Ребиндер in the garden of his estate on the banks of the river Saku opened small brewery; since that time, local brewers use spring water, the best in Estonia and in the Baltic countries. Gustav Kustas Steinberg b. on March 2, 1850 (Bedrich Urban's next of kin) in Üksnurme - Üksnurme is a village in Saku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, close to Tallinn, Üksnurme is 2 km south - west from Saku; Saku / Саку in Эстляндия, is 12 km south of Nomme, and 16 km from Tallinn. Saku is a small borough in Harju County, Estonia.

Note on Saku, Uksnurme and landlords of this estates.
Üksnurme, in German Uxnorm, was founded in 1630. Heinrich Hastfer was owner. In 1795 it manor was acquired by Karl von Gernet. In 1846 - Julius von Ramm, in 1853 Dietrich von der Pahlen possession. A main building was erected in 1860. In 1882 this estate passed to the neighboring estate owners from Saku.
Major Karl Gustav von Gernet was died on 31.12.1812 and was living here and also Gustav Georg von Gernet / Georg Gustav von Gernet adjoined a land called Musa (mõis = manor, поместье) to Üksnurme
(b. on April 13, 1780; d. on October 10, 1846 in Reval; his children: Karl August von Gernet and Ernst Julius von Gernet; his brothers: Wilhelm Adolf von Gernet, Karl Johann von Gernet, Alexander August von Gernet and sister - Helena von Gernet b. and d. 1779; his father - Karl Gustav von Gernet or Carl Gustav von Gernet b. on December 28, 1747 in Waikna / Vaikna and died on December 31, 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola has wife Louise Christine von Rehbinder / Luise Christine von Rehbinder b. circa 1764 and d. on March 24, 1827 in Narwa / Narva; she has four husbands: Wilhelm Droßmann, Otto von Rehbinder, Georg Gustav von Ditmar and Carl Gustav von Gernet; her father - Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder, b. circa 1706 and d. on June 17, 1775 in Arensburg / Kuressaare in Saaremaa and her grand-father acc. to Reet Laherand: Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder b. ? died ca. 1745 and her grand-mother Anna Elisabeth nee von Poorten, d. 1720).
Karl Friedrich Rehbinder sells the Saku estate belonging to the Musa farm for hands of Karl von Gernetile, a price 3,000 silver rubles
(Count Karl Friedrich von Rehbinder b. November 10, 1764 in Saue and died on November 18, 1841 in Saue, was a Baltic German origin, Saku, Saue, Rahula and Jälgimäe landlord. He founded his own beer Saku house, which was Saku Brewery. His father Otto Magnus von Rehbinder (1727 to 1792) and grand-father Gustav Magnus von Rehbinder (1673 - 1734); his father belonged Udriku, Imastu, Polli,
Saku, Liigvalla estates. Count Rehbinder married in 1786 to Countess van Nassau-La Lecq; marital born: Count Otto Albrecht Friedrich von Rehbinder on December 14, 1786 in Tallinn and died on 25 January 1813 in Jälgimäe - Jälgimäe, he was Saue and Rahula landlord; second child Count Paul Eduard von Rehbinder 1794 Saue - 1870 Tallinn - Saku, Saue and Riidaku landlord; third Count Gustav Konstantin von Rehbinder on 1795 Saue d. 12 December 1822 Jälgimäe, the landlord of Jälgimäe; Count Carl August von Rehbinder Jacob 1797 - 1799; Countess Karoline Luise von Rehbinder b. 1802 in Saue and m. to Count Carl Theodor von Manteuffeleliga.
Above named Saue is a town in north-western Estonia in Harju County, to Tallinn 18 km, Keila 7 km, Saku 7 km; above named Riidaku, east of Haapsalu in Raikküla Parish - south-west-south of Tallinn; above Udriku and Imastu are close to Rakvere and Liigvalla near by Rakvere; Polli - 23 km south of Viljandi).

Assessor Johann Georg von Hastfer pledges the Üksnurme estate for 35,000 silver rubles to Karl Gottlieb von Gernetile; on 14 April 1808 was signed an agreement. The main building has survived to this day.

Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder (b. ? - died ca 1745), his sons:
Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder, Magnus Gustav von Rehbinder, Friedrich von Rehbinder, Karl Mathias von Rehbinder, Gustav Johann von Rehbinder and Berend Wilhelm von Rehbinder. His daughter - Barbara Helene von Gernet - died January 14, 1803 in Lehhola / Lehola, Harjumaa, Estonia. Her son Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812. Above Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder b. ca 1706 - 1775.
Alexander Rehbinder or Rebinder b. 1826 d. 1913, his children: Nikolai Rehbinder or Rebinder b. 1863 d. March 22, 1918, Alexey Rebinder b. 1865 d. 1932, Alexander Rebinder b. 1869 and d. on March 22, 1918 and next Maria Rebinder Mansurov b. 1874.

Mikhail P. Rehbinder, he studied at the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence and worked at the Law Faculty of the University; he lived in an estate Lyadno in the Novgorod province; he was trying to create together with peasants agricultural co-operative in his estate in the Novgorod province; he left his family and went to the USA in 1909; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz / Константинович, daughter of Ivan / Jan Konstantynowicz; her son Alexander died d. 1906. 

Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of orthopedic clinics; populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899 / 1900. 



Acc. to: 'Tales from the Family Tree - The Tale of the Italian-blooded Russian Prince' by Iwo Załuski:
Prince Ireneusz Ogiński was born in

Zalesie, half way between Vilnius and Minsk, near the town of Smorgon.

Text below is under copyright by http://www.oginskidynasty.com/ and 'Tales from the Family Free - Countess Nagurska and the Imperial Assassin', by Iwo Załuski at www.oginskidynasty.com/Tales5 and for further information contact to Iwo Załuski email załuskiresearches@ogińskidynasty.com. To learn more about these stories in their true historical context, read Iwo Załuski's 'The Ogiński Gene: The History of a Musical Dynasty'.

Maria de Néri father and on Duca Don Neri family, samples only: 1. San Filippo Neri / S. Filippo Neri of Parma (see Michal Kleofas Oginski); 2. In Venice, was the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, 1747-49, 1760; 3. 1794 Michele Neri Bondi.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze); born as Michele Neri, he added the surname Bondi in 1773, not to be confused with a singer who was then active in the Tuscan capital. Nothing is known of his youth and his musical training, but after he was a student of Ferdinando Rutini (Ferdinand Rutini / Rutini, Ferdinando b. 1763 - d. Terracina, 13 Nov. 1827, composer; he was working at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence) and made his debut as an opera composer at the Teatro dell Pergola in Florence. By 1779 he was employed as the keyboardist at the Teatro degli Intrepidi in the same city. Acted in Florence, Bologna and Pisa, Lucca, Rome, Ravenna, Siena and Palermo. Only one of his work was staged at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence. Between 1779 and 1790 he was also musical director and arranger of several small theaters in the city, among which the Intrepid Theatre with Gaetano Andreozzi, Giovanni Battista Borghi, Domenico Cimarosa; in 1790 the Teatro della Pergola, 1793 became the impresario at the Teatro Santa Maria; in January 1796 he opened a music school in Fiesole, and he became maestro di cappella of the church of Santa Maria de Candeli.

By 'Wikipedia' and 'it.inforapid.org' on Neri Michael Bondi:

his real name was Michael Neri, but in 1773 changed its name to Bondi Neri, not to be confused with a singer who was then active in the Tuscan capital; nothing is known of his youth and his musical training, but after Ferdinand Rutini, was the most prolific composer of Florence in the second half of the eighteenth century. His biggest success - drama Marriages, which was given at least twice in Florence and Bologna, Pisa, Lucca, Rome, Ravenna, Siena and Palermo. All his other works were performed only in theaters of his hometown: Intrepid, Old Town Square, Santa Maria and Borgo Ognissanti. Only one of his work at the Teatro della Pergola, the biggest of Florence. Between 1779 and 1790 he was also musical director and arranger of several small theaters in the city Florence, among which was the Intrepid Theatre, with Gaetano Andreozzi, Giovanni Battista Borghi, Domenico Cimarosa, Giuseppe Moneta and Giovanni Valentini. In 1790, at the Teatro della Pergola, he directed the 'Hamlet' of Louis Caruso and in 1793 became the impresario at the Teatro Santa Maria. In this period he was also appointed the first harpsichordist to Pergola, a position he held until the fall of 1822. The Teatro Alfieri in Florence is located in Via Pietrapiana. Also called 'theater of Via Santa Maria'. Giuseppe Moneta: nothing is known of his youth; 1779, his career proceeded regularly until the end of the century; over the next 20 years he composed several works, primarily melodramas; in 1791, he was maestro di cappella of a grand-duchy court of Tuscany and later director of the chapel of the court of Parma. Fiesole, is an Italian town in the province of Florence in Tuscany, about 6 kilometers from Florence. When Oginski come to Italy in 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte is appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Directorate in Italy in March 1796, and starts the Italian campaign. French troops defeated the Austrians at Lodi, come to Milan, and proclamated the Republic Transpadana in place of the former Duchy. The Kingdom of Sardinia cedes to France, Savoy and the Nice area; the French troops invade the Papal States, and the British troops occupy the island of Elba.

We remember that Ogiński, Michał Kleofas / OGINSKI Michele Cleofa, b. 1765, a deputy in the Four Years' Parlament 1788–92, emigrating in 1795. In 1802 he settled in Zalesie; a senator of the Russian empire, visited St. Petersburg. From
1822 to 1833 he lived in Florence.
Was buried at the Basilica di Santa Croce, the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy.

"...Countess Maria Nagurska ... was born as Maria Neri in Venice in 1777, the daughter of a local innkeeper of Florentine extraction, who claimed descent from the musician Philip Neri. Early in 1796 Maria watched with interest as her native city (Firenze / Florence) filled up with refugees from the Warsaw after the Final Partitions of Poland ... veterans of the campaigns against the invading forces of King Frederick of Prussia and Empress Catherine of Russia... These young veterans included the already legendary piano-playing warrior Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, who had until only recently, under Stanislaw Kosciuszko, been leading his commando units in Northern Lithuania against the Russians. ... Among Oginski Michał Kleofas' fellow veterans were Count Kajetan Nagurski, and Tadeusz Wysogierd. They were close friends and did everything together, including romancing the local girls... nineteen-year-old Maria Neri, ... Tadeusz Wysogierd ... took off with her to Florence. Kajetan, not to be outdone, chased the fugitive couple to the Tuscan capital, and after a showdown, won her from the much more dashing and handsome Tadeusz... Michał Kleofas Ogiński would almost certainly have known her, although no actual meeting has been documented. In 1796 Catherine of Russia died, and was succeeded by her son, Paul. Under the new Tsar life was beginning to return to some semblance of normality in the former Polish Commonwealth, and many refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine, and returning to whatever might pass for a new homeland in the former Polish and Lithuanian territories. Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration. ... he took Maria back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau, where he installed her with a governess-cum-companion and various tutors to educate ... and thus render her acceptable in high society. Meanwhile he himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Diarist and writer Stanislaw Morawski, in his autobiography 'My Years of Youth in Vilnius', described how Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria and see how she was getting on: 'My father promised, went and met the young lady. On entering he naturally expected to see a tavern wench. Imagine his unexpected surprise when he saw before him a lady of rare beauty, completely at ease with drawing room etiquette, speaking perfect French, Italian without the Venetian accent, writing fluently and without significant spelling mistakes, in a word, a completely finished lady showing not the slightest hint of a tavern upbringing'. Apolinary Morawski was, like so many others before him, smitten by Maria, and, despite the age gap, it was only a matter of time before they became lovers behind Kajetan's back. Their affair was discovered and broken up by the infuriated Kajetan himself. He subsequently had her brought to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her. However, Kajetan's health, which had never been good, deteriorated further, and he developed jaundice. He virtually took to his bed, so Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Kajetan (Count Kajetan Nagurski) decided to go to Vienna, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice, and take Maria with him. Ultimately, he failed to find a cure, and died there soon afterwards. His widow, now an independent lady of some considerable means, returned to Vilnius, and life in that city's highest social echelons. In 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Bennigsen. General Count Levin August von Bennigsen was born in Brunswick in 1745. His military career began in the Hanoverian army, but in 1764 he ... brought to Russia by Catherine the Great. ... He became friendly with the young Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Paul. ... Bennigsen, if Stanislaw Morawski's documentation is to be believed, was the man who actually did the deed by personally strangling the Tsar to death in his bed. ... promoted Bennigsen to the position of Governor of Vilnius. On his city's social circuit he met the beautiful Countess Nagurska, for whom he developed an instant infatuation. Meanwhile, the accession of the new Tsar had a direct effect on the fortunes of Michał Kleofas Ogiński. At this time he was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier ... - not very happily ever after, as it happened – at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw. He had spent five penniless and peripatetic years trying to restore the Polish state by diplomatic means. He now dreamed of just returning home to get his life and estates, now in Russian territory, back. Catherine had offered him an olive branch, which he knew to be a trap, and rejected: he had been sentenced to death in his absence for his part in Kosciuszko's campaigns against her forces, and she did not forgive and forget readily. Her son, Tsar Paul, did not trust him, and refused him permission to return. The new Tsar Alexander, however, not only forgave him, but also praised him for being true to his convictions in fighting for his homeland, and offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michał Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, had nothing to lose, and perhaps something to gain by returning home, so he accepted the amnesty, and returned to Lithuania. He initially found somewhere to live in Vilnius... he again came across Maria Nagurska, whom he still remembered as Maria Neri, nineteen-year-old daughter of a Venetian innkeeper. Now he found a beautiful, 25-year-old socialite ... and the mistress of Governor Bennigsen... She had given him a key to the back door of her house, and a specified time and day on which she would receive him. ... Like Bennigsen, Michał Kleofas had fallen head over heels in love with Maria Nagurska; the feeling was reciprocated, and their passionate affair continued unabated until it was discovered that she was pregnant. Michał Kleofas proposed, Maria accepted, and they were married sometime during 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie ... close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. By this time Michał Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg, and was put in charge of Education in Russia's newly acquired lands. The new Princess Maria Oginska took to her new role as Lady of the Manor perfectly. The Manor had been built for comfort rather than as a luxurious residence, but Maria loved it. 'Zalesie is a delightful spot for us', she wrote to her sister, Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence. ... The idyll, however, was short-lived. Stanislaw Morawski, describing the open nature of Michał Kleofas Ogiński's second marriage, wrote that there was no man of consequence, no young Russian general, perhaps even no broad-shouldered valet who was not her lover. Added to these were actors, singers, and ordinary soldiers. ... Morawski continues to throw some light on the ancestry of their four children: 'Apart from Zaluska (Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska) conceived with Ogiński, every one of his daughters (Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813 respectively) had a different father. Her son (Ireneusz, born in 1807) was conceived of the singer Paliani'. Italian Giuseppe Paliani was music tutor to the Ogiński girls...".

Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence - by Zaluski - "...She (Maria Neri) then sent for her younger sister Cuchina (Concha? - probably a nickname - her Christian name is not on record) to give her a better life in Lithuanian society, and as a companion for herself. Cuchina complied, and promptly became pregnant by Nicholas Morawski, Maria's former lover's younger brother, and uncle of the writer. So Maria sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry Count Scotti – in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".

Details at margin:
There is information that Maria Neri, singer and countess, met Oginski in Venice at the beginning of 1796, when this ex-insurgent of the Kosciuszko troops arrived to Italy as a refugee from the great Duchy of Lithuania. Only then, but also at the beginning of 1796, Maria Neri i Oginski along came to Florence, probably to the father of Maria Neri. It seems that the mother of Maria Neri lived in Venice. In Florence, the others refugees from Lithuania were already, as it describes the Iwo Zaluski.
In 1795 / 1796, the Republic of Venice: Bergamo, Brescia, Venice, Padua, Verona, Belluno. In
spring of 1796, Piedmont fell and the Austrians were beaten (Lodi). The army under Bonaparte crossed the frontiers of neutral Venice; by the end of 1796 the French troops were occupying the Venetian state up to the Adige. Vicenza, Cadore and Friuli were held by the Austrians.
April 1797: France taken the Lombard part of the Venice State.
Grand Duchy of Tuscany: Siena, Livorno, Florence, Talamone. The Medici family became extinct in 1737, and Tuscany was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa; Ferdinand III 1790–1801, was deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801 so that Tuscany could be given to the Bourbon Dukes of Parma; Tuscany / Etruria was annexed by Napoleonic France in 1807. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in 1792 during the French Revolution, became the first monarch to formally recognize the new French First Republic, however, the English and Russian monarchs persuaded him to join their side in the War of the First Coalition.
1795, he declared Tuscany's neutrality in the war.
He stabilized his rule for several years to 1799 when he must to flee to Vienna when republicans established a government in Florence.
A surprising similarity or maybe this is not just a coincidence?

Capua:
1. Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881. Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski in Switzerland.
2.
The Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke, b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua!
3.
MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840. The first wife (m. ca 1866?) of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern; she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. The same branch: Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.

From the other hands:

William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris

(see: Luke Schaub from Neuchatel and Basel - In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy; Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!);

leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth.

Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy;

married Selina [b. after 1800?], daughter of Admiral Tollemache, that is Admiral of the Fleet -

John Richard Delap Halliday / John Halliday - 1821 the surname and arms of Tollemache

[copyright by geni.com: John Richard Delap Halliday Tollemache, b. 1772 in Helmingham, Suffolk; d. 1837 in London; husband of Lady Elizabeth Best, father of Charlotte Hope; John 1st Baron Tollemache; Marcia, Elizabeth Jane Henrietta, Selina Tollemache, Emily, Wilbraham Spencer and others; brother of Francis Tollemache; William Augustus Delap, and others; inf. by Michael Lawrence Rhodes, and Susan Mary Rayner / Green / RYAN.

Baron Tollemache, of Helmingham Hall near Ipswich in the County of Suffolk; from 1876 for John Tollemache / John Jervis Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache b. 1805 – d. 1890; He was the son of Admiral of the Fleet John Richard Delap Halliday / John Halliday (1821 the surname and arms of Tollemache), eldest son of Lady Jane Halliday.

Lord Tollemache married Georgina Louisa Best, daughter of Thomas Best, in 1826; they had five children together. After her death in 1846, he married Eliza Georgiana Duff, daughter of Sir James Duff, in 1850; they had nine children together];

he had daughter, Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married ca 1852?:

a. Ernest Lord Burghersh,

b. the Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square.

Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta.

The de Luna family come from Don Giovanni Sanchez de Luna b. 1642, III Marquis of Gagliati / Gagliato, 1798, the Sanchez de Luna obtained the title of Duke on the surname.
Luigi Caracciolo-Venato Duca di Santa Teodora / CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli, d. 1889 in MILAN.
His father: Carlo Luigi / Carlo Luigi Caracciolo-Venato di Santa Teodora, and mother:
Teresa SANCHEZ DE LUNA.
It is hereditary noble family. Noble titles Duca di San Teodoro, di Sant’Arpino, di Casal di Principe, di Parete, Marquis / marchese di Capriglia, of Villamaina; the Neapolitan citizen;

CARACCIOLO Louis m. LOCK Augusta Selima;
children:

1. Teresa CARACCIOLO / Teresa Caracciolo-Venato, duchessa di Santa Teodora e di Parete Marchesa di Villamaina e Capriglia b. 1855 Napoli, d. 1935 Roma, married firstly Marcantonio Colonna, and

married sec. to Rodolfo Lancrani / Lanciani

(Marcantonio Colonna / Marcantonio Colonna Doria Principe e Duca di Paliano Principe di Avella e di Sonnino, with children: Isabella Colonna di Avella di Tursi, di San Teodoro e Arpino di Villamaina e Capriglia (1879 - 1957) and Vittoria Colonna (1880 - 1954).
Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani b. 1845, d. 1929, was an Italian archaeologist, was born in Rome or in Montecelio, now Guidonia Montecelio; acted together with British art historians as Austen Henry Layard and John Murray; was married twice, first to an American woman and then to the British widow of Prince Colonna),

2. and Amalia / Amalia nee CARACCIOLO / Amalia Caracciolo-Venato.

c. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham / Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician.

Douglas and Douglas Scotti family, from origins to the Middle Ages. A truly comprehensive description of the Scotti family and Dougla Scotti bibliography is found in the book 'The old families of Piacenza and their coats of arms', published in 1979. The Scotti family (SCOTUS) or Douglas or Douglas Scotti is an ancient and noble family of Piacenza, the mayor of Bologna; Ranuccio Douglas Scotti (1597-1659), bishop; Owned by the family was the Castle of Agazzano. Bernardino Scotti was born in Milan on October 6, 1656, the second son of the noble family Scotti, he became a lawyer, speaker of the Sacred College of the Holy See; Gian Giacomo Scotti Gallerati, Count. And also Scotti Chiapponi with the title of Lord of Miceno, Carlo, Fabio (1780). Gallerati Scotti family, from 1731 following the union of the goods and the names of the two families: Gallerati Count Francesco Scotti, Cardinal Giovanni Filippo Scotti Gallerati, Duke Thomas Anselmo Gallarati Scotti, Duke Thomas Gallarati Scotti, Prince Gallerati Giancarlo Scotti. Thomas IV Duke Fulco Gallerati Scotti. The Italian strain, known by the nickname of Scotus, will take over the plural form of Scotti; somebody in Piacenza.

Hotel Scoti (Scotti, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Located in an elegant 16th century palazzo in Via Tornabuoni.
Luigi Scotti Douglas d. 1880, Count of Vigoleno, Regio Rescritto in 1856; his son Alfonso b. in Nola in 1849, d. 1910. Nola, north-east of Napoli, ca 23 km. South-east-east of Aversa, and south-east of Santa Maria Capua Vetere! The Scotti family originates from ALBERTO became Lord of Piacenza; from the Lords of Vigolino or Vigoleno.
The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples after 1734, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet in Naples, child Joseph, b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais; LOUIS b. 1796 Naples, married Mary Josephine Carlier, with whom he had Ferdinand, Federico and Alfonso; this Luigi / Louis Scotti began his military career as a bodyguard in 1816, after a long military career in 1859 promoted field marshal. Ermanno Stradelli b. 1852, Italian photographer, of Borgo Val di Taro currently in the province of Parma, then in the province of Piacenza. His mother, Marianna Douglas Scotti di Vigoleno, place of residence in Borgotaro / Borgo Val di Taro. Castello di Vigoleno north-east of Genova. Borgo Val di Taro - east of Genova.

At margin:

CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli: landlord of Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere; and owner of Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the Caserta region in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta. Estates: Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, di Parete - 6 km south-east of above named Casal di Principe and 4 km south-west of Aversa, Capriglia - north-east of Napoli, Villamaina - east of mentioned Capriglia. Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south -east of Capua, now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta. Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta; he was son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Napoli, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille.

A surprising similarity of names! Or maybe this is not just a coincidence?

1. "...In Angouleme with the assistance of Messrs. X. Muller and J. Stahl, engineers of the establishment, and partly by M. Duflon, electrical engineer in the measuring room of M. Sciami, director of the Maison Breguet...".

2. "Witold Rutkowski son of Charles Adam and Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky / Kazimierz Dzierzynski son of Edmund Dzierzynski came together to Warsaw during the study. Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky joined the Academy of Veterinary in Dorpat (Tartu, now Estonia). He came therefore to Dzierżynow, and to Warsaw on the Technical School of Wawelberg and Rotwand. He lived in lodgings with Witold Rutkowski, but he was arrested and then he went to Germany, in Frankfurt am Main, then moved to Karlsruhe. Rented apartment with a family of Italian origin - Schiotti. He fell in love with the daughter of the owners Lucy Schiotti and married".

3. Maria Neri - Nagurska - Oginska "sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry (Conte) Count Scotti (Schiotti) – in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".

Details at margin:

Hotel Scoti (Schiotti in Modena, Scotti in Lake Villa, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Samples: Giancarlo Schiotti, Vallina, that is Giancarlo Scotti. Schiotti, Donald K. possible aka's Sciotti. Scotti of Santolo Nicola / Santelo Nicola. Alessandro Maria Schiotti from Roma. Scotti or Schiotti - this surnames or name was in the life of the Dzierzynski and Oginski families in the 19th century. At geni.com we read on N. N. Scotti b. 1646 / 1706, son of Fabio Scotti and Alessandra Vittoria Scotti, father of Carlo Scotti; brother of Annibale Deodato Scotti, marchese di Castelbosco - 16 km west of Piacenza, and north-east of Genova / Genoa / Genua. Copyright by George J. Homs on May 21, 2012. Annibale Deodato Scotti b. 1676 and died 1732 in La Granja, Caceres, Extremadura, Spain. Husband of Teodora Chiapponi. Father of Fabio Scotti. Carlo Scotti b. ca 1670/1680?

From Mickuny / Mickūnai (Dzierzynski, Slowacki, Pilsudski, Pilar Pilchau, Januszewski, Becu) to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the property Mickuny belonged to August Becu (1771-1824) - Professor of Medicine at the Imperial University of Vilnius (he was in Scotland 1803 - 1804), the second husband of the Salome / Salomea Slowacki, the mother of the famous poet Juliusz Slowacki (he was next in Switzerland in the years 1834-1835).

Probably about 1815 Mickuny / Mickūnai became the property of Alexander Pillar von Pilchau / Pilar Pilchau, then judge of the district of Vilnius. Alexander Pillar, in Mickuny in 1826 built a new chapel. In the mid-nineteenth century Mickuny / Mickunai belonged to Stanislaw Pillar, the son of Alexander. 1923 owner of Mickuny - next Alexander Pillar. But his brother, Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.

The father of above named Prince Ireneusz Ogiński was Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, with his Italian wife, Princess Maria, nee Neri.

The Ogińskis had three daughters, Amelia, Emma and Ida. Ireneusz, the only boy, was their second child. He was born in 1808. Princess Maria and Michał Kleofas Ogiński, in Venice began to take lovers.
In 1841 Ireneusz was thrown into jail, may well have had something to do with the 'Kalinowska Affair' a few years later.
Sometime around the late 1830s (acc. to me not late 1820s), Ireneusz married Countess Jozefina Kalinowska, whose sister, Countess Olga happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father. In 1848 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. The following year Prince Michał was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz and Olga. Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863
In Vilnius, the capital of Russian Lithuania, was living Countess Maria Nagurska.
She was born Maria Neri in Venice in 1777. Early in 1796 Maria watched young veterans included the already legendary piano-playing warrior Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, who - under Tadeusz Kosciuszko - leading his units in Northern Lithuania against the Russians.

Among Michał Kleofas’ Oginski fellow veterans were Count Kajetan Nagurski, and Tadeusz Wysogierd. They were close friends with Maria Neri but Kajetan Nagurski took Maria back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau, where  Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan’s back, but Maria began to be seen in the company of  Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania.

Maria Neri returned to Vilnius, and after 
to Florence.

In 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska caught the attention of General Bennigsen. General Count Levin August von Bennigsen was born in Brunswick in 1745, but was promoted to the position of Governor of Vilnius and he met Countess Nagurska.

Meanwhile, Michał Kleofas Ogiński  was living with his wife Izabela and two sons, Tadeusz and Xavier at his wife’s family’s estate at Brzeziny, to the south west of Warsaw. The new Tsar Alexander, offered him an unconditional amnesty and  Michał Kleofas, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Lithuania to live in Vilnius, where, he again came across Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri, the mistress of Governor Bennigsen.

Michał Kleofas Oginski married her in 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie, close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk.

Their four children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, conceived with Ogiński, but every one of his daughters - Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813 had a different father; her son Ireneusz Oginski, born in 1807 or 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani who was music tutor to the Ogiński girls.


The children of Karol and Amelia Załuska - nine surviving children, the eldest, Michał who, with his wife Lena ran Iwonicz, to the youngest, Franciszka, known as Fanny. 
Michał Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, his father Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek (Paula nee Szembek from Slupowo married Jan Prosper Potocki; her father Marek Szembek born 1712 died 1744, and her grandfather Antoni Felicjan Szembek. Paula Szembek was born ca 1738? died 1797. Her children: Celestyn Lubienski b. 1758 d. 1848 with 1st husband Feliks Walezjusz Lubienski, Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 d. 1801, Jozefa Oginska [b. 1763 with husband Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1739 d. 1787], Michał Kleofas Oginski b. 7 October 1765 died 15 October 1833. Protazy / Prot Antoni Potocki born 1761 - died 1801 married Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766 - 1810 with daughter Emilia Potocka born ca 1790.

Above Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1739 d. 1787 [Andrzej Ignacy Joachim Jozef Adam]
). His children:
Tomasz Antoni Oginski,
Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska married Piottuch Kublicka, Emma Ogińska.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1740, his father Tadeusz Ogiński and grandfather Marcin Oginski.
Izabela Oginska b. 1711 d. 1761, her father Michal Radziwillher husband Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski b. 1712 d. 1783, his line from Marcin, Szymon and Samuel Oginski.

Above Ida Oginska born in 1813 (ca 1800 ?) and married to  Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki from Kublicze.

Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki's brothers and sisters:
Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wincenty Smokowski, Stanisław ca 1804, Anna Piottuch-Kublicka 1809-1885 m. Józef Benislawski ca 1790-1852, Walentyna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wladyslaw Jozef Sołtan 1795-1843, Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka born ca 1810 m. first Jozef Szumski b. ca 1800 and second to Dominik Konstantynowicz born (after 1800) ca 1805.

The family of Weis / Weiss:
Neighbour of count Albert von Gern / Gernet / Гернет / Гернеты at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg: M. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral Weiss, Alexander Konstantinovich; he was born 1870, was Rear-admiral on 12 June 1916; he graduated from the Maritime School; commanded a torpedo boat and destroyers; after the October Revolution in the service of the Reds. Chief of Staff of the Red Baltic Fleet to 1919. Arrested in 1931, 1933 and 1935 exiled to Orenburg. His father probably: Weiss, Konstantin. He was born on August 5, 1839 in Tsarskoye Selo, came from the nobility of the province of Estonia / Эстония. May 14, 1896 was promoted to lieutenant general. June 6, 1907 Weiss was promoted to General of Infantry. General Weiss was living in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1917 at Nicholas Road, 59 where he died August 22, 1917. And next of kin Konstantin von Weiss born July 29, 1877 in Tsarskoye Selo, died in Augsburg; during the Civil War, the commander of the Baltic Battalion of the Estonian Army. Baltic Regiment was formed in early 1919 in Estonia of the volunteers - Baltic Germans and since the spring of 1919 worked with the North-Western Army. October 1919 was part of 3rd Infantry Division, then worked as a part of the 1st Army.

1. Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London; son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier; he m. Mary Marlain;
2. Christina Sofia Krause / Krauze b. 1755 in Revel, d. 1825; m. Frideriks b. 1749; her son Евстафий Иванович Фридерихс / Якоб Иоганн Август, b. 1776, married in 1803 (they were living in Lasinurme (Lassinorm) and Thula / Tuula of the Toll family, Saue Parish) in London to Josephine Mercier (1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss) b. 1778, her stepgrandson Aleksandr von Weiss b. 1870. Her partner Константин Павлович Poманов, 1779 - 1831.
3. Colonel Weiss helped Jan Konstantynowicz (son of Jerzy / Marian Konstantynowicz / Stankiewicz) with nickname 'Stankiewicz' after 1944 in Poland.
4. Otto Magnus Karl Bernhard von Toll / фон Толль (1794 - 1799) born in Thula (Tuula), Saue vald, Harjumaa; d. 1799 in Walling (Valingu), Saue or Keila vald; and Margaretha Elisabeth Lisette von Toll Freiin von Rosen (1769 - 1824), d. 1824 in Walling (Valingu), Saue vald or Keila vald, Estonia. Valingu, 4 km north-east of Tuula, 4 km south-west of Saue. Franziska Helene Magdalena von Toll (1796 - 1820 in Walling (Valingu), 3 km east of Keila.

Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya / Ekaterina Troubetzky / Troubetzkoy (nee Mussina-Pushkina; her father Pietr  Klavdijevich Mussin-Puschkin b. 1768) was born 1816 and died c. 1897; her partner
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia

and with him was daughter Sofia Troubetzkoy (1838 in Moscow, Russia and died July 27, 1898 in Madrid). Husband of above named Ekaterina Petrovna Mussina-Pushkina: Sergey Trubetskoy / Сергей Васильевич Трубецкой (1815 - 1859) son of Vassili Sergejevich Fürst Trubetskoy ('Vasily', born April 3, 1776 and died February 22, 1841; general of cavalry, member of the State Council). The same Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene (above Ольга Осиповна Калиновская was born 1818 or 1822 and was married in 1844 to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus; she was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska; Michael-Bogdan Ogiński married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki; Bogdan Ogiński died on 25 March 1909). The following year Prince Michał Oginski was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz Oginski and Olga nee Kalinowski (her sister Countess Jozefina Kalinowska
married Ireneusz Oginski, too). Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.


Above Vasily Troubetzkoy, general of cavalry, member of the State Council, born 1776 and died 22.2.1841. His relatives: de Voisins, Gilbert, de Rohan-Rochefort, Manfredi, de Beauregard, Mussin-Pushkin, de Morny, Silva-Bazan. His granddaughter Margarita, b. 14.10.1857, married 14.11.1881 to Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard who died 1.6.1911. Next granddaughters: Maria, b. 7.12.1886 and by Vladimir, b. 1824, his daughter Maria, born 12.5.1857, died 1933, m. 29.6.1880 and div. with Aleksej Yakovlevich Voropanov.

Margarita Troubetzkoy born 14 October 1857 - but not Maria - married to Marie Christian LABROUSSE de BEAUREGARD d. 1911, and his parents: Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard and Cecile de Mones d'Elbouix.
Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard b. ? was husband of Margarita Trubetskaya, b. 1857, daughter of Alexander Trubetskoy and Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins. She was sister of Sergey Trubetskoy; Alexander Trubetskoy; Grigory Trubetskoy and Alexey Trubetskoy. Above Alexander Trubetskoy b. 1813, d. 1889, son of Vasilij Trubecki / Василий Сергеевич Трубецкий, князь (Василий b. 1776, d. 1841) and Sophia Marianna / Софья Андреевна. The LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD family: LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD Montignac from Dordogne, Aquitaine, France, b. 1816 - 1816, and LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD Cadillac from Gironde, Aquitaine, France, b. 1868. Labrousse Bernard de Beauregard, a member of the clergy of Saintes, emigrated to Spain in 1792. Bertand Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard born ca 1795 ?, parents: Jérôme LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1768-1846 (Jerome was son of Bernard Sr du Claux 1739-1789 and Angelique 1745-1813; Jerome has three children: Edouard Jerome LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1804 [next generation: Marguerite Amanda DUJARRIC de la Baronie 1814; Félicie Dite Elisabeth LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1834-1896], Jean Baptiste Frederic LABROUSSE de Beauregard [next generation: Marie Camille GRAUGNARD; Françoise Julia LABROUSSE de Beauregard], Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard / Bertand Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard [next generation: Marié Cécile de MONEYS del Bouix; Pierre Adolphe LABROUSSE de Beauregard; Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard - maybe he is Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard b. ? who was husband of Margarita Trubetskaya, b. 1857, because his parents: Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard and Cecile de Mones d'Elbouix: Cecile de MONES d'ELBOUIX b. after 1808, married to Bertrand Christian de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD, who was born 28 November 1808, son of Jérôme de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD and Elisabeth Marguerite Wilhelmine de HESSE-DARMSTADT; above Cecile child: 1. Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard / Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard husband of Margarita Trubetskaya; 2. Adolphe de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD married to Jenny BOERSH with child: Jeanne Bertrande de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD 1874, married 1893, Paris, to Henri de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1867, with children Guy de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1895, and Odette de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1902]), and Marguerite Elisabeth de HESSE d'Armstadt died 1809 daughter of Marie Adelaide Cheyrouze and Louis IX de Hesse, b. 1719 d. 1790. Baptiste LABROUSSE de Beauregard, b. 1776 - Brenac, Dordogne, d. 1781, son of Bernard Sr du Claux LABROUSSE 1739-1789 and Angelique LESCURE 1745-1813. Above Bernard Sr du Claux LABROUSSE, 1739-1789, son of Jean Labrousse Du Claux, 1693-1764 and Catherine Bouilhac d. 1738. He was grandson of Jean Labrousse Du Rocq, d. 1725. Above Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins, b. 1835, d. 1901, daughter of Jean Pierre, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Sophie Taglioni (Marie Sophie Taglioni b. 1804 in Stockholm, Sweden, d. 1884 in Marseille, France, daughter of Philippe Taglioni and Sophie Karsten), wife of Alexander Trubetskoy, mother of Sergey Trubetskoy; Margarita Labrousse de Beauregard; Alexander Trubetskoy; Grigory Trubetskoy and Alexey Trubetskoy; she was sister of Georges, comte Gilbert de Voisins, by Elle Kiiker Ling and Jadra of 2012, at geni.com. Georges Gilbert de Voisins b. 1843 (his son Marie Auguste Gilbert de Voisins b. 1877 in Paramé, St-Malo, France, d. 1939 in Paris; husband of Louise de Heredia daughter of José Maria de Heredia and Louise Cécile Despaigne), son of Jean Pierre, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Sophie Taglioni, husband of Sozonga Ralli. Sozonga Ralli b. 1857 in London, d. 1906 in Paris, daughter of Stephanos Rallis. Stephanos Rallis b. 1829 in Marseille, d. 1902 in Monte Carlo, son of Augustis Rallis and Sosonga - b. 1804 in Smyrne. Above Jean Pierre Gilbert de Voisins d. 1863, son of Pierre Paul Alexandre Gilbert de Voisins and Charlotte Digneron de Beauvoir b. 1775, husband of Marie Sophie Taglioni, father of Georges, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins, copyright by George J. Homs in 2013.

Gabriel Voisin was born in Belleville-sur-Saône in 1880,

France, and his brother Charles Voisin (b. Lyon 1882), two years younger than him, was his companion. When his father (who? - Georges Gilbert de Voisins b. 1843) abandoned the family, his mother, Amélie, took her sons home to Neuville-sur-Saône, where they settled near her father's factory.


Otrebusy, a village in the Congress Poland, close to Brwinow; before 1900 this estate - Folwark El¿bietówka, Popowek - was sold (Borman, Knoff, Szolc). Otrebusy south-east of Brwinow, 4 km and Kanie village is north-east of Otrebusy 1,5 km.

On a maps of Herman Karol de Perthees of 1783 and 1786 we have got Otrebusy and also a map of 1803: it's data on the Oginski family (relatives of the Kalinowski family, Count) and Sulinski under the German rule, acc. to Prof. Marian Prokopek.

Acc. to 'genealogia.okiem.pl/soltan':
Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, died in 1836 Mitawa, general, wifes:
Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802 from parents Stanislaw Radziwill and Karolina Pociej,
and second wife since 1820 was Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska Korsak from father Antoni.

His children below:

1. Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780 married Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki.
2. Stanislaw Soltan, 1822 - died 1897 in Anninsk, from Brzostowica Murowana in the Hrodna goverment, with wifes: Maria Dunin-Jundzill b. 1827 and Albertyna Dunin-Jundzill, b. 1837

(brothers and sisters of above Stanislaw Soltan: 3. Helena Soltan b. 1790 m. to Franciszek Soltan b. 1780,
4. Adam Leon Ludwik So³tan, born 1792 in Warsaw,
and 5. Anna Soltan, b. ca 1788 and m. to Antoni Wankowicz b. 1758).

Children of Stanislaw Soltan b. 1822:

1. Bogdan Wiktor Soltan 1861 - 1912 married to Maria Franciszka Soltan b. 1863 (his brothers and sisters: 2. Emilia Soltan Korsak, b. 1847 d. 1908, 3. Stanislaw Soltan, 1848 - 1850, 4. Helena Soltan 1849 - 1852, 5. Adam Soltan 1851 - 1902 Brzostownica Murowana, 6. Wiktor W³adyslaw Rudolf Pereswit-Soltan, 1853 - d. 1905 Warsaw, owner of Kraszuty)
and his daughter - Maria Emilia Soltan b. 1889 Aninsk and died 1963 m. Zdzis³aw Henryk Grocholski - her daughter Maria Grocholska b. 1911 Pietniczany and died in 1940 Otrebusy.

Acc. to 'www.bkpan.poznan.pl/biblioteka':
"...Grodno ... 15 October 1793 ... Krzywkowski v. W. Oginski ex-General of Lithuania, ... Gasowski ... 'otrzymal z wyznaczeniem komisyi do rozsadzenia granic folwarku swego Otrebusy zwanego, w ziemi warszawskiej lezacego, z folwarkiem W. Oginskiego ... okolica tegoz imienia graniczacego, ... Gasowski przeciwnie w odpowiedzi swojej dowodzi, ze majac swoj majatek w cudzych rekach, a nie mogac go dojsc dla przemocy, u Konfederacyi Generalnej Koronnej wyjednal sobie sancitum, przez ktore nie uchylenia jakiego prawa lub uciazliwego dla W. Oginskiego Ex-Hetmana praejudicatum zada, lecz sadu, a to koncem przyspieszenia ukrzywdzonemu sprawiedliwosci: i ze tego sadu ktory sie sklada z sasiadow osiadlych, lekac sie W. Oginski nie powinien... 1793 ...sprawa takowa do przyzwoitego sadu odeslana byc ma'."
Above named Oginski that is Michal Kazimierz Oginski, duke, b. 1728 or 1730 / 1731 died 1800 in Slonim or Warsaw; General, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski - freemason, and father (?) of Michal Kleofas Oginski - freemason.

But acc. to me: Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765 has different father, that is Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765 and died 1833, was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek. When the Russians occupied Vilnius, he moved to Warsaw; he swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and settled in Zalesie village, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow. In 1755 - Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 - d. 1800, was owner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow): Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after the Oginski family Helenow in ca 1800 to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki).

Note!

Dzierżynowo / Дзяржынава / Дзержиново: formerly Oziembłowo, a total of 180 acres, including the manor house, currently lies in the Minsk region, about 15 km south-west-west of Iwieniec; north of Prudy and north-east of Naliboki; close to Pietrylovichi. It was a family nest of Dzierżyński, for a time leased (to 1875) by

Edmund Dzerzhinsky for others; here in 1877 was born Felix Dzerzhinsky. Here were killed two of his brothers: Stanislaw and Kazimierz.

Previous name - Oziembłowo is listed in the Geographical Dictionary.

Zalessie (Zalesie), Залессе / Залесье / Залессе, ca 11 km south-east of Smorgon, ca 60 km north of Iwieniec

(also Januszkowcze / Januszkowiczi ca 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; Bielarucz / Bielaruczi / Беларучи in the Логойский район, close to Aliekszycy, 19 km south-west of Lohojsk / Logoisk, 27 km north of Minsk core; Józefa Dzierżyński married to Kazimierz Obrycki, owner of Słobodka near by Białorucz, he was born ca 1825, his father Joachim Obrycki b. ca 1800; and Januszkowicze / Янушковичи 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; south-east of Volozin, close to Piershai),

ca 70 km north of Dzierzynowo / Oziemblowo; a farm and property of Ogiński.

Michal Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski lived here, b. 1765 - d. 1833, composer, diplomat, one of the leaders of the Kosciuszko Uprising 1794;
he received a fortune in a fall from his uncle, Count Francis Xavier Oginski / Franciszek Ksawery Oginski; in the years 1802-1806 he lived there permanently, and in 1822 he was here often. After the death of Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski for many years in assets stayed widow, an Italian singer Maria de Neri. Zalesie next taken by the son of Maria nee Neri / Mary and Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas - Ireneusz Oginski (1808-1863), and later, his son Michael Nicholas Oginski (1848-1902).

Andrzej Oginski hired a home teacher from Vienna for Michał Kleofas Oginski - Jean Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn Jean), who had previously served for emperor Leopold II as the tutor. Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn), was teaching various subjects such as mathematics (by former Jesuit Abbe Rhoddee), and high-quality education; Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn) also put to 7-year-old son a special diet and took long walks. Teen-age Michał Kleofas Oginski worked up to 16 hours per day. He studied political economics and in particular the Polish and French literature. Michał Kleofas read a lot of books such as Voltaire and Rousseau.

Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Trubetsky / Gregori Trubiacki / Grzegorz Trubecki was a Prince of the Troubetzkoy family. He married Maria Kalinowska. Maria Trubecki nee Kalinowski in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow. But they lived before 1840 in St. Petersburg.
At the same time just the Ogińskis had three daughters, Amelia, Emma and Ida. Ireneusz, the only boy, was their second child. He was born in 1808. Princess Maria Neri and Michał Kleofas Ogiński, in Venice began to take lovers.
In 1841 Ireneusz Oginski was thrown into jail, may well have had something to do with the 'Kalinowska Affair' a few years later.
Sometime around the late 1830s (acc. to me not late 1820s), Ireneusz married Countess Jozefina Kalinowska, whose sister, Countess Olga happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father. In 1848 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. The following year Prince Michał was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz and Olga. Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863.

The Rolin family (Rollain = Rolain / Rolayn):
Henri-Antoine Rolin was born in 1774 and died in 1835 in Kortrijk / Courtrai.
Some branches of his many descendants: Ernest Bertin (1870-1915), Maurice Bresson (1892-1955), Jacques Filiol Raimond (1880-1933), Filiol Pierre Raimond (1884-1950), Constant Van Ackere (1873-1957) and Waelbroeck Georges (1853-1917).
Here are some examples of baptisms of the Rollin family: 1752 Jacques Rollin, 1757 Catherine Rollin, 1759 Marguerite Rollin, 1759 Rollin M. Amable, 1760 Pierre-Amable Rollin, 1762 Francois-Amable Rollin, 1763 Philippe Rollin, 1765 Joseph-Marie Rollin, 1766 Piere Rolin, 1768 Charles Rollin. Despite that the family is originally from Mons, Achilles / Achille ROLIN was actually born in Namur, 1839 (married Henriette Coralie LAGRANGE, daughter of Eugene Jacques LAGRANGE, Lieutenant Colonel; he lived in Brussels and died in Ixelles), the son of Joseph Nicolas Rolin, b. 1811 (mother from Ciney), d. 1854. Two years later, in 1841, was born a sister Leopoldine ROLIN; Joseph Nicolas Rolin mother: Mary Elizabeth Marie Joseph DESOMME; Mary's parents were DESOMME Pierre Joseph (d. before 1802) and Francoise Josephe FOUNTAINS (also died before 1802). Hubert Jean Rolin and Francois Joseph Rolin were born 1782 and 1784 respectively, in the parish of
Pessoux near Ciney, in Jannaeus - a few kilometers from Ciney.
Hubert and Francis were the son of Jean ROLIN and Anne LYSIN (died in Ciney). Indeed, their grandfather Hubert LYSIN died 1788, and their father, Jean Rolin, died 1789. Jean Rolin was not born in the parish of Pessoux. The marriage certificate indicates that Jean Rolin was a parishioner of Ciney; Jean Rolin born in the hamlet of
Bry, Parish of Celles, 1738. He is the son of William ROLIN born in 1715; two brothers was born in 1738 and 1741; Jean Joseph ROLIN was born in Bry - Celles. Celles is south of Achene, and 10 km south-west of Ciney, Belgique; 12 km from border of France; southern Belgique.
The second son of Jean Rolin, above mentioned Francis Joseph, born in 1784.


The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765 - Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.

Ogiński was owner of the Helenow palace (Helenowek) - 3 km south-west of Pruszkow and 4 km east of Brwinow, Otrębusy - 3 km south-east of Brwinow, Komorów - 3 km east of Helenowek and 6 km east of Brwinow, Helenow / Helenowek, and Opacz - 16 km east-north-east of Brwinow (Opacz Kolonia); Michal Kleofas Ogiski born in Guzów (ca 28 km west of Brwinow and 18 km southern of Zelazowa Wola were F. Chopin was born; Brwinow is located 35 km south-east of Zelazowa Wola) close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765 and died 1833, was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer. His father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania.

When the Russians occupied Vilnius, he moved to Warsaw; he swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and settled in Zalesie village, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later in Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow. In 1755 - Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 - d. 1800, was owner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow): Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after the Oginski family sold Helenow in ca 1800 to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki). Note!

Zalessie (Zalesie), Залессе / Залесье / Залессе, ca 11 km south-east of Smorgon, ca 60 km north of Iwieniec (also Januszkowcze / Januszkowiczi ca 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; Bielarucz / Bielaruczi / Беларучи in the Логойский район, close to Aliekszycy, 19 km south-west of Lohojsk / Logoisk, 27 km north of Minsk core; Józefa Dzierżyński married to Kazimierz Obrycki, owner of Słobodka near by Białorucz, he was born ca 1825, his father Joachim Obrycki b. ca 1800; and Januszkowicze / Янушковичи 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; south-east of Volozin, close to Piershai), ca 70 km north of Dzierzynowo / Oziemblowo; a farm and property of Ogiński.

Oginski, much older than Chopin but still active in the 1820s, preempting Chopin by approximately a quarter-century. The Oginskis also temporarily possessed Siedlce. They were the sponsors of Orthodox editions in Ruthenian and Slavonic languages.

We look on Nicolas (Mikołaj) Chopin who was born 1771 in France, in the town of Marainville, located on the Madon river, around 30 km from Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, an independent duchy, governed by Poland's former king Stanisław Leszczyński to his death in 1766. François Chapin / Chopin of Romont on the Lorraine border, in 1705 married Catherine Oudot, and settled in Catherine's native village of Xirocourt. François (1738-1814), a skilled wheeler and administrator of the commune of Marainville, married Marguerite Deflin (1736-1794). Thus his son Nicolas, born in 1771, was known to lady Franciszka Weydlich (from a wealthy bourgeois Parisian family of German origins), and after Michał Pac's death in 1787, the Weydlichs decided to return to Poland in fall 1787. Nicolas Chopin decided to leave his home and accompany the Weydlichs. Until 1791 the Weydlichs resided at 406 / 1 Krakowskie Przedmieście Ave., in 1794 Nicolas became teacher to Jan Dekert Jr. in Warsaw, and 1795 Nicolas was a home tutor to the children of Ewa Łączyńska nee Zaborowska, widow of Maciej Łączyński, remarried with Józef Chrzanowski. In 1802 Nicolas was tutor to the sons of Kacper Skarbek and his wife Ludwika nee Fenger in Żelazowa Wola, until 1810, when he became professor at the public Warsaw High School. Nicolas tutored several prominent future figures of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, including Jan Dekert (1786-1861), Warsaw suffragan bishop, Maria Walewska born Łączyńska (1786-1817), Napoleon's mistress, Teodor Łączyński (1785-1842), Jan Nepomucen Dziewanowski (1782-1808), Fryderyk Skarbek (1792-1866), near by Samuel Bogumił Linde, eminent lexicographer; professor Karol Mahe; professor Józef Rousseau, the Dziewanowskis, Pruszaks, Skarzyńskis and Zboińskis, the Skarbeks; his close friends: the Kolberg family, Jakub Benik, Jan Austen. Inf. under copyright by Piotr Mysłakowski, Andrzej Sikorski (January 2006).

Szymanowska was a member of the Society of Good Deeds Committee, the organizer of Fryderyk Chopin's February 1818 concert; Józef Elsner, Chopin's composition teacher, had been a close friend of Szymanowska's parents, and he almost certainly was also Szymanowska's private tutor. Inf. under copyright by Sławomir Dobrzański.

Both Szymanowska and Chopin were influenced by the popular composer of piano polonaises, Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński (1764-1833), after Chopin was just seven years old in 1817.

Michal Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski received a fortune in a fall from his uncle, Count Francis Xavier Oginski / Franciszek Ksawery Oginski; in the years 1802-1806 he lived in Zalesie permanently, and in 1822 he was here often. After the death of Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski for many years in assets stayed widow, an Italian singer Maria de Neri. Zalesie next taken by the son of Maria nee Neri / Mary and Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas - Ireneusz Oginski (1808-1863), and later, his son Michael Nicholas Oginski (1848-1902). Andrzej Oginski hired a home teacher from Vienna for Michał Kleofas Oginski - Jean Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn Jean), who had previously served for emperor Leopold II as the tutor.

Frédéric François Chopin b. 1810 in above mentioned Zelazowa Wola, was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist; 1831 he settled in Paris; supported by his admirer Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848; Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took him on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848, and took charge of the disposal of his effects and manuscripts after his death in 1849. Stirling was born as the youngest of 13 children of

John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family.

She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Frédéric Chopin in 1840 or 1842 / 1843, worked with Chopin of the French editions of most of his works; became his secretary, agent and business manager. Her father John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816; his parents: Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 8 Apr 1704 (Patrick Stirling, 1704 - 1745 from Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 14 Dec 1680 {his father John Stirling, 2nd of Kippendavie, b. 1622, Dunblane, Perthshire, Scotland and Christian Dog / Doig b. 1640, Kilmadock, Perthshire, Scotland} and mother Catherine Arbuthnot: come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott) and mother Margaret Douglas d. 1754: her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith. Frederick Chopin was in Edinburgh 1848, and arrived in London in April 1848.

Famous Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, b. 1871, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester; was the son of James Rutherford, who had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth - 53 km north-east of Stirling, Scotland. The Rutherford family comes from an area of the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire; south from Jedburgh, - ca 130 km south-east of Stirling, because all Scottish Rutherfords share roots in Roxburghshire. To 1706 / 1707, the Rutherfords moved into other areas of Scotland, such as, Ayrshire and Perth - 48 km north-east of Stirling, and south into Northumberland, to Sweden, France and the Netherlands:

Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD (his parents: David RUTHERFORD

[his father David RUTHERFORD, b. 1764 in the parish of Kilmadock - 13 km north-west of Stirling, Perth, Scotland, who was son of James RUTHERFORD b. 1720 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland]

b. 1764 in Kilmadock, Perth, and mother Margaret FULTON from Of Kilmadock, Perth) b. 1800 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland.

The Scottish origin (Nest de Barri) of the Barry family come from the village of Barry in the former county of Angus, 60 km north-east of Perth, north of Edinburgh; in Ireland, Ho Barry circa 1591, as the first Irish dramatist, while John Barry (b. 1745 in Tacumshane, County Wexford, southern Ireland; d. 1803), is generally regarded as 'The father of the American Navy'. Guillaume Dubarry / du Barry, Count Roquelaure, Lord Rennery, b. 1732, d. 1811 in Toulouse, was husband of Jeanne Becu / Madame du Barry. Dubarry name is known from 1400 around Toulouse. Guillaume was the son of Antoine Dubarry, captain, and Marguerite Catherine Cécile Thérese de La Caze; 1750 he moved to Santo Domingo; returned to France, to Lévignac and Toulouse. 1768, his elder brother Jean-Baptiste Dubarry, calls him to Paris. 1768 marriage to J. Becu.

Remember: 1. Edward Esterling (Stirling / EASTERLING b. ca 1790 ?) and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland had daughters: Odile Esterling b. 1830 (Latvia?) at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, also Charlotte Esterling and Alvina Esterling. Probably that is Yukka, Yuka at Crimea, close to Заозерное / Ялы́-Мойна́к / Yalı Moynaq / Ялы Мойнакъ, 10 км south-west of Евпатория, western Crimea.

2. George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772; George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras. They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

3. Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Mentioned above

Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland - 60 km north-west of Edinburgh, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour

(b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London).

4. John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816: John Kippendavie, acquired the estate of Kippenross - 2 km east of Dunblane and 9 km north of Stirling - from William Pearson 1778, and Kippendavie - 1 km north-east of Dunblane, Lanrick - 18 km north-west of Stirling, Auchinbie, Shanraw, and Woodland from James Stirling of Keir in 1813.

Children: 1. Patrick STIRLING b. 1782 in Dunblane, Perth; 2. Douglas STIRLING b. 1784 in Dunblane, Perth, 3. Mary STIRLING 1786 in Dunblane, 4. William STIRLING 1787 in Dunblane; 5. Catherine STIRLING 1791 in Dunblane, 6. Charles STIRLING 1796 in Gargunnock 12 km west of Stirling, Scotland; 7. Thomas STIRLING 1800 in Dunblane, Perth, 8. Sylvester Douglas STIRLING b. 1803 in Dunblane, 9. Jean Wilhelmina STIRLING 1804 in Dunblane. The same branch: James STIRLING b. ca 1707 in Kippendavie, Stirling, Scotland.

The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India: next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - (Robert Sconce was writer in Stirling, 1769 close to Fallin east of Stirling - north-east of Glasgow) at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour; Egan O'Rahilly (1670-1726) was of a family long established near Killarney. The County Cavan situated north of Mullingar. Killarney of south-west Ireland. The Westmeath county with Mullingar! South of The County Cavan. The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India is next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Catherine Sconce. Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873 (1874 ?), known as the Ace of Spies.

In Whytriggs or Whiteriggs was born Sylvester Douglas in ca 1662, d. 1729. His father Bishop Robert Douglas, b. 1625, d. 1716, mother Elizabeth Lammy.

Family Margaret Keith, b. 1662, married in 1695, with children: 1. George (of Skelmuir) Douglas, b. 1696, 2. Robert Douglas, d. 1735, 3. John (of Fechel) Douglas, b. 1703 / 1714, 4. Elizabeth Douglas, b. 1695, 5. Margaret Douglas, b. 1705. Douglas John, marchant, from Aberdeen; son of Sylvester of Whiteriggs; Patric nephew of Sylvester.

Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling. But we know also on Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD. See: Douglas from Italy, Napoli.

Catherine Arbuthnot come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott; relatives to Margaret Douglas d. 1754: her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith.

And here - between these families - appears Chopin. Frederick Chopin was in Edinburgh 1848.

ANNE CHOPIN b. 1769 in MARAINVILLE sur MADON, d. 1845, from parents FRANCOIS CHOPIN 1738-1814 and MARGUERITE DEFLIN 1736-1794; married in 1798 to JOSEPH THOMAS 1768-1850 (born in MARAINVILLE sur MADON, d. in FORCELLES). Marguerite Leonie Maire (Thomas) b. 1831 in Marainville-sur-Madon, Vosges, Lorraine, France; daughter of Charles Joseph Thomas and Therese Justine Ququ. Charles Joseph Thomas b. 1801 in Marainville-sur-Madon, d. 1873 in Saint-Firmin, Hautes-Alpes. Son of Joseph Thomas and Anne Thomas Chopin. Joseph Thomas b. 1768 in Marainville-sur-Madon.



Please look at details on this website!



Now we back to the Estonian-Polish branch of the Troubetzkoy family (Трубецкой и Эстония) and about Nestor Troubetzkoy. His father Grigory Troubetzkoy b. 1802 and died 11 January 1874, grandfather Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy b. 18 November 1773 - died 16 November 1801. Brother of Grigory: Yuri Troubetzkoy b. 1796 - d. 1859, sister Anna Kozhoukhova / Kozuchowska / Kozuchow born 23 December 1793 - 29 March 1827. Pawel son of Nestor Trubecki had three brothers: Herasim Trubecki, a scientist; second - an oil magnate and a chemist in Baku whose name is not known; third - a captain of the icebreaker 'Yermak', whose name is not known; and two sisters, whose names are not known! As you can see, the Estonian branch of the family Trubecki has huge gaps in accurate information about the generations, dates of births, names of children, especially in the period from about 1830 to about 1880. It's this period that I was particularly interested!
Children of a landowner and revolutionary Nestor Trubecki / Nester Troubetzkoy or Kalinowski / Trubeckoj born 1832 or 1840 in Cracow and died in Cracow or in Warsaw, Congress Poland in 1907:

1. professor Nestorovich Paul Troubetskoy / Павел Трубецкой / Pavel Trubecki son of Nestor / Pawel Trubecki (TROUBETZKOY, was born in Congress Poland 1879);  with title of Prince; died in 1941 in Tallinn; in Orsza, Belarus, 1903 was married to Maria Makeiewna Dobrzinska (Maria daughter of Maciej Dobrzynski born in Orsza on August the 1st or 8th, 1887 and died in Tallinn on 22 March 1974).
Pavel Trubecki was a member of the Polish Socialist Party of Józef Pilsudski, "was a partisan of Stanislaw Bulak-Balachowicz, a member of The Special Unit of Belarusian People's Republic in Estonia (Asobny Atrad BNR in Estonia) and veteran of Estonian War of Independence. By 1905 Jozef Pilsudski's party, the Polish Socialist Party, of which Pawel Trubecki was a member, was the largest socialist party in the entire Russian Empire. Failing in his purpose, Trubecki left Congress Poland in 1906, and moved to Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia). (Pawel Trubecki / Pavel Trubiacki / Paul Troubetzkoy moved from Orsha / Orsza to Tallinn in 1906, at the end of this year probably - but all his family to 1908) In 1906, as a stable government was re-established in the province, a Neo-Romantic literary movement 'Young Estonia' (Noor-Eesti) took hold there. Pawel Trubecki got the Nansen passport".


His children:
Jan Michal / Ivan Mihkel Trubecki / Pavlovich Troubetzkoy born in Orsza 1906, died in Tallinn 1971 with wife Alma Koidu;
second - Anjuta Pavlovna Gorbachev / Gorbaczow b. Tallinn in 1908, died Tallinn 2004 with husband A. Gorbachev, proprietor of houses in Tallinn;
third Aleksander Trubetskoi / Alexander Pavlovich Troubetzkoy b. Tallinn 1913, d. 1941 with wife Linda;
fourth (see also below) - Wladymir / Vladimir Trubetsky / Wladimir Trubetskoi / Vladimir Waloc Troubetzkoy, b.  5.10.1915, d.  22.4.1997 with wife Gerda Tiksmann and second wife 1935 Lydia Maripuu born Dundaga 1915, died in Muuga Aedlinn 1990 
(Muuga aedlinn - Muuga garden city is area in the western part of the town of Maardu, Estonia; it's located just east of Tallinn's Pirita district and Maardu is a town and a municipality in Harju County, Estonia and it is part of the east Tallinn metropolitan area; Nomme is south-west part of Tallinn):
his child - Jan Trubecki / Jaan Trubetsky, born in Tallinn on 29.12.1938 and his children with Leili Rikk: Tonu Trubetsky (+ Anu Klyszejko) and Toomas Trubetsky and also with Dagmar: Tonis Trubetski and Toivo Trubetski. Above named Vladimir Trubetskoy was a member of the Polish Home Army born 1915 died 1997 and his son was Jan Trubetskoy born 1938. 

2. Gerasim / Herasim Trubecki / Gerasimos vel Gerasim Nestorovich Trubecki, doctor, born 1866 / 1870 / 1880 or after 1870 and died in Paris; scientist.

3. four (5?) unknown:
an unknown oil magnate in Baku who was born ca 1870s and died ca April 28, 1920 in Baku; he was chemist in oil industry in Bakou / Baku;
the second unknown, captain of the soviet icebreaker 'Yermak' / Ermak,
and two (or three) unknown daughters.

But we have two different trees in the genealogy of the Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy family;
1. according to N. Ikonnikov and Miroslav Marek, Sept. 2007: Great-grandfather of Pavel Troubetzkoy: Pyotr Troubetzkoy, b. 18 Nov. 1773, d. 16 Nov. 1801, m. Nadejda Ivanovna Pestova [his father: Nikolay born 1744]. Grandfather of Pavel: Grigory b. 1802, d. 11 January 1874. His sister Anna b. 1793, d. 1827, m. Alexandr Stepanovitch Kozhoukhov, brother: Yuri b. 1796, d. 1859, m. Olga Nikolaevna Tchaikovsky. Father of Pavel: Nestor Troubetzkoy / Nester Trubiacki / Trubecki, born ca 1832, died ca 1907. Pavel Troubetzkoy born 1866, died 1941; married to Maria Kalinowska born ca 01 August 1892, died ca 1972. His children: Vladimir Waloc b. 05 October 1915, died 22 April 1997, married Gerda Tiksman and second m. to Lydia Maripuu b. 25 Jan. 1915 d. 25 April 1990; Ivan Mihkel; Alexandr and Anastasia married NN Gorbatchev. Children of Vladimir Waloc: Jaan b. 29 Dec. 1938 married Leili Rikk born 10 Nov. 1937: Erich and Isabella born 20 July 1956 m. NN Hitzel. Children of Jaan: Toivo, Tonis, Tonu vel Tony Blackplait, m. Anu Klyszeyko, 2 m. Maret Parnamets, 3 m. Margit Roosileht; and Toomas born 22 Dec. 1967; Children of Tonu: Reginleif  b. 1989, Tonu born 1990, Madeleine Angelique b. 1993; and
2. Nestor Trubecki has
wife M. Kalinowska / Maria Kalinovsky.
Never any inf. about his next of kin - Maria Trubeckoi / Duchess Maria Troubetzkoy / Mary Trubecki born 1835 / 1850 or information that Maria Trubecki was born in the next generation for example circa 1850 / 1853.

But genealogical research are directed to show that

Nestor Troubetzkoy (with nickname Nester Kalinowski) had a sister Maria. His sister's name would be given by the mother Maria of the Kalinowski house: Mary Kalinowski who had affinities with family of Oginski; in turn, this family was associated with the Radziwills and then with the Konstantynowiczs in Miezonki.

Duchess Maria Troubeckoy probably born about 1840, married Konstantinovich - genealogical research go towards demonstrating that her husband's name was Vasily / Wasyl; Wasilij or Vasily Konstantynowicz was born about 1840.

Therefore, we have strong links between the 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Zaporozhya / Zaporoze / Alexandrovsk and with Estonia, including Tallinn, Viljandi and Parnu. These relations also apply Miezonki, Lodz, the secret Pilsudski movement (Andrzejak, Wankowicz, Trubecki) in Belarus and Estonia and the smuggling of weapons from Russia to Galicia by (Spychalski, Andrzejak) Lodz.

Two families: Kalinowski and Paszkowski, has a lot connections. Count Joseph Kalinowski fought in the Polish Legions, among others between 1806 and 1807 - Silesia, Westphalia, etc. Similarly, the colonel and then general Franciszek Paszkowski. Both participated in the Napoleonic wars, years 1812-1813. Returned to the country in 1814. Then Paszkowski, and Kalinowski, have made a Free City of Krakow (ca 1819) and established families. Their children were born just after 1816. Both have completed military service in the rank of general. Both family came from south of the former Poland, after in the Russian zone, and also in the Austrian partition, but had a relationships with families living in Russia.

Note about the Piottuch - Kublicki family: 

 Ferdynand Piottuch - Kublicki, who was an activist of 1863 in the East Belarus, was friend of Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski from the Vicebsk region and also Walerjan Weryho / Valerian Veryho (he was owner of the Stajki estate - South of Vicebsk, close to the Dymanowo station, where Russian police on 22nd April 1863 attempted to arrest him). Above Ferdynand  Piottuch - Kublicki was neighbour of Wasilewski and relation of Staniewicz; he and duke Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski / Weryho stayed in Vicebsk in 1862 and in Stajki 1863Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski was familiar to: Moniuszko, Odyniec, Syrokomla and with Aleksander Chodecki in Mohylew (Mahileu or Mogiliow) in 1859.
Lady Augusta Soltan, b. around 1750 was married to Eliasz / Elijah Kublicki Piottuch from Kublicze, and was living in Livonia. The next generation: 

1. Elizabeth Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicze, b. approximately 1790 married Benedict Wawrzecki, Marshal of Braslav and second husband Krutz

2. Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; child: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843 (mother Josepha Benislawska), her child 

Soltan Octavia, b. in Prezma / Pryzma / Presman 1830, died on August 15, 1871 in Kazan (or Razan ?), she was married in 1849 to Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan / Hieronim S. V. Soltan born 1824, died in 1900, landowner, member of the January Uprising.
Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia; son of Stanislaus Soltan (collaborator of the Constitution of 3 May, imprisoned in Smolensk in the 1794-1796, the President of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in 1812
, d. Mitawa 1836) and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka, a high school in Mitawa in 1835-1842 Courland, his parents after confiscating the 'Zdzieciol' estate (in the Slonim area and mentioned by Mr. Tadeusz Mickiewicz) moved house on the Livonia area, he was the insurgent in 1863, exiled to Ufa, interned in Riga. Study at the University of St. Petersburg in 1843-1844, married in 1849, with a relative of his, Oktawia nee Soltan, daughter of Joseph and Valentina, and settled in the estate of his wife, Pryzma in Polish Livonia. In 1858 - 1859 he traveled abroad, where he conferred with Adam Czartoryski and Witold Czartoryski and Count Zamoyski on the current state of Lithuania and Belarus. He was against armed Insurrection. When the uprising broken out, Soltan, unable to stop it, joined to the Insurrection in the Livonia province and after Soltan was arrested in Vitebsk on June 5th, 1863. He was exiled to Ufa on August 18, 1863, and remained there until 1866. Then he was interned in Riga 1872 - 1875, was allowed to return in 1875 to assets of his wife in Polish Livonia, where he died in September 1900 in Prezma / Presman near to Malta in Inflanty / Lettgallen / Livonia, the Rēzeknes Rajons - 18 km south west from Rezekne acc. to http://exonyme.bplaced.net/Board/Thread-Lettgallen. The von der Borch family from Prele / Preili/ Priji near to Dyneburg and from Wyping in the Rzezyce / Rezekne district was owner of the Prezma estate before 1714. Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan moved in 1891 to Riga, where he many years honorably served as President of the Charitable Society

Now we back to the Piottuch Kublicki family:
Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; children: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843; 

Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki, 

Octavia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Szumski and second time to Dominik Konstantynowicz

Anna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Benisławski

Emilia Kublicka m. Vincent Smokowski

Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki m. Ida Oginska.
Some details:
Oktawia Soltan, born 1830, died on 15.8.1871 in Kazan, married to (1849) Władyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, b. 1824, d. 1900. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki married Ida Oginski. Karol Piottuch-Kublicki, b. ca 1850 m. Zofia Eysymont, b. ca 1840 - her parents: Oktawiusz and Helena Soltan. Stanislaw Soltan, born on 27.8.1756, d. 1836 in Mitawa, m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802, her father Stanislaw, mother Karolina Pociej from Zdzieciol. Second time married ca 1820 to Konstancja Toplicki-Tupalski Korsak.

Parents of above named Ida Oginski:

Michal Kleofas Oginski 1765-1833 and Maria Neri 1778-1851.
Grandparents of Ida Oginski: Andrzej Ignacy Oginski 1739-1787 and Paula Szembek.
Husband of Ida Oginski: Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki.
Son of Ida Oginski: Karol Piottuch-Kublicki born ca 1850.

Bohdan Oginski died in 1625.
His children:
1. Alexander d. 1667, Troki; 2. Jan d. 1640; royal courtier 1613;

3. Samuel Leo d. 1657, Trakai 1620

(his son Simon Charles d. ca 1699, chamberlain of Vitebsk in 1654; grandson, Michael Marcian 1672 - 1750, Vitebsk in 1703, Vitebsk in 1730, Borysow; great-grandson, Tadeusz Francis 1711 - 1783, Trakai 1744, Trakai 1770, Oshmiana, m. in Korelicze (? Koreliszcze) in 1737 to Isabella Radziwill b. 1711 and great-great-grandson,
Andrzej Oginski / Andrew 1739 - 1787,
Secretary of Lithuania in 1771, Trakai 1778, Trakai 1783, m. 1763 to Paula Szembek-Łubieński-Potocki d. 1797);

4. Dimitri d. 1610; royal courtier, 5. Anna m. Wilhelm Stetkiewicz, Chamberlain of Braslav; 6. Barbara m. Szemet, chamberlain of Vilnius; 7. Dorothy Pieczyhojski,

8. Apolonia Oginski (b. before 1599 and died ca 1650/1670?, m. George Szemet, of Samogitia,
m. second time after 1610 to Michal / Michael Despot Zenowicz b. ca before 1597).

Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell.
Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, from the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev (his sister, Anna von Wrangell, was seventeen years younger than he), came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot-Zienowicz; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty, a village in the Mikolajewska area, a district of Polock, goverment of Witebsk / Vicebsk; here lived Soltan, 1853-1905, engineer from Lodz, the Congress Poland; this estate located north-east of Polock / Polatsk, close to present border of Belarus and Russia; Savino 3.6 km north east; and Porzecze.

Stanislaw Juriewicz, as the oldest brother, had estates in Belorussia, and after the death of his parents, divided these properties among his brothers. His brother, Michal Juriewicz, received Kraszuty. His brother Jan received two estates, Franopol and Porzecze. Franciszek, another brother, lived in St. Petersburg. Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother, (? nee) Despot - Zenowicz / Despoth / Deszpot - Zienowicz. Originally, this estate had belonged to the Princes Oginski:
Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell.
The title to the estate Porzecze was left in the name of Stanislaw Juriewicz.

The Wrangel family / Wrangell / Vrangel / Wrangel Gubental:

1. Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother. Originally, this estate had belonged to the Princes Oginski: Polonia Oginska /
Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell. The title to the estate Porzecze was left in the name of Stanislaw Juriewicz.

2. Alexander Pushkin back in 1824 from Odessa to Mikhailovsky, was in Kolpino, close to present city Pustoshka. In those years it was owned by
Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot-Zenovich, a member of the Masonic Lodge in St. Petersburg.

Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1830, son of Jan Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1800 (grandson of Anna Despot-Zenowicz nee Niemirowicz-Szczytt); brother of above named Jan: Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz (c. 1802 - d. ?), too. Father of above Jan: Michał Despot-Zenowicz. Born ca 1770? Grandfather Antoni Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1730. Copyright by Julian Krzysztof Jacoby in 2014. Wife of above Ignacy b. ca 1830 was Justyna Despot-Zenowicz nee Brzostowska b. ca 1830 from Wincenty Brzostowski Marshal of the Lucyn / Ludsen county, Livland, now Latvia, b. ca 1790. Wincenty was grandson of Augusta Ogińska 1724-1791, and great-grandson of Józef Tadeusz Ogiński 1693-1736. Acc. to Marian TOPOROWSKI, mentioned

Ignacy Despot ZENOWICZ b. ca 1830 was a translator of Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin.

Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz (Jan Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1800, and was above named), was born in 1833 or 1835.
In 1853 he entered the Moscow University, after which went to continue his education in France. After returning home, he settled in the Caucasus. In 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor; 1869 Member of the Baku District Court; 1878, Stanislav Ivanovich Despot Zenowicz, appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich; 1881 the Baku City Council, where he worked on the post of the mayor 14 years - 1879 - 1894 was Baku Mayor State Councillor; meeting of the Caspian-Black Sea Oil Industry and Trade Society approved Zenovich, to the post of the director of the board of the society in Baku; 1894 living in Batumi as head of the city of Batumi. Next in his own home in Baku, died in 1900.

We remember about others in Baku:

1. General Konstantynowicz killed in 1920 in Baku;

2. On the Apsheron Peninsula near Baku, founded the oil company 'Benckendorf';

3. Emil Ramseyer Iv., born 1863 and died 1925; from Swiss, Bern, top member of the 'Deka' that is Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co.; top member of "Volta" and Oil N. Hartmann.
4. 1876 Nobel Robert and Alfred and with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl:
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku.

5. Krylov visited Drzewiecki in Paris, last time met with him 1925 to 1927, when Krylov was abroad for 'Neftesindikat' and 'Soviet oil'.

6. Lev Landau son of David, born 1908 in Baku; his father was an engineer who worked in the Baku oil industry;

7. Stanislaw Nieciejewski b. 1872, Hrynica; he studied geology around 1892, ca 1895 engineer geologist, settled in Baku and here he worked at the oil fields before 1914; had Georgian wife before 1900.

8. Pawel son of Nestor Trubecki had three brothers: Herasim Trubecki, a scientist; second - an oil magnate and a chemist in Baku whose name is not known; third - a captain of the icebreaker 'Yermak'.

We back again to Despot-Zenowicz family. The Mniuta estate close to Plissa in the Dzisna county, Dryssa.
To the Brzostowski family; 1861 and 1865: Wielec Duży, Sawionki, Suchlino, Lewkowo. Count Brzostowski Edward Romuald Ignacy b. 1832, son of Wincenty Brzostowski; Wife Rachela b. 1822,
daughter of Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz.
Her son Marian Wincenty Piotr Izydor b. 1861, daughter Gabriela Maria Johanna b. 1863, Maria Jadwiga Amelia b. 1867.

Second wife Marianna Teresa Żyżniewska b. 1864.
The Mniuta farm (Plisa or Plissa / Плиса / Плисса, 18 km north-east of Glubokoje (Mniuta north-east, too); south-west of Polock. 20 km north-west of Kublicz / Kublichi / Kublicze of the Piottuch-Kublicki family:
the Konstantynowicz relatives.
Плиса / Плисса, near to Глубокое - Glubokoje, ca 80 km south of Dryssa; 70 km north-west of Lepel. Now in the Витебская oblast', close to Мнюто / Mniuta, ca 6 / 7 km south of Mniuta)
and Szepielowa village to Edward Brzostowski, also Kotołowszczyzna in the Troki county, Gornowo in the Borysow county, the Mińsk government, Isnauda, Słobodiniec and Pierebrod in the Witebsk government.
Jan Światopełk-Mirski b. ca 1770, married to Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz. He died after 1788. Her father Antoni Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1730, mother: Eleonora Magdalena Skarbek-Ważyńska b. ca 1730.

In the second half of the XIX century, owner of the Kolpino estate was Stanislaw Wrangel / Stanislav Vrangell (1844-1913),
son of the famous physician Karol Filip Wrangel Gubental / Carl Philipp von Wrangel Gyubentalya (1786-1858). Carl Wrangel was married twice. From his first wife Constance, he had two sons. After the death of Constance in 1832, he married Anna Yurevich / Jurewicz. In 1844 they had a son Stanislav Vrangel, the future judge and the owner of the estate in Kolpino.

3. Anna Jurevich had three estates in Vitebsk - Kolpino, Reblino and Zabel. Kolpino belonged to her mother, nee Despot-Zenovich. Originally, the estate was owned by the Duchess of Polonia Oginska. The first owners of the estate were the descendants of Rurik, the princes Oginski / Ahinskis.

Princess Polonia Oginskaja married Jozef Despot Zenowicz or Joseph Deshpo-Zenovich, and their daughter married Jozef Jurewicz / Joseph Jurevicha (Jurewicz - Polish princes). Stanislaw Jurewicz / Stanislav Yurevich, with whom the poet Pushkin met in Mogilev, was next of kin with Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot Zenovich - owner of the estate. Apolonia Oginska has twice married to Jerzy Szemet and Michal Despot Zienowicz or Jozef Despot Zenowicz.

4. Wrangel, more precisely, the two branches of this kind. The first branch - the family Gyubental von Wrangel, the second - the family Wrangel, who lived in Pskov. Stanislaw Wrangel son of Karl Wrangel / Stanislav Karlovic Frangel von Gyubental, Lutheran, who owns an estate in Kolpino, Soinskoy parish.

5. We know about: Carl Philipp Wrangell Gyubental / Wrangel Gyubentalya 1786-1858 from Kolpino.

6. Vrangel von Gubental Karl, in Kolpino, Wicebsk government, the Siebiez county.

7. Andrej Vrangel von Gubental, in Luga, the Petersburg government, Luga county.

8. Leon Vrangel von Gubental, in Luga, the Luga county.

9. Leon son of Vladimir Vrangel von Gubental 1857 - d. ?, in St Petersburg, wife Zinaida Aleksandrovna nee Chrapovicka /
Chrapowicki.

10. Wrangell von Gyubental Vera Platonovna, nee Rokossovskaya / Wiera Rokossowska
daughter of Platon Rokossowski, of the Nikolaev parish, Stavropol county, the Samara government.

Jozef Rokossovsky, the great-grandfather of Marshal Konstanty Rokossowski; Jozef Rokossovsky born ca 1790, in 1811 was elected lieutenant of cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Jozef Rokossovsky was still a gentleman, but his son Jan Wincenty Rokossowski, born ca 1820, lost nobility in the 1840s, because they lived on the territory of the Kingdom of Poland. Jozef Xaver Rokossowski, son of mentioned Jan Wincenty and Konstancja Holewicka / Constance Holevitski. Holevitskaya Constance, was related to the famous Warsaw Opera singer, Helena Holevitskoy. The father of Constantine / Konstanty Rokossowski himself not much is known. Was born in 1853, lived in the Congress Poland. Worked on the railroad; Xavier Jozef married in the late 1880s or early 1890s, to the teacher Antonina (Atonide) Ovsyannikova, from the Pinsk region in the Minsk province. She was Russian and Orthodox. Jan Wincenty quarreled with his son Xavier Jozef, because he ran away from home to take part in the January Uprising in 1863, in the Lublin region.

Konstantin Rokossovsky was born in Great Luki / Wielkie Luki in 1896. But Lieutenant-General Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky was a baron of the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1855. In the XX century greatest was Konstantin Rokossovsky (1896-1968).

Baron Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky / Rokossowski b. 1787 / 1800, Riga - died 1869, Nice, France; statesman, General of Infantry. Descended from Polish nobility of the Gorodok district of Vitebsk province; Gorodok, ca 38 km north-west of Vicebsk;
father - Ivan Nikititch Rokasovsky (1762-1826), Colonel, a retired brigadier; died no earlier than 1826. Landowner of the Gorodok County in the Vicebsk province.
Wife Charlotte von Albedil.
Children:
ELIZABETH, Alexei 1798-1850, Senator since 1848, Lieutenant-General, and Platon / PLATO 1800-1869.
Charlotte, nee von Albedil (b. ca 1770, d. after 1800) maybe from Riga or Fellin. Platon Rokossowski during the Crimean War Rokossowski or Rokasovsky from March 7 to 28 October 1854 commanded the troops for the protection of the Baltic Sea coast.
He known German, French, English, and also good, Polish. Owner of a house near Helsingfors.
Baron Platon Rokasovsky was married in 1836 or 1842, to the daughter of Major-General Vasily Kouzminski - Alexandra Kuzminska (1814 - d. 1896 in Peterhof). ROKASOVSKY PLATO IVANOVICH 1800-1869, General of Infantry, Member of the State Council. Children:
Alex 1836, ELIZABETH 1837, her husband Marcus, OLGA 1841 husband Merlin, PLATO 1843-1876, ALEXANDER 1847, ALEXANDRA 1850, VLADIMIR 1851 - Tambov Governor 1889-1896, later a member of the Council of Minister of the Interior, Chamberlain (1891); Alex 1853,
ВЕРА / Viera Rokossowski born 1854, husband ВРАНГЕЛЬ фон ГЮБЕНТАЛЬ / Wrangell von Gubental.
Rokasovsky Alexey, war 1812, 1823 - Colonel, in 1825 - in reserve.
In 1915 captain of Artillery Brigade, Baron Alexei Rokossovski taken a paper from Baroness Anna Pavlovna ROKOSSOWSKI b. 1887, in Helsingfors: the widow lived in Helsingfors, her husband - brother of Alexei - died at war. Above A. A. Rokossovsky was born 1886. He came from the hereditary nobility of Petrograd province and was the Orthodox faith. Alexei graduated from the Corps of Pages, which indicates that his parents were wealthy. In 1914 Baron Rokossovsky was promoted to captain.

The barons ROKOSSOWSKI owned estate in the Great Luki / Wielkie Luki region, likely place of birth of the Soviet Marshal Rokossovsky. This branch of the family came from the Vitebsk province, where they were in the XVII century. Their ancestor, Ivan Nikitich Rokossovsky, in 1778 confirm their nobility, come from Poland and many of its representatives have held high public office. The fact that
60 km from Great Luki / Wielkie Luki before the revolution was the estate of Baron Rokossovski, distant relative of the Marshal Konstanty Rokossowski grandfather (the Governor-General of Finland).

The von Albedil / Albedyll family:
Georg von Albedyll, Fellin (Livland) after 1745. Augusta Juliana von Albedyll, von Nieroth, born ca 1685, d. 1742, Fellin (Livland). Charlotte von Albedyll, 1777, parents Johann Karl von Albedyll and Ursula Margaretha von Kaulbars; her child Ottilia Charlotta von Glasenapp, her brother Georg Johann von Albedyll, from Kunda. Karl Ernst von Albedyll (1762 - 1836) b. in Lohdenhof (Lode), Latvia, d. 1836 in Liebenow. His father Erich (Ernst) Reinhold von Albedyll (1732 - 1804).

11. Wrangell von Gyubental Vladimir Leonidovich, 1918 - 1939 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1909, Cornet Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France.

12. Wrangell von Gyubental Matthew Leonidovich, 1888 - 1965 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1908, Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France, the owner of the machine shop and factory, a member of the Main Board of the Union of Pages.
Wife Antonina Mihailovna Rajewski / Raevskaya - she died 1970 in France, Artist.

13. WRANGEL Alexander son of Vladimir Vrangel or his father Baron Wrangel Alexander K., born in 1891 in St. Petersburg, Baron, 1909 - Colonel of cavalry Cossack Brigade, received incomplete higher education, in 1920 lived in Novgorod, worked as a cashier, 1931 - arrested and imprisoned, released; worked as an accountant at the farm; on March 22, 1938 he was arrested and executed.

14. WRANGEL Vladimir Konstantinovich. Born in 1865 in Estonia. 1927 arrested for an anti-Soviet agitation, November 4, 1929 sentenced to 1 year, and sent to a camp in Mordovia. In 1930 was in the village Chindyanovo, Dubno district, Mordovia; 1937 arrested on September 16, and was executed.

15. WRANGEL Charlotte P. nee Korf. She was born in 1850. Was educated at home. Married Michael I. G. von Wrangell, her sons George and Michael. Lived on the estate near the station Torosovo, after the revolution, lived with her family with son George; on February 21, 1918 her son George was killed. Torosovo was the Manor of Wrangel.

In 1870's in Torosovo / Торосово general-lieutenant Михаил Егорович Врангель / Michail Wrangell son of Georg Wrangell / Yegor Vrangel, built the manor; located in the Губаницки region, the Петергоф county, the Санкт-Петербург government. То́росово / Torosovo, west of Tiaglino and Vakkolovo; close to Kikerino, 37 km west of Gatczyna / Gatshina.

Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja: Kolpino ca 140 km north-east of Velikije Luki / Welikije Luki - different place, not close to Soinsk! The Soinsk parish, in Витебская губерния, Себежский уезд, Соинская волость, here was the Колпино estate!

About twenty miles from Zabelja was a station, Novosokolniki - railway station was 27 km west of Velikije Luki; Zabelja was sold - 16 km east of Пустошка; Reblio / Rebelsk, 6 km south of Zabelja; when Mieczyslaw, the oldest son of Stanislaw Juriewicz / Jurewicz, was dead, the owner of Berszada estate was Mieczyslaw's son, Fryderyk. A farm in Kolpino co-operated with Berszada.

Kolpino (Kopylok ?) was too far from any river or railroad, and the transportation was much too costly; Reblio was sold, too. But Kolpino
(probably Kopylok now - ? - near by Oziero Zavolotshie and by Vielikaja river; north of Charinskoje Oziero; 14 km north-east of Pustoshka, north-west of Zabelja / Zabelie. Kolpino, Soinsk parish, Витебская губерния, Себежский уезд, Соинская волость, Колпино and Пустошка on way from Siebiez to Velikije Luki)
was a very interesting place.

Soinsk Lake is 6 km west of Пустошка, but village Soino 7 km west of Pustoshka.

In Russian history Mikhailovskoye close to Oziero Kutshanie and Maleniec, near by Bugrovo, Voronich, Kirillovo; Trigorskoye, Petrovskoye, Pushkinskie Gory / Holy Hills, are well known as the memorial Pushkin's places. Савкина Горка / Савкино, 7 km north of Pushkinskije Gory; ca 33 km west of Novorzev;
west of Cholm, south-east of Pskov; 110 km north-west of Pustoshka!
Mikhailovskoye / Михайловское - to А. С. Пушкин / A. Pushkin mother; Pushkin was living here in 1817, 1819, 1824-1826, 1827, 1835-1836; 1742 taken by Abram Petrovich Hannibal / Абрам Петрович, 1781 Mikhailovskoye / Михайловское for Osip Abramovich / Осип Абрамович; 1806 for his wife Maria Alekseevna nee Pushkin, 1818 - Nadiezda Osipovna / Надежда Осиповна, mother of poet; 1836 - her children: Olga, Lev, Aleksandr - poet.

A.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod (1764-1776), Tver (1776 - 1781 as governor of Tver and Novgorod) and Pskov; son of Joachim Johann von Sievers; he was gifted with great possessions: several villages near Minsk in Belarus, in Estonia (Heimar, Rasik and Kampen), Livonia (Bauenhof, Neuhall, Zarnau and Ostrominsky), Ingria (Gadebusch, Lopatino, Selco and Muratovo), the province of Polotsk (Starostei, Kasian and Dobra Rudnia), in Finland (Sackala).

B.

At the same time, Admiral Pyotr Fyodorovich Anjou / Пётр Фёдорович Анжу / Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou / Peter Fedorovich Anjou born 1796 / 1797 - the great friend of Wrangell - an Arctic explorer, born in Vyshny Volochyok. Vyshny Volochyok / Вышний Волочёк, located close to Borkovo, ca 80 km north of Torzok; 85 km north-east of Kuvshinovo; 140 km north-west of Tver. 1773 to 1782, Count Sivers Jakov / Яков Ефимович Сиверс acted here, when was Tver and Pskov governor.

C.

Baron Ferdinand Friedrich Georg Ludwig von Wrangel / Фердина́нд Петро́вич Вра́нгель / Ferdinand Petrovich Vrangel also was born 1796 / 1797 in Pskov, died in Dorpat in Estonia; was a Baltic German explorer of Alaska.

16. WRANGEL Georgy. He was born in 1876. Baron (his
great-grandfather, Abram Petrovich Hannibal and his father, Michael G. Wrangel,
mother Charlotte P. nee Korf). Brother Michael Vrangel / Mikhail Wrangel. He graduated from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum. From 1901 - District Commander of the 2nd section of the Peterhof County, 1907 - District Commander of the 4th section; married to Marianne Lvovna Wrangell nee
Golicyn / Galitzine.
After the revolution, remained with his family to live on the farm, on February 21, 1918 shot at the front of his mother, wife and four young children. A day later, the body was buried in the village near Raskulitsy Church.

Many noble families with Pushkin's roots now lives abroad. In Switzerland, in Morocco, Paris, in London, Brussels. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia Alexandrovna, married with secondary marriage to Prince of Nassau - intermarried with the royal family, as the elder brother of her husband, Duke Adolf of Nassau, was married to Grand Duchess Elizaveta - granddaughter of Nicholas the 1st. Also by marriage for one grandson of Nicholas, Grand Duke Mikhail Mikhailovich. Not only that. Pushkin intermarried with the Romanov dynasty, reigned in Russia until 1917, by marriage a grand-daughter of Pushkin, the Countess Sofya Merenberg - de Torbay. Pushkin's grandson, the son of his daughter Natalia and the Prince of Nassau, Count George married Highness Princess Olga Alexandrovna Yuryevskaya - young princess was illegitimate daughter of the king and Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna Dolgorukoj. Alexander II was married to Catherine Mikhailovna after the death of the Empress, and granted her the title of Serene Highness Princess Yuryevskaya. One of the many grandchildren of Pushkin, and their was twelve, Maria, the daughter of his eldest son, Alexander, married a nephew of Gogol, Nikolai - a son of Gogol's sister, Elizabeth.

Pushkin was the next of kin with a chief of staff of the gendarmerie, General Dubbelt, who was fighting against an anti-government lyrics. It was so. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia, a beauty woman after her mother, married the son of General Dubbelt, adjutant Michael L. von Dubbelt. And she met with him in the apartment of a house Volkonskaya in which she lived as a child, where her father died, mortally wounded in a duel in January 1837, and of the wedding in 1853, the family took Dubbelt / Dubelt. The eldest daughter of Pushkin, Maria, married Hartung, who lived 87 years, died in 1919 and was buried in Moscow - children did not have. The youngest son Grigory Pushkin died in 1905.
Alexander Pushkin, the eldest son of the poet, was born in 1833 and died in July 1914. All his life, he served in the army. During the war for the liberation of the Balkans in 1877-1878, he commanded the Narva Hussars, for his personal bravery was awarded a gold sword of St. George. He died in the rank of lieutenant-general at the age of 81, only he had five sons, but direct descendants in the male line only left his son Grigory Alexandrovich (1868-1940). They formed the main branch of the family tree of Pushkin. Daughters of Alexander Alexandrovich, and there were eight, but only five of them were married, formed branchs of the descendants in the female line: Vorontsov-Veliaminoff, von der Mezentsov Rozenmayer. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia Alexandrovna 1836-1913 - her first marriage to Mikhail Dubelt, gambler, he squandered his fortune. Five years later, Natalia secondary married to Nicholas Prince William of Nassau. But because she was not of royal blood - this was a morganatic marriage. She did not trust the title of Princess of the Duchy of Nassau, and was granted the title of Countess Merenberg. The Countess Merenberg, daughter of Pushkin, from his second marriage, marriage with the Prince of Nassau, had two daughters and a son. They formed a branch Merenberg, Grevenits, English lords Mountbatten and Loris-Melikov. Descendants of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin living in Georgia. In Irkutsk live Vorontsov, in Rostov-on-Don, Nikolaev, and Tarlanovy in Petrozavodsk, Lukashi and Chalikov in Klin, in Tbilisi Svanidze, according to A. Lopyrev of 1983 - 1998, N. Zenkovich and Volkogonov.

Nataliya Nikolaevna Pushkina-Lanskaya / Наталья Николаевна Пушкина-Ланская, b. 1812 nee Nataliya Nikolaevna Goncharova / Гончарова, was the wife of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin from 1831 until his death in 1837. Natalya Pushkina gave birth to four children: Maria b. 1832, Alexander b. 1833, Grigory b. 1835, and Natalya b. 1836 become Countess of Merenberg. Nikolaus Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau married in 1868 Natalya Alexandrovna Pushkina the daughter of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin and a descendant of Abram Petrovich Gannibal and Petro Doroshenko (she was divorced from Russian General Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt); they had three children:
1. Countess Sophie von Merenberg de Torby married in 1891, Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861; 2. Countess Alexandrine von Merenberg, 3. Count Georg Nikolaus von Merenberg married firstly Princess Olga Alexandrovna Yurievskaya daughter of Alexander II of Russia.
Above Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; "he was a year old when, in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus. Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years. ... He was educated at home by private tutors. ... During the years in the Caucasus, the Grand Duke excelled at horsemanship and started his military career. As a young man, he served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. ... In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg...", acc. to Wikipedia.
His father Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.
Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich (Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832 the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I; Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya / Ekaterina Troubetzky / Troubetzkoy (nee Mussina-Pushkina; her father Pietr Klavdijevich Mussin-Puschkin b. 1768) was born 1816 and died c. 1897; her partner
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia
and with him was daughter Sofia Troubetzkoy b. 1838 in Moscow, Russia and died July 27, 1898 in Madrid
) of Russia:
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters), Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.
Above countess Olga / Ольга Осиповна Калиновская born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie; Bogdan Ogiński died on 25. 03. 1909. Sister of Olga: Jozefina Kalinowska born 1816, was also married to duke Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński who was born 1808. And Северина Иосифовна Калиновская / Seweryna Kalinowski b. 1814 d. 1852 was married to Mikolaj Plautyn / Плаутин b. 1794 or 1796 d. 24 December 1866, son of Fiodor Sergiejewicz Plautyn / Plautin died 1807? Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin was an outstanding military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, General of Cavalry 1856, Adjutant General 1849, a member of the State Council in 1862. Countess Maria Kalinowska was born after 1805 - ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski. The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Czeliszczew; father Josif / Jozef / Osip Kalinowski b. after 1780 ? and died 1825. Grandfather Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 and grandmother Elzbieta Bielska from Olbrachcice b. ca 1760. Emilia Potocka married first to Kalinowski and second time to Czeliszczew, was born 1790 and her parents: Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 and mother Marianna Lubomirska (Zubow, Potocki, Uwarow) born 1773 or Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766.

17. WRANGEL nee Galitzine, Marianne L.; was born in 1870. Princess (father, Prince Golitsyn Lion / Lew Golicyn). Married Baron Wrangel Georgy Mikhailovich, in the family was sons, Boris, Leo, George and daughter Nina. Lived with the children in the estate in Torosovo. Fled with the children to Petrograd in 1918, a few months later buried there eldest son George. In 1919 managed to go abroad, leaving the children in Russia. In 1920 - was able to take the children from Soviet Russia to Belgium. Worked in a textile factory. In 1943 died.

18. Boris G. WRANGEL. Born in 1917 in the village Torosovo / Tarasava, the Volosovsky County. Baron (father, Baron Wrangel Georgy; Wrangell mother Marianne L.); lived with his parents in the estate in Torosovo. With her mother went to Petrograd, in 1930 went to Belgium where he was reunited with his mother, was in a special Jesuit college for Russian refugee children. In 1940 joined the Brussels group of the People's Labour Union. Missionary priest, in 1942-43 made his way to German-occupied territory, began to work in the Pskov Orthodox Mission; with the retreating German troops reached Lubawa / Lyubava, worked as a representative of the International Red Cross. 1945 - arrested in Dvinsk, was sentenced to 20 years in labor camp and sent to Siblag, later sent to the Irkutsk region.
In 1950 released, lived in Pskov, served St. Nicholas church;
in the early 1990s he has returned to political activity, entered the St. Petersburg group of People's Labour Union. In 1995 died, buried in Pskov.

19. WRANGEL Yuri. Was born in 1911. Baron (father, Baron Wrangel Georgy; Wrangell mother Marianne L.); 1918 in Petrograd.

20. Mikhail WRANGEL. He was born in 1870. Baron (great-grandfather, Abram Petrovich Hannibal and his father, Michael G. Baron Wrangell, Wrangell mother - Charlotte P. nee Korf). Brother Georgy Mikhailovich Wrangel; uncle of Boris, Leo and Yuri GEORGIEVICH Wrangell. He graduated from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum. After the revolution was in his estate Terpilice / Terpilitsy. In April 1918 was shot.

Ibrahim / Abram Petrovich Hannibal / Hanibal (1696 - 1781), or Ибрагим Петрович Ганнибал from Kamerun. Abram / Ibrahim was the son of a ruler in Africa: possibly Chad, possibly Abyssinia. A military engineer. His wife Christina Regina Siöberg. Christina Regina Sioberg married ca. 1735 to Pushkin's ancestor Hannibal. The son of Christina and Hannibal was Osip who was an ancestor of Pushkin. Sons of Abram: Ivan Abramovich Gannibal (1735 - 1801), Osip Abramovich / Abramowitch Hanibal (1744 - 1806), Петр Абрамович Ганнибал (1742 - 1826, his son Veniamin Hannibal 1780 - 1839), Исаак Абрамович Ганнибал (1747 - 1808; his sons: Яков Исаакович Ганнибал, Павел Исаакович Ганнибал 1776 - 1841, Александр Исаакович Ганнибал, Семён Исаакович Ганнибал 1791 - 1853, Петр Исаакович Ганнибал). "Gannibal's third son (of 11) by his second marriage,
Osip Abramovich married Marya Alexeevna Pushkin, and their daughter was Pushkin's mother Nadezhda. Pushkin's father Sergei Lvovich Pushkin
came from a family of nobles whose fortunes had declined under Peter the Great. Sergei Lvovich inherited the family estates, and had the reputation of being idle ... He was also a
fluent French speaker and had a large library of French literature and philosophy,
both of which offered Pushkin a solid grounding for his later education. Pushkin's mother inherited the family estates from her father Osip..." - guest-curated for the British Library by Mike Phillips; copyright by http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery. The granddaughter of the Hannibal, known as Peter the Great's Moor and from whom the poet Pushkin was descended, was of the Greek Church.

Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel / Пётр Николаевич Врангель / Peter von Wrangel b. 1878, commanding general of the anti-bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia; After the October Revolution, Wrangel went to the Crimea and in August 1918, joined the Caucasus Army. Wrangel was born in
Mukuliai near Zarasai (Ново-Александровске / Зарасай) - ca 12 km south of the Latvia border, now Lithuania,
then part of Imperial Russia; lived in Ростов-на-Дону, with father Николай Егорович Врангель or Николай Георгиевич Врангель / Nikolai Wrangel son of Georgij Wrangel / Yegor Wrangel.
Branch of Ibrahim / Abram Petrovich Hannibal / Hanibal.

21. WRANGEL Vladimir Rakhmanov. He was born in 1864. Baron. In 1881 graduated from the Corps of Pages, 1887 Lieutenant, in 1892 the staff-captain, commander of 3rd Div. and in 1898 Captain; 1900-1901 in China. 1904 Colonel. 1910 commander of the 1st Cavalry Regiment; in 1917 Major General, the Cadet Corps. In the autumn of 1919 arrested in Saratov. September 29, 1919 the Saratov provincial Cheka sentenced and shot in Saratov.

22. WRANGEL nee Venison, Sofia Nikolaevna. Born in 1880 in St. Petersburg (father, Nikolai Olenin, State Councillor,
Marshal of the Nobility in Tver,
and his mother Vera Apollonovna Uvarov). Received education at home. Married Baron Vladimir Platonovich Wrangel, in the family son Vladimir. 1929 arrested in Leningrad. Settled in Vladimir.

23. WRANGEL Vladimir Vladimirovich. He was born in 1880. Baron (father, Baron Wrangel Vladimir Rakhmanov, Maj.-Gen.). Nephew of Baron Nicholas Platonovich Wrangel. 1930 was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in concentration camps and in 1931 sent to the Solovki prison camp. 1936 in exile in Novosibirsk.

24. WRANGEL Nikolai Rakhmanov. Born in 1860 in St. Petersburg. Baron. Baron Vladimir Platonovich brother and uncle of Vladimir Wrangel. He graduated from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum. Before the revolution, he served as a diplomat in the Foreign Ministry, and later was Councillor of State, in 1917 in retirement. Married to Louise Marselevne Wrangell. 1918 served in the industrial organizations, and then the head waiter in the restaurant Astoria; mid-1920s was arrested and exiled to Nizhny Novgorod. 1928 arrested and 1936 in exile in Novosibirsk.

25. Family WRANGEL von GYUBENTAL. WRANGEL GYUBENTAL Vladimir (Waldemar Constantine Wrangell Gubental) S.; born in 1875 in the estate Kolpino, Pustoshka County, baron (father, Baron von Wrangell Gyubental Stanislav Karlovic /
Stanislaw Wrangel Gubental son of Karl Wrangel Gubental, father in 1913 died, and his mother
Emilia Jurewicz
/ von Wrangell Gyubental Emilia, nee Jurevich). Graduated.
Married to Maria Nikolaevna von Wrangell Gyubental in the family was daughter Olga. In 1930 a resident of Moscow, was out of work. In 1937 was arrested and sentenced to shot at Butovo.

26. WRANGEL GYUBENTAL Olga. Born in 1889 in Chisinau. Baroness (father, Baron von Wrangell Gyubental Vladimir S.; mother von Wrangell Gyubental Maria N.). In 1930 was in Dagestan. In early 1938 arrested to 10 years in labor camp and sent to the camp.



Franciszka Teofila Radziwill died 1802 m. Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756 d. 1836,
his father Станіслав Солтан Stanislaw Soltan born 1698 d. 1758.

Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, d. Mitawa 1836, General, the President of the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1812. He married two times: 

Franciszka Teofila / Francis Theophilus Radziwill died 1802, her father Stanislaw Radziwill and mother Pociej Carolina, she brought to the family Soltan an estate Zdzięcioł / Zdzieciol. Second time to: 

Konstancja Toplicka - Tupalska voto Korsak in 1820 that is Constance Tupalska Toplicka - Korsak, her father Anthony. Daughters among others: Soltan Carolina b. about 1780 + Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki married ca 1800; Anna Soltan, b. ca 1780 + Anthony Wankowicz b. ca 1760 - children Valerie Wankowicz, about 1800 + Constantine Tyzenhauz, Wanda Wankowicz, about 1800 + Benedict Tyszkiewicz, Clementine Wankowicz m. Mostowski.
And the next person:
Franz-Felix Kublitsky Piottukh / Franz Feliksovich Kublitsky-Piottukh / Franciszek Piottuch-Kublicki, Russian Lieutenant General; 1860 - 1920, a relative of the poet Alexander Alexandrovich Blok/ Bloc b. in St. Petersburg; Blok's mother - the daughter of the rector of St. Petersburg University, shortly after the birth of Alexander, left her husband, lawyer in Warsaw and in 1889 married a second time to the officer of the Guards F. F. Kublitski Piottuch, Catholic, in service entered September 1, 1876. In 1918-1920 he lived with his wife in St. Petersburg.
Acc. to 'genealogia.okiem.pl/soltan':
Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, died in 1836 Mitawa, general, wifes: Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802 from Stanislaw Radziwill and Karolina Pociej, and second wife since 1820 was Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska Korsak from Antoni.
His children below: Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780 married Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki.
Stanislaw Soltan, 1822 - died 1897 in Anninsk, from Brzostowica Murowana in the Hrodna goverment, with wifes: Maria Dunin-Jundzill b. 1827 and Albertyna Dunin-Jundzill, b. 1837
(brothers and sisters of above Stanislaw Soltan: Helena Soltan b. 1790 m. to Franciszek Soltan b. 1780,
Adam Leon Ludwik So³tan, born 1792 in Warsaw,
and Anna Soltan, b. ca 1788 and m. to Antoni Wankowicz b. 1758).
Children of Stanislaw Soltan b. 1822: Bogdan Wiktor Soltan 1861 - 1912 married to Maria Franciszka Soltan b. 1863 (his brothers and sisters: Emilia Soltan Korsak, b. 1847 d. 1908, Stanislaw Soltan, 1848 - 1850, Helena Soltan 1849 - 1852, Adam Soltan 1851 - 1902 Brzostownica Murowana, Wiktor W³adyslaw Rudolf Pereswit-Soltan, 1853 - d. 1905 Warsaw, owner of Kraszuty)
and his daughter - Maria Emilia Soltan b. 1889 Aninsk and died 1963 m. Zdzis³aw Henryk Grocholski - her daughter Maria Grocholska b. 1911 Pietniczany and died in 1940 Otrebusy.



The noble Konstantinovich family history. Affinities of the Konstantynowicz family at the beginning of the 19th century in Belarus:

Józef Szumski b. ca 1800, m. ca 1820 to Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810

(2nd married to Konstantynowicz Dominik)

from Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780 and from mother Karolina Sołtan

(daughter of Stanisław Sołtan 1756-1836 and Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751 daughter of Stanisław Radziwiłł 1722 - 1787, son of Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwiłł 1688 - 1746).

Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751 had family:

Helena Soltan b. 1810; Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan (emigree from Vilnius to the Poznan duchy - Prussia) + Idalia Pociej; Anna Soltan b. ca 1788 +

Antoni Wańkowicz

(Antoni Wańkowicz 1758 - 1812, son of Tadeusz Wańkowicz b. ca 1720; wife Anna Sołtan b. ca 1788 acc. to me; her father Stanisław Sołtan b. 1756, and her mother Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł b. ca 1751. Daughters of above Antoni Wankowicz were: Wanda b. ca 1806 + Benedykt Emanuel Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski, Klementyna b. ca 1810 + Edward Antenogen Józef Mostowski, and Waleria Wańkowicz b. ca 1805 - d. 1843 married to Konstanty Tyzenhauz 1786 - died in 1853 in Pastavy / Postawy, Vitebsk province, 10 km of the Lithuania border; ca 80 km south-east of Zarasai, south-west of Dryssa. Antoni Wankowicz, Michal duke Puzyna, Ignacy Moniuszko, Jan Chodzko and Xawery Lipski signed Act of Temporary Administration of the Minsk Province on 19 July 1812 under general Oppeln Bronikowski);

Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1790.

Stanislaw Radziwill - above named - was son of Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwill. He was brother of Albrecht, Udalryk Krzysztof and Jerzy Radziwill + Salomea Anna nee Sapieha; he was father of Anna Olimpia Mostowski b. ca 1762, and Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751.

Prince Tadeusz Franciszek Andrzej Oginski / Tadas Pranciškus Andrius Oginskis / Тадэвуш Францішак Андрэй Агінскі, was Grand Clerk of Lithuania since 1737, had two wives: Izabella Radziwiłł

(Izabela Kotryna Ogińska b. 1711 d. 1761, her father Michal Antoni Radziwill 1687 - 1721
[his brother Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwiłł 1688 - 1746, with his son Stanisław Radziwiłł b. 1722];
she had sons:
Andrzej Ignacy Ogiński and
Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński)

and Jadwiga Załuska.

Above Andrzej Ignacy Ogiński: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield

(David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry),

but Oginski believed Kaunitz; his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michał Kleofas Ogiński, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.

Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791. They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.

In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: Ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius. 1801, Michał Kleofas Ogiński (1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg; moved abroad in 1815?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833) was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw. Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michał Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michał Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810. Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Amelia Załuska nee Ogińska, b. 1803, daughter of Michał Kleofas Ogiński

(Michał Kleofas Ogiński, b. 1765 in Guzów; Guzow is located 26 km west of Otrębusy / Otrebusy of the Oginski family)

and Maria Neri - Ogińska; Amelia was wife of Karol Teofil Załuski count, and they had: Karol Bernard, Stanislaw, Iwo Zaluski, Ida Seilern, Irenensz Zaluski, Michał Karol, Michal, Witold, and Emma Honorata Ida Ostaszewska; Amelia was the sister of Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Emma Wysocka, and half sister of Tadeusz Antoni Ogiński, and Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński.

The records at the National Archives History Centre in Paris: 1. CHODZKO Alexander, b. 1806/08/30 in Zaborze / Zahorze, a professor at the College de France; 2. CHODZKO Jacques Leonard, Victor b. 1800/10/26 in Hruzdowo-Oboreck, a librarian profession.

Chodzko, L. J. B. / Léonard Jakób Borejko / CHODZKO Jacques, Leonard, Victor / Leonard Borejko Chodzko was born 1800/10/26 in

Hruzdowo-Oborek / Hruzdowo / Oboreck / Oborek / Hruzdów at Nowogródek voivodeship, Wołożyn county, Полочаны / Połoczany - 14 km south-west of Molodeczno, and 20 km north-east of Wolozyn - area, places among others things: Gruzdovo / Hruzdówka village, Hruzdowo village, Oborek farm, Oborek cottage, Oborek village: on way from Poloczany to Chozewo, north-east of Litwa village and Poloczany, north of Iwieniec and Terlecki-Oziemblowski-Dzierzynski core, south-east of Zalesie of Oginski - Neri;

died in 1871; he was a Polish historian, geographer, cartographer, publisher, archivist, and activist of the Great Emigration. At the University of Vilnius he was a member of the Philomaths in 1816 with Adam Mickiewicz, Tomasz Zan (in Molodeczno) and Józef Jezowski. 1819 was the personal secretary of Michal Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski, with whom he left Russia in 1822; 1822 - 1826 Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England; he settled in Paris in 1826. Friend to Col. Joseph Zaliwski, Joachim Lelewel, Marie Joseph de La Fayette and Victor Hugo. Member of the Society of Lithuania and Russian Territories; a member of the Polish National Committee; the Revenge of the People, in 1833; persecuted by the Russian Embassy in Paris; 1833 - 1834 in the United Kingdom; returned to Paris; he published Michael Cleophas Oginski's Memoirs in four volumes in French in the years 1826-1827; Histoire de les légions polonaises en Italie, Les Polonais en Italie, Histoire populaire de la Pologne in 1863; Biographie du géneral Kosciuszko.

His wife was Olimpia nee Maleszewska b. 1797, d. 1889, daughter of Piotr Pawel Jan Maleszewski b. 1767 (his daughters: Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille m. Alfred de Laqueuille b. ca 1780, Olimpia Chodźko, Adela Mortier; copyright by Leszek Mila), who was son of Maria Wiśniewska b. ca 1740 and Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski duke b. 1736 in Gdańsk, and grandson of Stanisław Poniatowski; acc. to Carlos Federico Cantarito Bunge Molina y Vedia: above mentioned Stanisław Poniatowski b. 1676 in Chojnik / Gromnik, son of Franciszek Poniatowski, father to Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski, Franciszek, Aleksander, Ludwika Maria Zamojska, Izabela Antonina Mokronowska - Branicka,

Stanisław II August Poniatowski King of Poland,

Andrzej Poniatowski, Michał Jerzy Ludwik.

Mentioned above Michal Kleofas Oginski / OGINSKI Michele Cleofa, b. 1765 and together with Chodzko Leonard, edited 'Memoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais, depuis 1788 ... de 1815' in 1826, Geneve 1827, Paris - Ponthieu 1827, digitizing sponsor Google from the University of Lausanne.

By 'Wikipedia' and 'it.inforapid.org' on Neri Michael Bondi:

maybe he was father to Maria Neri Oginski; his real name was Michael Neri, but in 1773 changed its name to Bondi Neri, not to be confused with a singer who was then active in the Tuscan capital; nothing is known of his youth and his musical training, but after Ferdinand Rutini, was the most prolific composer of Florence in the second half of the eighteenth century. His biggest success - drama Marriages, which was given at least twice in Florence and Bologna, Pisa, Lucca, Rome, Ravenna, Siena and Palermo. All his other works were performed only in theatres of his hometown: Intrepid, Old Town Square, Santa Maria and Borgo Ognissanti. Only one of his work at the Teatro della Pergola, the biggest of Florence. Between 1779 and 1790 he was also musical director and arranger of several small theatres in the city, among which was the Intrepid Theatre, with Gaetano Andreozzi, Giovanni Battista Borghi, Domenico Cimarosa, Giuseppe Moneta and Giovanni Valentini. In 1790, at the Teatro della Pergola, he directed the 'Hamlet' of Louis Caruso and in 1793 became the impresario at the Teatro Santa Maria. In this period he was also appointed the first harpsichordist to Pergola, a position he held until the fall of 1822. The Teatro Alfieri in Florence is located in Via Pietrapiana. Also called 'theatre of Via Santa Maria'. Giuseppe Moneta: nothing is known of his youth; 1779, his career proceeded regularly until the end of the century; over the next 20 years he composed several works, primarily melodramas; in 1791, he was maestro di cappella of a grand-duchy court of Tuscany and later director of the chapel of the court of Parma. Fiesole, is an Italian town in the province of Florence in Tuscany, about 6 kilometers from Florence. When Kleofas Oginski come to Italy in 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte is appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Directorate in Italy in March 1796, and starts the Italian campaign. French troops defeated the Austrians at Lodi, come to Milan, and proclamated the Republic Transpadana in place of the former Duchy. The Kingdom of Sardinia cedes to France, Savoy and the Nice area; the French troops invade the Papal States, and the British troops occupy the island of Elba. There is information that Maria Neri, singer and countess, met Oginski in Venice at the beginning of 1796, when this ex-insurgent of the Kosciuszko troops arrived to Italy as a refugee from the great Duchy of Lithuania. Only then, but also at the beginning of 1796, Maria Neri and Oginski along came to Florence, probably to the father of Maria Neri. It seems that the mother of Maria Neri lived in Venice. In Florence, the others refugees from Lithuania were already, as it describes the Iwo Zaluski. In 1795 / 1796, the Republic of Venice had Bergamo, Brescia, Venice, Padua, Verona, Belluno. In spring of 1796, Piedmont fell and the Austrians were beaten (Lodi). The army under Bonaparte crossed the frontiers of neutral Venice; by the end of 1796 the French troops were occupying the Venetian state up to the Adige. Vicenza, Cadore and Friuli were held by the Austrians. April 1797: France taken the Lombard part of the Venice State. Grand Duchy of Tuscany had Siena, Livorno, Florence, Talamone. The Medici family became extinct in 1737, and Tuscany was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa; Ferdinand III 1790–1801, was deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801 so that Tuscany could be given to the Bourbon Dukes of Parma; Tuscany / Etruria was annexed by Napoleonic France in 1807. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in 1792 during the French Revolution, became the first monarch to formally recognize the new French First Republic, however, the English and Russian monarchs persuaded him to join their side in the War of the First Coalition. 1795, he declared Tuscany's neutrality in the war. He stabilized his rule for several years to 1799 when he must to flee to Vienna when republicans established a government in Florence.

At the beginning Louis Franzevich Dyuflon and Apollon Konstantynowicz acted in the St. Petersburg branch of the 'Breguet' Company; A. Konstantynowicz / Apollon Konstantinovich / Constantinovich for the Breguet Moscow branch.
M. Duflon, electrical engineer in the measuring room of M. Sciami, director of the Maison Breguet.
L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap.
Edward Brown from London became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm; Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.
At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye.
Jean Dizerens or Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland; they were aristocrats who fled from Paris to Switzerland - Cully in Vaud, Lutry and Lousanne - during the Fr. Revolution, where they first settled in Lutry; they were originally Italian noble family with last name diSerens or Diserens. Also L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne.
The Schaub family (see: Tallinn Volta, Urban, and loan bank in St Petersburg with the Nobels, near by the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Stock Society in Petersburg, Zaporoze and Moscow) in the Vaud province in Switzerland in 19th cent.:
1. Concise north-west shore of Lac de Neuchatel and south-west of Neuchatel, ca 15 km north of Démoret, Vaud, Suisse (2. Démoret, Vaud, Suisse is located 12 km north of Mouden); 3. Neuchatel. Key note! Chavornay (Duflon) is 18 km west from Demoret (Schaub). L'Abbaye (Breguet) is ca 18 km west-south-west of Chavornay (Duflon).
The father of above Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon / Luis Edouard / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon / Lun Eduard Anton Duflon, who was born 1861, a Swiss citizen - was probably Francis Dyuflon / Frances Duflon / François Louis DUFLON b. approx. 1824 (1831 ?). His wife was Jeanne Louise Susanne CUÉNOUD born 1826; her next of kin from families: Mercanton, Jenny, Milliquet. Her parents: François-Louis CUÉNOUD and Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD. L. F. Dyuflon from 1908 resided in Switzerland.
The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
CHAMPRENAUD in 1748 also was living in Riex, Switzerland / Suisse. Riex close to Lavaux in Switzerland. CHAMPRENAUD in 1822 was living in Villette close to Lutry, too.
CUÉNOUD in 1774 in Grandvaux close to Lutry and Riex.
Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland in Cully in the Vaud province, Lutry and Lousanne.
Apollon (b. ca 1857 / 1862, Apollo, Palemon, Apolon) Konstantynowicz / Константинович son of Wasyl / Wasilij Константинович, the owner of the technical office.
The Pärnu city council decided to build the power station plant on 16 February 1907; and on 20 October 1907 began producing electricity in Pärnu; as early as in 1908 were built power plant additions (see on my grandfather Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Marian Stankiewicz / Marian Konstantinovich in Parnu 1908/1909 to 1912): batteries provided power during peak periods; electric lights brighten the beach and on 29 September 1910 the council decided to build a new power plant.
Persons related to my family:
Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau / Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu), Baron of Livonia, and he was the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu.
Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870. He returned to independent Estonia in 1923. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland.
W. K. Korostowetz / Korostowiec / Korostowetz was an official of the Petrograd Foreign Office and specialized in communications intelligence. He was related to many high-ranking officials and aristocrats, and his information is, on the whole, dependable.
His wife Alexandra K. Sluchevskaya b. 1890 - her father
Sluchevsky Konstantin (1837 - 1904), Russian poet, writer, translator. Maybe his father: Korostovetz Konstantin Vladimirovich b. 1857 died after May 1912 (his brother Lieutenant General Ishmael V. Korostovetz / Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovetz, in Tallinn, where he was the last Governor-General before the revolution). Education: Page Corps 1877, captain Guard 1885, Major-General 1904; lieutenant general 1912.
General Bonch-Bruyevich, brother of Lenin's comrade, had many counter-intelligence assignments.
Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovets / Ishmael Vladimirovich Korostovetz / Измаил Владимирович b. 1863 died 1933 in Poznan (the Gernet family, too); General and Senator, Governor of Estland, graduated from the Corps of Pages 1884, Lieutenant-General in 1915, as vice - governor of Courland 1903-1905 and governor of Estonia 1907-1915; 1915 he was appointed a senator for the Department of Heraldry, he emigrated to Poland, lived in Poznan.
Ludmila Korostovetz (1794 - 1883), married to the famous traveler, Admiral P. I. Rikord, Petro Rikord / Pyotr Rikord b. 1776, Russian admiral, explorer, scientist, diplomat, writer, shipbuilder,
from Toropets in the Pskov province, now Tver region,
his father: Johann Ignatievitch Ricord / Johan = Jean-Baptiste Ignatievich Rikord, from
Nice / Nicea, after in Poland.

Our next of kin:
KONSTANTINOVICH Lev, son of Lev / Lew Konstantynowicz, was born in 1900 in Toropets / Toropiec;
in 1918 / 1919 a student of a secondary school in Pskov. During the occupation of 'white' was mobilized and after during their retreat, came to Poland. At the beginning of 1922 return to Soviet Russia and arrived in Pskov; May 22nd was arrested and in November, 1922 again re-arrested, 16 March 1923 - sentenced to 2 years in a concentration camp and sent to Petrograd. In March 1923 his mother Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich wrote to the chairman of the Central Executive Committee Mikhail Kalinin. Ольга Васильевна Константинович / Olga Vasilievna Konstantinovich was living in Pskov, str Kalinin, No 15/11, Apt. 1. Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich / Olga Tchelischev daughter of Vasilij Chelishchev and she was married to Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875. Olga b. ca 1875, her son Lew Lwowicz Konstantynowicz born 1900. Above named Vasilij Chelishchev was born ca 1840 / 1850. Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875, was next of kin with Aleksander and Konstantyn / Konstantin Konstantynowicz from Riga.

Olga's Konstantynowicz relatives:

1. Mikhail P. Rehbinder, he studied at the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence and worked at the Law Faculty of the University; he lived in an estate Lyadno in the Novgorod province; he was trying to create together with peasants agricultural co-operative in his estate in the Novgorod province; he left his family and went to the USA in 1909; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz / Константинович, daughter of Ivan / Jan Konstantynowicz; her son Alexander died d. 1906. Lyadno / Liadno / Лядно - a village in central part of the Porkhov / Порхов / Порховск / Porchovsk district in the Pskov oblast; close to Туготинская волость / Tugotinskaya volost - around 50 / 55 km east - south - east of Pskov / Pskow.

2. Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of orthopedic clinics; populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899 / 1900.

Александр Михайлович Ребиндер (died in Ялта) son of Михаил Павлович Ребиндер and Виктория Ивановна Константинович b. 1846, d. 28 Dec. 1899;
her grandson Пётр Александрович Ребиндер 1898 - 1972.
Mentioned Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan Konstantynowicz; Виктория Ивановна Константинович daughter of Jan / Иван Петрович Константинович who born 1818 died 1877, and Maria Sofronov / Мария Софроновна Григорьева died 1850.
Need to be check (June 2014): Jan son of Piotr Konstantynowicz and his branch of the Konstantynowiczs! We know that the Victoria Konstantinovich genealogy has nothing to do with the history of the noble house in Ukraine and among the Cossacks, contrary manipulated genealogical trees, which shows up after 2010. Her family is affiliated with the ancestry of Konstantynowicz from Estonia - Moscow - Miezonka - Swolna.
Jan son of Piotr Konstantynowicz that is Иван Петрович Константинович 1818 - 1877, son of Пётр Христофорович Константинович 1785 - 9 October 1850, and Виктория Мартыновна Красницкая / Victoria Krasnicki, ca 1796 - 6 Dec. 1862,
acc. to 'ru.rodovid.org'.

Above named Михаил Павлович Ребиндер / Michael Rehbinder, son of Paul Rehbinder / Павел Максимович Ребиндер 1803 - 1866. Павел Максимович Ребиндер was son of Максим Карлович Ребиндер / Maxim Rehbinder b. 1750.
РЕБИНДЕР МАКСИМ КАРЛОВИЧ / OТТО ФРИДРИХ МАГНУС ФОН РЕБИНДЕР, b. 1750,
grandson of Карль Рейнхольд фон Ребиндер,
the Russian major, war of 1768-1774 and 1789-1791, in Poland of 1792-94, Orthodox, wife Maria / Мария Прокофьевна Разамай, she died 1838, in Шебекино; her children: АЛЕКСЕЙ, ПАВЕЛ (Paul von Rehbinder 1803–1866, that is Павел Максимович Ребиндер) and ГЕОРГИЙ, and three daughters.
Karl Reinhold von Rehbinder (1678–1734) / Карл Рейнхольд фон Ребиндер, b. in Livland / Лифляндия, landlord of Kärbla, 11 km east-north-east of Haapsalu,
5 km west of Koela, 8 km north-east of Uuemoisa village. In 1704 POW, taken in Narva by the Russian Army; 1711 Russian citizen of Estland / Estonia;
his wife Беата Христина фон Врангель / Beata Christina Vrangell,
her son Карл Магнус Рейнхольд фон Ребиндер;
her grandson Отто Фридрих Магнус фон Ребиндер, b. 1750, major of Russian Army. 1787 count.
Mentioned Karl Magnus von Rehbinder (1710–1784), landlord of Polli, close to Karksi-Nuia, 30 km south of Viljandi.
Next generation - Otto Friedrich Magnus von Rehbinder b. 1750, major, that is Максим Карлович or Отто Фридрих Магнус фон Ребиндер;
next generation: Alexei von Rehbinder (1795–1869) or Алексей Максимович Ребиндер was Russian Lieutenant General; from this Alexei:
Alexander von Rehbinder Alekseyevich / Alexander Aleksejevitš von Rehbinder (1826–1913) was the Russian infantry Major General,
next Nikolai von Rehbinder (1863–1918) was Russian politician, Kharkov province.
Alexei's brother: Paul von Rehbinder (1803–1866) / Павел Максимович Ребиндер.
Next generation - Aleksander Michailovitš von Rehbinder; and Pjotr Aleksandrovits von Rehbinder (1898–1972).

Von Wrangel / Wrangell family and the Rehbinder with von Gernet:

A. Beata Christina von Wrangel / Beata Christina Freiin von Wrangell, d. 1703. Her son: Wilhelm Christoph Rehbinder (1703 - 1740). Her stepson: Karl Magnus von Rehbinder
(1710 - ca 1784, by Peter Trefilov; his sons: Otto Friedrich Magnus b. 1750; Karl Reinhold von Rehbinder b. 1737; Christoph Engelbrecht b. 1739; Fabian; his daughters: Johanna Eleonora Hörschelmann and Dorothea Beata von Blankennagel).
Her husband: Carl Reinhold von Rehbinder. Birth 1678. Death 1720.
Her father Reinhold von Wrangel.
Husband's parents: Wilhelm Christofer von Rehbinder, d. 28 September 1703, and Barbara Sophia von Aderkas, d. 19 November 1706; copyright by Corduan Family of Pommern.

Above Reinhold von Wrangell (1639 - 1686) born in Stockholm, died in Reval (Tallinn), Harjumaa, Captain, by Christer Lyrholm. His brothers: Didrik Wrangel (1637 - 1706) and Gustaf Wrangel (1630 - ca 1688).
B. A branch of Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder b. ca 1685 - d. ca 1745, has next of kin with the Gernet family.
And Hedwig Elisabeth von Gernet (nee von Patkul; her mother
Juliane Charlotte von Wrangell,
and her father Jakob Johann von Patkul) b. 1792 - 1867 with her son Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 - 1912.
C. Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell.
Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, from the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev (his sister, Anna von Wrangell, was seventeen years younger than he), came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot-Zienowicz; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty, a village in the Mikolajewska area, a district of Polock, goverment of Witebsk / Vicebsk. Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother.

Some details on the Rehbinder family and Benckendorff, at margin:

A. Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff married Elisabeth von Rehbinder / Dorothea Helene Margarethe Elisabeth Rehbinder; she was daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and granddaughter of Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder, burial in Reval, b. 1638 - 1696; son of Wilhelm Christoph von Rehbinder, d. ca 1703 and grandson of Wilhelm von Rehbinder.

B. Johanna Sophie von Toll nee von Rehbinder 1740 - 1801, her father Otto Magnus von Rehbinder from Kockora / Kokora - 40 km north-east of Tartu / Dorpat, and her grandfather Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder, and great-grandfather Wilhelm Christoph von Rehbinder died ca 1703, her husband Christian Wilhelm von Toll, and her children: Johann Wilhelm Baron von Toll and Adolf Friedrich Baron von Toll.

C. Johann von Benckendorff / Hans Ulrich Nathanael von Benckendorff, b. 1882 in Jendel (Jäneda - south-west of Rakvere, and south-east of Tallinn), Lääne-Virumaa, in Estland; d. 1919, not in 1918 - in Jendel / Jäneda. He was son of Alexander Gustav Konstantin Benckendorff, from Jendel; his wife Мария Игнатьевна = Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria Zakrzewska / Mura = Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg. Her son Paul von Benckendorff and Tatiana / Tania. Johann von Benckendorff / Hans Ulrich Nathanael von Benckendorff was brother of Hermann Julius Konstantin von Benckendorff; Alexander Christoph Karl Otto Benckendorff; Gerhard Paul Konstantin, Anna Margarethe, Paul Boris - by Henrik Manitski in 2012. His father: Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel, b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvereca 18 km), Väike-Maarja vald, and died 1910 in above Jendel (Jäneda - ca 65 km east of Saku). Grandfather Gustav Hermann Christoph Benckendorff and Marie von Löwenstern. Above Gustav Hermann Christoph Benckendorff b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald. Great-grandfather Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff and Elisabeth von Rehbinder.

D. Above Dorothea Helene Margarethe Elisabeth Rehbinder was daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Sophie Christina von Rehbinder and granddaughter of Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder.

E. In 1910, when Мария Игнатьевна = Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria Zakrzewska / Mura (Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg) was called to her sister Anja / Anna Zakrzewska to Berlin, where the husband of Anja and a brother of Plato / Platon Zakrzewski were the Russian Embassy officials. Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria nee Zakrzewska / Mura will soon be presented to the Secretary of the Embassy - Johann von Benckendorff, who immediately fell in love; 1911 the wedding was held, and soon the two children born in the family. Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg / Mura life was both in Berlin and St. Petersburg, where they had a flat; close to British Embassy staff, with fun trips to the Jäneda manor. Above Maria Ignatievna Budberg / Мария or Мура Игнатьевна Закревская-Бенкендорф-Будберг / Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg, as Countess Benckendorff, Baroness Budberg born 1891 or 1893 died 1974, daughter of
Ignacy Zakrzewski / Ignaty Platonovitch Zakrevsky b. 1841, a Russian nobleman and diplomat, the eminent lawyers, the Russian Prosecutor-General and Senator from 1894-99. Earl Ignati Platonovitsh Zakrevski family lived in Berjozovkaja - Rudka mansion in Ukraine. Maria was the fourth and last child in the family, he was born in 1891 or 1893 in Kharkiv; after the death of his father in 1905, the family moved to St. Petersburg.
Above Мария Игнатьевна / Maria Будберг / Budberg / Закревская / Zakrevskaya, b. 1891 or 1893 in Charkow, d. 1974, daughter of Игнатий Платонович Закревский and Мария Николаевна Закревская, wife of Johann / Hans von Benckendorff, and Nikolai / Lay von Budberg and Алексей Максимович Пешков / Максим Горький, by: Henrik Manitski on January 25, 2012.
Above Ignacy Zakrzewski / Игнатий Платонович Закревский b. 1839, son of
Platon Zakrevsky and Анна Ивановна Закревская, 1804 - 1882;
son of Aleksei Zakrevsky and Варвара Ивановна Закревская.
Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg was double agent of OGPU and British Intelligence Service. She first married Count Johann von Benckendorff, a high-ranking Russian diplomat, in 1911. To Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with
British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart.
3.

Константинович / Konstantynowicz / Konstantinowicz / Konstantinovich Anna Petrovna was a daughter of Brigadier-General Piotr H. Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович (b. ca 1785) and was the second wife of Ivan Vasilyevich Vernadsky. Anna Petrovna, nee Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович born 1837 - died 1898. H. Konstantinovich that is Христофорович, son of Christofor / Hristofor Konstantinovich that is Krzysztof Konstantynowicz (here was error: Henryk, Gawrila, Havrila) born 1741.
4.
Michael Leontievich Dubbelt or Dubelt was Lieutenant-General (1897). Dubbelt / Dubelt Michael or Michail Leontievich who was born February 8, 1822 in Kiev, Russian cavalry Major General, he was commandant of the Tiflis Alexandropol / Aleksandrapol fortress 1887-1890. His first wife Nataly / Natalia Puszkin / Natalja Aleksandrovna Pushkin since 1853, born May 23 / 4 Jun 1836 in St. Petersburg, was the daughter of Alexander Pushkin, poet. This son - M. Dubelt in 1860, lost above named Kuvshinovo factory in gambler to hands of Peter Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1826 died 1880, the leader of the provincial nobility.
Prince Troubetzkoy in 1869 sold it to Michael Gavrilovich Kuvshinov; his father Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804 and his grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy born 1760: daughter of Alexander Gruzinsky - Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) with four children, including Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) who was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason.

Vyshny Volochyok / Вышний Волочёк, close to Borkovo, ca 80 km north of Torzok; 85 km north-east of Kuvshinovo (M. Dubelt in 1860, lost above named Kuvshinovo factory in gambler to hands of Peter Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1826); 140 km north-west of Tver. 1773 to 1782, Count Sivers Jakov / Яков Ефимович Сиверс acted here (next Jozef Korycki / Осип Иванович Корицкий in 1824/1828).

Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel; father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal. Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805.

5.
Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz / Константинович who born ca 1857 / 1862 - son of Wasilij Константинович / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1830 / 1837. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.
Wasilij / Wasyl Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz,
was general of the Russian Army,
and Leon Bakst (1866 - 1924) is our far kinsman: his relatives, families Tretyakov, Barsak, Klyachko and Manfred. His grandfather Baxter, probably English (mother side); Leon Bakst always lived with his family in St. Petersburg. Leon Bakst had two sisters, Sophia and Rose, and brother Isaiah. April 28 in 1866 Leon Bakst was born in Grodno. His grandfather was a tailor in Paris and ca 1876 came to Russia, to St Petersburg.
When his grandfather died, his parents divorced. Kanaev, his friend, found him a job with Albert Benois, Alexandre Benois, K. Somov, W. Vroubel, D. Filosofov and his cousin S. Diaghilev.
Alexandre Benois has friend - Count Benkendorf; Count put him in touch with Gran Duke Vladimir; Duke was President of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. 1903 Leon Bakst married L. Gricenko, widow of a painter, the daughter of P. Tretyakov. 1914 thanks to Count D. Benkendorf's support, Leon Bakst was elected as a member of the Academy of Fine Arts.
6.
Nephew of Leon Bakst - that is son of his sister Rose Samuilovna Rosenberg / Samuel Rosenberg was born in Germany (Zakhar L. Manfred worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, during the Civil War was a teacher in the Saratov province, then in the Pskov province; Rosa Samuilovna Rosenberg - a translator, sister of the artist Leon Bakst, died in 1918) and Zachary Manfred - was historian Albert Z. Manfred (1906-1976) who born in St Petersburg.
7.
The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, as an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France. Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker. In 1811 in Moscow lived: Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767. Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow. In 1853 Evgeny acquired weaving and dyeing factory in Pushkin close to Moscow. In 1859 Evgeny had a second factory; according to 'French settlers in Moscow and some descendants: Collection', V. M. Egorov-Fedosov, Moscow 2005. Above mentioned Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand / Evgeny Armand Ivanovich was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth; was married to a Polish woman, Catholic - Mary Frantsevna Pashkovskaya / Maria Paszkowski (Пашковские) daughter of general Franciszek Paszkowski. She was born 1819 and died 1901. Maria Paszkowska that is Paszkovski has got three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie that is Emil Armand / Aрманд (Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie / Emil about 1847). All the sons had taken the house close to Pushkino factory c. 1875. The elder son, Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor. His wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets had 12 children, all the sons were married and all the daughters married: it was told about 39 grandchildren Eugene and Barbara Karlovna (all 42 cousins). Eugene / Evgeny and his wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets / De Monets or DEMONTET had 12 children: Anna (1866 - 1932) Konstantynowicz, Mary (1868 - 1942), Alexandr / Alexander (1870 - 1943) Armand - hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for the Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons', a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company', Vera / Wiera (1871 - 1942), Nicholas (1872 - 1936) / Mikolaj Armand, Vladimir (1874 - 1875), Eugene (1876 ​​- 1920) that is Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, hereditary honorable citizen, counselor, chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons', chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company', Boris (1878 - 1920), Sophia (1881 - 1941), Sergei (1882 - 1945), Barbara (1882 - 1966), Vladimir (1885 - 1909) Armand who joined a Social Democratic propaganda group in Moscow and was arrested but his sister Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz helped finance party organizations; see: Inessa Armand and Lenin.

Eugene Konstantynowicz / Константинович - son of Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children were living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET; this Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
8.
One of the descendants of Paul Armand: Eugene Louis Armand / Эжен Луи, was a talented entrepreneur. Evgeny left a sizable fortune to his sons Eugene, Emil and Adolf.
Eugene Louis Armand / Louis Eugene or Луи Эжен / Евгений Иванов Арманд, became the first of Armand who strengthened the roots of the family tree in the Russian land. In 1864, he petitioned the Emperor Alexander II on awarding him and his wife (Maria Frantsova) and sons (Евгении-Франсуа / Evgenii-Francois, Адольф-Осип и Эмиль-Александр) with the title of honorary citizens (but we have date April 1852). Armand were Catholics, parishioners of St. Louis church at Malaya Lubyanka.
Eugene Louis Armand was married in this church to a beautiful Polish - Maria Wilhelmina Pashkovskaya / Maria Paszkowski. Her father, general Franciszek Paszkowski / Francis Paszkowski was a writer and military, during Napoleon's Italian campaign, he served as adjutant to Murat.
Maria Paszkowska that is Paszkovski has got three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie that is Emil Armand / Aрманд (Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie / Emil about 1847).
All the sons had taken the house close to Pushkino factory c. 1875. The elder son, Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor.
His wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets had 12 children, all the sons were married and all the daughters married: it was told about 39 grandchildren Eugene and Barbara Karlovna (all 42 cousins).
9.
Anna Armand married a Pole by the name of Konstantynowicz. Her husband Apollo, engineer, represented the interests of Russia in a major French company of Breguet for the production and trade of electromechanical structures. With his father-in-law Evgeny / Evgenii Evgenievich Armand, he was linked not only by family, but also in business relationships. He become the Chairman of the Board of JSC 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', as the head of the family clan and Alexander E., husband of Inez, was also elected one of the directors. In the same company acted Lyudvigovich Emmanuel Nobel, nephew of Alfred Nobel, who instituted a unique prize. While husbands are engaged in business, their wives are actively discussing ways to improve public life. Three revolutionaries: Inessa, Volodya, Anna Konstantynowicz, heiress of her husband, who died in 1902, go abroad, where she became friends with the first social democratic circles, and then, following the example of Inessa, will join the Bolsheviks. Most of his fortune she will donate to the party funds, and together with Lenin, Krupskaya, Inessa and other Bolsheviks back in the famous sealed train to Russia. This group of people go down in history as a gang of villains who interrupted Russia's path to prosperity. But how can these people suspected of criminal intent to destroy the country? Inessa and Anna Konstantynowicz, Alexander, Boris, Vladimir Armand who participated in the revolutionary movement.
10.
Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Paat (d. 1866), children: Saparova Anna born before 1845, Saparov Gerasimos 1845 - 1869, Saparova Elizabeth 1854? - 1919 was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov d. 1905 and Saparov Arkady 1854 - before 1921, was married to Varvara Maypariani: children - Saparova Elena Arkadevna, Saparova Tamara Arkadevna (b. ca 1880?) was married 1st to Ivan Iaparidze son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (b. ca 1860) from the upper Racha region of Georgia (sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau (b. 1855) nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze and parents Constantine and Melania Japaridze; father Constantine died 1860) that is Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and 2nd marriage to Leo Emilievich Armand (b. 1880) - Inessa Armand was the wife of his cousin.
11.
Masson Ph. Charles / CHARLE Masson son of Philiberte / Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert (name Masse by Russian language) was Vice - Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg (then L. L. Nobel succeed him) and a member of the Board of Nabpolts (Moscow). His father Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert, born 1806 in Auxonne and died 1860 in Paris, is a French physicist, with Louis Breguet, realized tests telegraph transmission in Caen.

Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert, born 1806 in Auxonne - west of Switzerland - and died 1860 in Paris, is a French physicist.

Masson Ph. Charles / CHARLE Masson son of Philiberte born ca 1850? (Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert) - name Masse by Russian language - was Vice-Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg; then L. L. Nobel succeed him; Charles was and a member of the Board of Nabpolts in Moscow.

Masson Ph. Charles's father was mentioned above Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert, born 1806 in Auxonne and died 1860 in Paris, is a French physicist.

Married two times (gw.geneanet.org/). Antoine Masson studied in Auxonne, Dijon, 1824 at the Royal College of Nancy, now the Lycée Henri Poincaré; 1824 served an artillery regiment; 1825 take the post of trainer - with his father - at the Royal School of Forestry in Nancy. He then followed his father to Paris in 1828 (family with two daughters and two sons), became director of agriculture Journal and made from 1828 to 1830 scientific graduate studies at the Preparatory School near the Royal College Louis-le-Grand / the 3rd Normal School
(Eugene Peclet, Pierre Louis Dulong and Claude Pouillet).

1830 in Montpellier. 1831 in Caen. 1839 in Paris.
He was responsible for the invention of the induction coil, with Louis Breguet, that bears Ruhmkorff's name. He realized tests telegraph transmission in Caen in 1831.

After a year of teaching mathematics at Montpellier, he moved to Caen, where he taught physical sciences at the College Royal until 1839; unaware of the discoveries of Joseph Henry or William Jenkins, Masson in 1834 observed independently the self-induction of a voltaic circuit; he described his investigation of this phenomenon and, demonstrated the tetanic effect of a series of rapidly repeated self-induced currents; Masson constructed some of the earliest induction coils; his research and publications cover areas as diverse as photometry, induction, the movement of fluids. In 1839, he was appointed professor of physics at the Ecole Centrale de Paris.

With Breguet, it carries an electric telegraph in 1838 and in 1841, the first inductor to study electrical discharges in rarefied gases. In 1841, together with Louis Breguet, he described a high-tension induction coil of the type Ruhmkorff subsequently perfected. In 1836 successfully defended a doctoral thesis elaborating Ampere's work in electrodynamics.

Masson had returned to Paris and from 1841 taught physics at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand and at the Ecole Centrale, until his death in 1860. Thereafter, the coil will keep the name Ruhmkorff coil. Masson establish the theory of wind instruments, and between 1844 and 1854 he conducted an intensive investigation of the spark produced by electrical discharges through various media; with L. Courtepee and J. C. Jamin, he also examined the absorption of radiant heat and light by different substances; he investigated aspects of electrical telegraphy, acoustics, the elasticity of solid bodies, and the discharge of induction coils through partial vacuums, as well as related chemical and physical problems.

Antoine MASSON / Antoine-Philibert Masson is the descendant of a family of cloth merchants from Burgundy - west of Switzerland, with Dijon and Auxonne.

His father, Pierre-Antoine Masson-Four / Pierre Antoine Masson Fourth / Pierre Masson - the name of his wife Pierrette Four married 25 Thermidor an XIII - had studied pharmacy. Was born 1778. He was a pharmacist in

Auxonne - west of Switzerland and Neuchatel, then moved to Dijon in 1812 - 30 km west of Auxonne.

In the context of the Napoleonic wars, his father did some research to synthesize sugar from potato, and he was appointed in 1824 professor at the new Royal Forest School of Nancy (the Royal School of Forestry) - north of Dijon; next in Paris. He wrote 'Estimation et produits de la terre de Meaulne' in 1836. In 1825 he did research on the forest botany and vinegars in Nancy.

In 1830, Victor, cousin of Anthony, goes to PARIS. Publish several technical books and Victor Masson became the founder of Editions Masson.

We know about Pierre Masson b. 1604, Notre Dame de Longeville, in west France - Lucon, Poitou, France; and his son Gilles Masson b. 1630, Notre Dame de Longeville. Pierre Antoine Masson, born 30/01/1760 in Buire-le-Sec, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France, son of Masson Antoine 1722-1802 and Hanquier Marie Charlotte 1724-1787; he married to MAINCOURT Marie-Françoise in 1790 in Buire-le-Sec, with children: MASSON Marie-Françoise 1791, Elisabeth, and Pierre Antoine in 1793.

On the above Pierre Antoine MASSON b. 1778 in Côte d'Or - a region with Dijon and Auxonne - Bourgogne, France, d. in Paris;

a pharmacist, parents: Barthélémy MASSON 1732-1806 and Philiberte ROUGEOT 1741-1828, married in 1805, in Auxonne - on way from Dijon to Switzerland - to Pierrette FOUR b. 1784 daughter of Antoine FOUR and Françoise HENRI; her son Antoine Philibert MASSON 1806-1860.

Family of above Pierre: Bénigne Marie MASSON 1763, Charles MASSON 1767-1837 m. 1794 in Pommard - south-west of Dijon, Bourgogne, to Catherine Françoise MUGNERET 1769-1849; Barthélémy MASSON 1773-1817.

Philippe MASSON, b. 1716, d. 1777 in Uxeau west of Switzerland and south-west of Dijon, m. in Montmort south-west of Dijon, to Etiennette NIVOT, children:

Jean MASSON, b. 1741 in Vendenesse-sur-Arroux south-west of Dijon and close to above Montmort, d. in Uxeau,

(his children: Philippe MASSON, b. 1768; Jacqueline b. 1771; François MASSON, 1774 Sainte-Radegonde; Jeanne in 1779 Uxeau; Louis MASSON, b. 1781 in Sainte-Radegonde at south-west France: Jeanne MASSON, b. 1802 in Uxeau, Françoise MASSON, 1803, Antoinette 1805, François MASSON, 1807 and Lazarette b. 1809; Pierrette MASSON, b. 1783 in Sainte-Radegonde; Françoise MASSON, 1787 in Uxeau);

Claude MASSON, b. 1747 died in Vendenesse-sur-Arroux; Jacques MASSON, b. 1748 d. 1784 in Uxeau, lived in Busserole close to above Sainte-Radegonde; Philibert MASSON, b. 1753 d. 1783 in Vendenesse-sur-Arroux, lived in Atrecy, married 1775 in Vendenesse-sur-Arroux to Josette BONNET, b. 1755 daughter of Emiland BONNET and Pierrette LAPREE; Françoise MASSON, b. 1755 Sainte-Radegonde, d. 1792 in Vendenesse-sur-Arroux, m. Etienne BONNET, daughter of above Emiland BONNET et Pierrette LAPREE.

12.

Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel), Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.

13.
Azbelev Peter Pavlovich, b. Febr. the 27, 1868 in Vologda, a retired major-general of the Russian fleet, P. P. Azbelev also was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt'. Azbelev Peter P., died after 1927, the Soviet Union. From the hereditary nobility. When the first Russian ocean armored cruiser 'Dmitriy Donskoy' carried out investigations off the coast of the Korean Peninsula in 1896, the members of the crew were: P. P. Azbelev, A. A. Bek-Dzhevagirov, G. I. Butakov, Vitgeft, Gildebrandt, Govorlivy, Dundukov-Korsakov, G. S. Zavoyko, Semenov V. I. and Shtorre.
His father Paul B. Azbelev, d. after 1901, a retired Councillor of State, lived in St. Petersburg, Kolpino No 7. Brothers and sisters: Nicholas d. 1912, major-general of the Admiralty, Ivan b. 1862, died in Ekaterinburg 1931, Alexander d. 1913, Constantine b. 1895 died after 1920, Julia d. after 1913; his wife Elizabeth F. d. after 1913, lived with her husband in St. Petersburg, Apothecary No 6. Son Paul b. 1900, St. Petersburg d. after 1932, arrested 1932. About the family of the above named Azbelev: 1. Azbelev, I. P., 'Yaponiya i Koreya', published by A. Levenson, Moscow, 1895. Acc. to Yuan Tung-Li: Azbelev, Nikolai Pavlovich, d. 1912.
14.
The Physico - Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one of the largest research institutes in Russia, founded by Abram Fedorovich Ioffe in September 29, 1918. Located in St. Petersburg. Director of the Radium Institute was В. И. Вернадский / V. I. Vernadskij, his deputy - V. G. Hlopin. Director of the Institute 1957 - 1967 - Б. П. Константинов / Konstantinov B. P. acc. to Russian sources, but a US research show name Konstantinovich B. P.; Alexander Pavlovich Konstantinov (1895 - 1945, repressioned, was posthumously rehabilitated) or maybe Aleksander Konstantynowicz, who became one of the largest radio technicians, radiophysicist and create a variety of radio-electronic equipment (with Bonch - Bruevich) and contributed to the development of television - suggested a way to narrow band television signals, has developed a mosaic photocathodes for the television camera tubes of the 1930s television transmission. His brother Boris Pavlovich Konstantinovich or Konstantinov was born in St. Petersburg in 1910, acc. to his autobiography, written an excellent literary language. In 1924 Konstantinov moved to Leningrad, because at the State Physical - Technical Institute of the X-ray worked his older brother, Alexander P. Konstantinov. Since 1927 he started working at the laboratory of D. A. Rozhanski as a physicist and was student of Physics and Mechanics Faculty of the Polytechnic Institute.

Recently in 1987, I started by solving puzzles and political genealogy around my Konstantynowicz family in Poland and Russia.
In the first period October 1987 - September 1989 I recognized the immediate environment of our family Konstantynowicz, maybe 200 people; unfortunately it 'coincided' with the death of my father on November 3, 1987; buried 09 November 1987.
Curiosity! The webpage 'Executive Intelligence Review www.larouchepub.com/.../eirv15n03-1988011' was founded on 21 November 1987, but EIR, Executive Intelligence Review, was ed. on January 15, 1988, vol. 15, No 3. EIR: Founder and Contributing Editor: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Editor-in-chief: Criton Zoakos, Editor: Nora Hamerman. EIR is published by New Solidarity International Press Service. Executive Intelligence Review is a newsmagazine founded in 1974 by the American political activist Lyndon LaRouche. The article "New KGB history skirts lessons of the...", by Aleln and Rachel Douglas, is on "A History of the KGB" by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, 1987, 234 pages. 'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. the first by 'Free Press' on 28 September 1987, and again on 01 January 1988 by this publisher. The Lexington Books edited this book in October 1987, but second publisher 'Ballantine Books' ed. on October 31, 1988. We back to my work. Then came the period of 1990 - 2002, I met Georgia, Russia, etc, but mostly tens people of Poland and other countries has granted me accurate genealogical data, and not just about family Konstantynowicz; thanks to this I could - in 1992 - provide a working thesis of particular importance: "in our family was someone on the top of the Soviet military intelligence" , and our family Konstantynowicz moved in Tsarist Russia very close to the Russian intelligence core. The parts it turned out to be true; I am writing that only partially, because the key person was a Swiss with Italian - Estonian origin, and this man had no affinity with our family, but was created by the military system, whose my Konstantynowicz family was a part: in Miezonka, Swolna, Moscow, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Kazan, the Vaud canton and the nearby Swiss villages, Lodz, Riga. This search took me 27 years, but it took 20 years to Stalin it came up on the trail military conspiracy in May 1937 - probably as long, because the key person - Artusov surely created a Soviet counterintelligence, and next he took the position as head of civilian intelligence, then deputy head of the military intelligence of the Soviet Union.
In the period February 2003 to date (17th July 2014) in 2014, communicate to all with the help of Yahoo servers in California, knowledge on the history and genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family, by using further of the factual help my readers. And again coincidence: already at the turn of October and November 2003 died Jan Konstantynowicz and his wife, no one knew exactly when it happened.
John, Sophie and Edward Konstantynowicz lived a long time after World War II in Bydgoszcz.

15.
Konstantynowicz Konstantin, son of Alexandr / Aleksander Konstantynowicz
(b. ca 1833/1845, relatives of Dominik Konstantynowicz and the Radziwill family),
b. in Riga A.D. 1869 and died in Uzkoje estate ("Narrowly") near by Moscow = Moskva in 1924, he was member of the Ufa government office 1904 - 1917 in Baschkirische / Bashkortostan region, married Wiera Puszkin in 1894 - she was born 1871, daughter of Anatol Puszkin (1846 - 1905) and grandchild of Elzbieta Zagrazski
(Russian noble house of Zagrashskije, for the first time information in 1493 - 1503)
and Lev Puszkin (b. 1805 - died in Odessa 1852, who was brother of famous writer); the Uzkoje estate that was otherwise Uzkoje village, situated 15,5 km S-W-S of Moscow core in the suburbs of the capital i.e. 9 km from boundary of urban housing in 1917, and there are nowadays Litovskij bulvar Str. and Jasnogorskaja Str. near by Vitcevskij forest and also Tschertanovka river.
See also inf. about the Armand family from Moscow, Lenin and Inessa Armand 1909 - 1920 and on Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz b. Moscow 1908, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, and Dyuflon / Duflon in Russia after 1892. All inf. in my domain 'konstantynowicz.info'. More acc. to: Stefan T. Possony: Lenin. The Compulsive Revolutionary, ed. by HENRY REGNERY COMPANY, CHICAGO, 1964.

16.
House Breguet, Anonymous Society of Aviation that is Louis Breguet workshops, founded by Louis Charles Breguet;
the Breguet watchmaking company was only a small business in Paris, and was no longer in the hands of the Breguet family descendants.
Antoine Breguet (1851-1882) raised in a scientific community
(Marcellin Berthelot / Marcel / Marcelin Berthelot is married to Sophie Caroline Niaudet, niece of Louis Breguet)
and artistic life (her grandmother Camille O'Meara was a student of Chopin), took over the management of the electricity section of the family business, the Breguet Maison in Douai, in the study of an asynchronous motors.
Jacques Breguet, and Professor Charles Richet, began designing a gyroplane (the forerunner of the helicopter) in 1907 after tests by engineer Maurice Volumard in Douai plant (SEE: an airplane engines and magneto branches in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company).

"Maison Breguet, societe anonyme" started in Russia as 'House Breguet...', for sold a watch 'Власть' on 31st Jan. 1886.

Despite the troubles of the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Abraham Louis Breguet had managed - with the help of
his son Louis Antoine, his step-sister
Suzanne L'Huillier,
and a small team of workers - the first watch brand in Europe.
Abraham Louis Breguet died in 1823, leaving a house in the prosperity, but his son Antoine Louis Breguet (b. 1776), since 1812 / 1813, after the death of his wife, thought to live as a 'British gentleman farmer'; he had himself a single son,
Louis Francois Clement, born in 1804.
He returned to Neuchatel (Switzerland), where he lived with his godfather J. F. Huguenin.

Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 in Paris, died 1883 in Paris; he was son of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet

(Antoine Breguet b. August 13, 1776 in Paris, d. 1858 in Champcueil, son of Louis Abraham Breguet

[grandson of Jonas Louis Breguet b. June 11, 1719 in Neuchatel, Switzerland; died 1758; m. Susanne Marguerite Bolle; she was
mother of above mentioned Louis Abraham Breguet and Louise Breguet - wife of David Lassieur and mother of Jonas Louis Lassieur,
grandmother of Sophie Niaudet,
great-grandmother of Daniel Berthelot, Marcel André Berthelot, Camille Berthelot, Marie Helene, Philippe, Rene Berthelot]

and Cécile Marie Louise L'huillier)

and JeanneFrançoise Venture (Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of above named Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, mother of above mentioned Louis Clément Bréguet).

Louis Clément Bréguet was husband of Eugénie Caroline Lassieur and father of Louise Bréguet - wife of Ludovic Halévy and mother of Elie Halévy (Élie Halévy b. 1870 d. 21 August 1937, was a French philosopher and historian who wrote studies of the British utilitarians, born in Étretat, Seine-Maritime, where his mother had fled as the German army marched on Paris, 1892, Émile Boutmy invited Halévy to lecture on English political ideas at the newly founded School of Political Science, and on the history of socialism) and Daniel Halévy.

Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.
On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.
1833, Louis married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin. Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.
Now, he invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics;
at that time Louis Breguet realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.
Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English. Louis Breguet and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.
Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony as his grandfather.
Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet. In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his son Anthony worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.
Death of Alfred Niaudet, his collaborator (and son of his nephew Alfred Niaudet) in 1883, were terrible blows to Louis Breguet.
Home Breguet, became a limited company with a capital of three million but was continued without Breguet as its head, because the grandchildren, Louis and Jacques, had only three and two years; following its sale to Edward Brown, his supervisor: electrical machinery and steam, pumps, gears, projectors and lighting equipment, special equipment for marine, underwater mines, etc. House Breguet was absorbed by the company Fives-Lille Gallen, and became apartment buildings, acc. to http://www.geuzeinfo.com/telegraphy.
Louis Charles Breguet was born January 2, 1880 in Paris; he was son and grand-son of physicists, he started the family business in 1907 at Douai (Nord) by building a 'gyroplane', the first rotary wing aircraft, considered the ancestor of the helicopter.
He built his first aircraft in 1909, which broke the speed record for 10 km in 1911.
Breguet, Louis François Clément b. Paris, 1804; d. Paris, 1883.
His grandfather, Abraham, from Neuchatel, was one of the best-known clockmakers of Paris; his shop was established ca 1775. "...Louis's father, Antoine, became Abraham's partner in 1807. After spending some time in Neuchatel with his godfather when he was about eight, Louis was apprenticed to Perrelet, in Versailles, for two years, and then joined his father and grandfather. From 1824 to 1827 he worked with Barral in Geneva, upon his return to Paris worked on naval chronometers.
... Finally, in 1833, the enterprise was organized into a company and turned over to Louis and two other partners, one of whom was a cousin. After 1830 Breguet turned to making electrical instruments, particularly precision apparatus. His first electric clocks date from 1839. ... Work on induced currents with
Antoine Masson in 1842 ... in 1843 Breguet created, for François Arago, an apparatus with a revolving mirror
... in 1876 Cornelius Roosevelt, representing Bell in Paris, put the Breguet firm in charge of setting up the French telephone system...", acc. to http://www.encyclopedia.com.

Victor Konstantynowicz vel Wiktor Konstantynowicz or Wiktor Konstantynowicz Staroch Siedoch vel (nickname) Starych Siedych / Sedykh
(acc. to me he changed the surname because Viktor Konstantinovich has the documents named Constantine and scans of Estonian passports with the Starych Siedych surname), was born on
20 October 1874 in Kazan,
his father unknown name, but mother was
Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Duchess Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya born ca 1840 / 1853.
Wiktor Konstantynowicz was married to Alexandra Nikolaevna nee Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, born 03 February 1877 in St Petersburg,
her father Nikolai Ivanov Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh from Kazan,
mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Riabczynski;
on 09 June 1934 lived in Estonia, Nomme, the Harku street No (tn) 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu (by the order of Nomme Small Town Council, Hiiu-Rahu Cemetery, which was established in 1919, is the smallest among the cemeteries in Tallinn) in Tallinn:
Victor on 19 January 1945 buried by Rita Tunkel / Tungel, address Apteegi 14-2 and
Alexandra - 09 December 1948 buried by Galina Tunkel.
Dunkel Galina at the cemetery of Siselinna on 13 August 1982; here name of Rita Krause. Maybe Rita is a daughter of Galina, and Rita Irene and Rita are the same person. Rita Irene, daughter of Heinrich / Rita Irene Heynrihovna b. 1927 / Rita-Ireene at cemetery of Siselinna that is Krauze Rita-Ireene died on 21 November 1998. Heinrich Dunkel, a father of Rita, Irene; captain. Heinrich Georg Dunkel / Heinrich Dunkel / Baldwin-Heinrich Dunkel was a reserve captain; Heinrich Dunkel was poisoned in the central prison of Tallinn by the communists. On January 10, 1934 or 1935 - a funeral of the union officers leader, a reserve captain Baldwin - Heinrich Dunkel took place in Tallinn. He had died in prison.
From Riga, Latvia: daughter of Galina Sedykh / Dunkel was Irena. Sabine from Riga is the Sedykh family relatives.

17.
Mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski:
countess Maria Kalinowska.
She was born after 1805 - ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski.
The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below:
mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Czeliszczew;
father Josif / Jozef / Osip Kalinowski b. after 1780 ? and died 1825.
Grandfather Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 and grandmother Elzbieta Bielska from Olbrachcice b. ca 1760. The Kalinowski family in 1818 under the Austrian Empire acc. to Okolovich taken the count title with the Kalinowa coat of arms, given on 17 August 1818 by Franciszek I / Francis emperor of Austria. The first with this title was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski from the Volhynia and Ukraine branch of the Kalinowski / Kalinovsky family. Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:
Josef / Osip Kalinowski general of Polish Army, b. ca after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790,
Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and
Justyna Kalinowska m. Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.
Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Władyslaw Kalinowski.
Children of count Jozef Kalinowski:
Seweryna b. 1814 d. 1852, Jozefina married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844 and also Olga born 1822 died 7 April 1899 in Retow.
Probably M. Kalinowska (Maria) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course!
Above countess Olga / Ольга Осиповна Калиновская born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.
Bogdan Ogiński died on 25. 03. 1909.
Sister of Olga:

Jozefina Kalinowska born 1816, was also married to duke Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński who was born 1808. And Северина Иосифовна Калиновская / Seweryna Kalinowski b. 1814 d. 1852 was married to Mikolaj Plautyn / Плаутин b. 1794 or 1796 d. 24 December 1866, son of Fiodor Sergiejewicz Plautyn / Plautin died 1807? Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin was an outstanding military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, General of Cavalry 1856, Adjutant General 1849, a member of the State Council in 1862.

Above Emilia Potocka married first to Kalinowski and second time to Czeliszczew, was born 1790 and her parents: Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 and mother Marianna Lubomirska (Zubow, Potocki, Uwarow) born 1773 or Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766 - 1810.

18.
The Chelishchev family (Czeliszczew / Tchelischev):
Ольга Васильевна Константинович / Olga Vasilievna Konstantinovich was living in Pskov, str Kalinin, No 15/11, Apt. 1. Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich / Olga Tchelischev daughter of Vasilij Chelishchev and she was married to Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875. Olga b. ca 1875, her son Lew Lwowicz Konstantynowicz born 1900. Above named Vasilij Chelishchev was born ca 1840 / 1850.
19.
Michał Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, his father Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
His children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska married Piottuch Kublicka, Emma Ogińska. Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1740, his father Tadeusz Ogiński and grandfather Marcin Oginski. Izabela Oginska b. 1711 d. 1761, her father Michal Radziwill, her husband Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski b. 1712 d. 1783, his line from Marcin, Szymon and Samuel Oginski.
Above Ida Oginska born in 1813 (ca 1800 ?) and married to Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki from Kublicze.
Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki's brothers and sisters: Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wincenty Smokowski, Stanisław ca 1804, Anna Piottuch-Kublicka 1809-1885 m. Józef Benislawski ca 1790-1852, Walentyna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wladyslaw Jozef Sołtan 1795-1843, Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka born ca 1810 m. first Jozef Szumski b. ca 1800 and second to Dominik Konstantynowicz born (after 1800) ca 1805.
20.
But genealogical research are directed to show that Nestor Troubetzkoy (with nickname Nester Kalinowski) had a sister Maria. His sister's name would be given by the mother Maria of the Kalinowski house: Mary Kalinowski who had affinities with family of Oginski; in turn, this family was associated with the Radziwills and then with the Konstantynowiczs in Miezonki. Duchess Maria Troubeckoy probably born about 1840, married Konstantinovich - genealogical research go towards demonstrating that her husband's name was Vasily / Wasyl; Wasilij or Vasily Konstantynowicz was born about 1840. Therefore, we have strong links between the 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Zaporozhya / Zaporoze / Alexandrovsk and with Estonia, including Tallinn, Viljandi and Parnu. These relations also apply Miezonki, Lodz, the secret Pilsudski movement (Andrzejak, Wankowicz, Trubecki) in Belarus and Estonia and the smuggling of weapons from Russia to Galicia by (Spychalski, Andrzejak) Lodz. Two families: Kalinowski and Paszkowski, has a lot connections. Count Joseph Kalinowski fought in the Polish Legions, among others between 1806 and 1807 - Silesia, Westphalia, etc. Similarly, the colonel and then general Franciszek Paszkowski. Both participated in the Napoleonic wars, years 1812-1813. Returned to the country in 1814. Then Paszkowski, and Kalinowski, have made a Free City of Krakow (ca 1819) and established families. Their children were born just after 1816. Both have completed military service in the rank of general. Both family came from south of the former Poland, after in the Russian zone, and also in the Austrian partition, but had a relationships with families living in Russia.
21.
Now we back to the Piottuch Kublicki family:
Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; children: Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843; Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki, Octavia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Szumski and second time to Dominik Konstantynowicz, Anna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Benisławski, Emilia Kublicka m. Vincent Smokowski, Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki m. Ida Oginska.
Parents of above named Ida Oginski:
Michal Kleofas Oginski 1765-1833 and Maria Neri 1778-1851. Grandparents of Ida Oginski: Andrzej Ignacy Oginski 1739-1787 and Paula Szembek.
Husband of Ida Oginski: Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki. Son of Ida Oginski: Karol Piottuch-Kublicki born ca 1850.

The COLLIGNON family in France: Mercy-le-Haut and Ile-de-France 1725.

22.

A note of above mentioned Camille O'Meara / Marie Camille O'Meara, b. ?:

wife of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara, mother of Mathilde Camille Marie, Henrie Marie Bulkeley, Charles Louis Thomas and John Herbert Lewis O'Meara.

Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara

(John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris)

and Elizabeth Sophie, husband of above Marie Camille and father of mentioned Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara

(Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia

[nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist],

father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara);

Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot with children:

a. Henrie Marie Bulkeley O'Meara, b. ca 1857, b. Alfred Camille b. 1858, living in 1861 at Stoke Prior, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, with his aunt Hannah and John Corbett;
Alfred was married to Rose Julia Guilloux, descendants living in Canada;
c. John Herbert Lewis / Herbert John Louis b. 1860, d. Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara, born ca 1861, e. Charles Louis Thomas b. ca 1862 served the merchant navy.

Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889.
Europe 1789, 1815, 1914, 1917, 1937. Belarusian, Estonian, Polish and Russian genealogical and historical database


Acc. to http://gw.geneanet.org: parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Thomas O'Meara family homestead at Tombricane owned by a Tommy Moran, whose parents are believed to be Michael Moran and Mary Hogan, acc. to Erin Smith. By George Thomarat: RICHARD KELLY, SR. born 1792 in County Queens, Ireland, married ANN MORAN born 1795 in County Tyrone, Ireland - died 1874 in Foxley River.

John O'Meara, was a member of the British Diplomatic Corps in Paris and secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris / Cercle de l'Union 1839 - 1867, was born at Borrisokane, Ireland, 1797. He died in Paris in 1867; married to Elizabeth Sophie Fitzpatrick in 1827 in Paris - she was born in Bordeaux, France, 1809, d. 1889 - Paris, her parents: James Augustin FITZPATRICK and Sophie Marguerite SCHRAEDER; her children:


1. Joséphine Camille O'MEARA 1828-1907 married 1853, in Paris to Charles Victor Joseph DUBOIS 1818-1875 with the first child:

Marie Eugénie DUBOIS 1858-1903 married to Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 with children:

Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900,

Louis BREGUET 1880-1955,

Jacques BREGUET 1881-1939
(SEE: a airplane engines and magneto branches in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company).

Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900: married Jacques Bizet b. 10.07.1872, d. 1922, his parents:

Georges Bizet b. 25.10.1838 (parents: Adolphe Armand Bizet b. 1810, Aimee Marie Louise Leopoldine Josephine Delsarte b. 1814) and Genevieve Halevy b. 1849; mentioned

Georges Bizet / Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer (opera 'Carmen').

Brothers of Madeleine BREGUET were Jacques BREGUET 1881-1939 and Louis BREGUET b. 1880 - Paris, d. 1955 - he married 1902 in Paris, to Nelly GIRARDET born 1881, with children:

Antoine BREGUET b. 1903 married 1st in 1930 to Meryem COLLIER de LA MARLIERE 1904-1943 with 2 children, Antoine BREGUET 2nd married in 1945 to Genevieve GERMAIN-ROBIN; Jacqueline BREGUET 1904-1963; Gilberte BREGUET 1910-1973.

Marie Eugénie DUBOIS b. 1858 at Maisons-Laffitte, d. 1903 - Paris. Her parents: Charles Victor Joseph DUBOIS 1818-1875, and Joséphine Camille O'MEARA 1828-1907, the pupil of Chopin;
above Joséphine Camille O'MEARA, b. 1828 - Paris, d. 1907 - Paris; her parents: John O'MEARA 1797-1867, Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889.
Children of Marie E. Dubois and Antoine Breguet:
1. Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900 m. 1898, Paris to
Jacques BIZET 1872-1922;
2. Louis BREGUET, 1880-1955 m. 1902 to Nelly GIRARDET 1882-1941 with his children:
a. Antoine BREGUET 1903, m. 1930, Neuilly-sur-Seine, to
Meryem COLLIER de La MARLIERE 1904-1942;
second time married Antoine BREGUET 1903, to Genevieve de GERMAN-RIBON;
b. Jacqueline BREGUET 1904-1963 m. 1924, Houlgate, to
Jacques CHOPIN de La BRUYERE 1897-1956;
c. Gilberte BREGUET 1910-1973 m. 1932 to Robert FENWICK 1909-1959 with 3 children; 2nd married to NN with 2 children;
Above Louis BREGUET 1880-1955 married 2nd time to NN with 1 child.
3. Jacques BREGUET, 1881-1939 m. Simone DEVELLE 1887-1963 with children:
a. François René Jean BREGUET 1909-1989;
b. Claude BREGUET 1910-1989 m. Jacqueline JOBIT 1907;
c. Madeleine BREGUET 1912-2002 m. 1934 to Charles DURAND-RUEL 1905-1985.
Marie Eugénie DUBOIS married 2nd in 1897 in Paris to Georges Henri Joseph LYON, 1853 - Paris, Prof. 1884, Faculte de Lille 1908, from Joseph Louis LYON and Madeleine Elisabeth AUBOUR.
Copyright by http://gw.geneanet.org/.

Meryem COLLIER de La MARLIERE b. 1904, parents: Leopold COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE, Comte DE LA MARLIERE 1872-1942 and Marguarita POTRON 1874-1950;

father of above Leopold: Leopold Benedict COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE b. 1840, m. in Spain; grandparents: Antoine COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE 1803-1872 and Amelie JOUVIN 1809-1873; great-grandfather Antoine Isidor COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE 1769-1821, and his father Louis Charles COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE, Marquis DE LA MARLIERE 1733-1799; grandfather Theophile Antoine COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE, Seigneur DE BOISPOUSSIN 1698-1748 (Le Bois Poussin, south of Nangis, south-east of Paris). Theophile Antoine COLLIER DE LA MARLIERE, Seigneur DE BOISPOUSSIN 1698-1748 was born in VOULANGIS, east of Paris.

Jacques CHOPIN de La BRUYERE 1897 in Montauban of the Tarn-et-Garonne 48 km north of Toulouse,

inf. by THURET Daniel at http://www.gen-gen.ch/, m. 1st Paule ADAM, and m. 2nd to Jacqueline BREGUET. His parents: Etienne CHOPIN de LA BRUYÈRE 1868-1937 (his parents: Paul Edmond CHOPIN de LA BRUYERE ca 1830 - ca 1905 [his parents: Gabriel CHOPIN de LA BRUYERE 1796-1860 {his parents: Etienne CHOPIN de LA BRUYÈRE 1748-1809 Catholic and Marguerite FERRIERE ca 1767-1864} and Marie Aglae de MORIN du SENDAT 1805-1867] and Marie Caroline Amelie SOL 1838-1905) + Helene d'AMBOIX de LARBONT.

2. Thomas Bulkeley O'MEARA 1829-1904 married 1855, Paris to Marie Camille BLOT b. 1836;

3. Anna Elisa O'MEARA 1831-1914 married 1856 to John The Salt King CORBETT 1817-1901.

4. Alfred Léon Jean O'MEARA 1834-1899 married
1862, Calcutta in India,
to Mary Anne PRICE-BROWNE with children:

Walter Alfred O'MEARA 1863-1939 married 1892 to Annie Mary McKinnon GRAVES; Frederick Arthur O'MEARA 1864-1887, Anna Beatrice Edith O'MEARA 1865 married
1886, Lahore (Pakistan),
to Sir Ernest de BRATH 1858-1933;
Bulkeley Ernest Adolphus O'MEARA 1867-1916 married to Edith HINES; Marie Alice Emma O'MEARA 1867-1867; Charles Albert Edmund O'MEARA 1868-1923 married 1900, Umballa (India), to Mabel Katherine HILL; Florence Agnes Elizabeth O'MEARA 1869 married
1890, Umballa (India),
to Herbert WALTON; Herbert Harry William O'MEARA 1873; Camille Gertrude O'MEARA 1877 married,
Bombay (India),
to Gordon Hay ANDERSON 1877.

5. Mathilde Pauline Marie O'MEARA b. 1835, married in 1858 to Victor CHEVREUL.

Sophie Berthelot, born Sophie Caroline Niaudet in 1837 in Paris
and died 1907 in Paris, is a French woman scientist; her husband, chemist and politician Marcellin Berthelot, whom she married in 1861; she is the first woman on the Pantheon
(Marie Curie Sklodowska and Sophie Berthelot are the first two women buried in the Pantheon of Paris), had six children:

politician André Berthelot (1862-1938), the scholar Daniel Berthelot (1865-1927), diplomat Philippe Berthelot (1866-1934) and the philosopher René Berthelot (1872-1960).

Elizabeth Sophie O'Meara nee Fitzpatrick, b. 1809 in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France; died 1889 in Paris; parents James Augustin FITZPATRICK - marchand bootmaker, married 1805, parish of the St-Mary, Lambeth, Surrey, to Sophie Marguerite SCHRAEDER.
Lambeth is a district in Central London, current district of Lambeth was part of the large ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary; south of the London core.
Wife of John O'Meara; mother of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara, Josephine Camille Dubois
(Joséphine Camille O'MEARA 1828-1907 m. 1853, Paris to Charles Victor Joseph DUBOIS 1818-1875),
Alfred Léon Jean O'Meara, dental-surgeon, Anna Elisa and Mathilda Paulina;
residence in 1871 at St Martin In The Fields, London; next of kin to Charles Dubois, Jean Dubois, Marie Dubois. Why and how James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool. Continental blockade was abolished in 1812. Everyone broke it. But in the times of revolution in 1793 issued a similar document, and three years later the same by the Directorate. England on May 16, 1806, announced a naval blockade of Europe controlled by France. The commerce of Bourdeoux, hard suffered from the continental blockade of the period of the Empire. In fact, the British blockade of France and continental blockade of England were extreme forms of state interference in international trade.

Marcellin Berthelot / Marcel / Marcelin Berthelot is married to Sophie Caroline Niaudet, niece of Louis Breguet - her grandmother Camille O'Meara was a student of Frideric / Fryderyk Chopin.

Fryderyk / Frederic Franciszek Chopin, b. 1810 in Poland, d. 1849 in Paris; he was son of Nicolas Chopin and Tekla Justyna; Nicolas Chopin b. 1771 in Marainville-sur-Madon, Lorraine, 32 km south of Nancy, France. Nicolas Chopin was a teacher of French in Russian-ruled Poland;

Michał Jan Pac (1730-1787), a Polish nobleman exiled after the Bar Confederation, bought the castle in 1780 in Marainville - his steward, Adam Weydlich, made acquaintance with the village syndic, François Chopin. François Chopin had a son, Nicolas. Nicolas Chopin emigrated in 1810 to Żelazowa Wola.

François Chopin (1738, Ambacourt - 1814, Marainville), a village administrator for Marainville, married to Marguerite Deflin (1736, Diarville - 1794, Marainville);

Nicolas had four sisters, Anne who married Joseph Thomas in 1798, and Marguerite who married Nicolas Bastien in 1798.

Nicolas' godmother was his aunt Therese Lhumbert nee Chopin. Weydlich's wife was a Parisian, Françoise-Nicole nee Schelling, but in 1787, Weydlich returned to Poland with his family and Nicolas; Nicolas and the Weydlich family lived on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Nicolas joined the Warsaw municipal militia in 1794, and spent the next several years at Żelazowa Wola with Countess Ludwika Skarbek and her family, relatives of the Łączyńskis; 1810 their only son Fryderyk was born. His godfather was Fryderyk Skarbek. Count Skarbek had fallen into debt and fled the Duchy of Warsaw, leaving his wife and four children.

Nicolas Chopin died in Warsaw on 3 May 1844. His father François Chopin 1738 - 1814 born in Ambacourt, d. in Marainville sur Madon; his mother Marié.

Frédéric François Chopin b. 1810, was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist; 1831 he settled in Paris, friend of Franz Liszt, Robert Schumann, George Sand; supported by his admirer

Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848; Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took him on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848, and took charge of the disposal of his effects and manuscripts after his death in 1849.

Stirling was born as the youngest of 13 children of John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family.

She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Frédéric Chopin in 1840 / 1842 / 1843, worked with Chopin of the French editions of most of his works; became his secretary, agent and business manager.

Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859: her father John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816; his parents: Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 8 Apr 1704

(Patrick Stirling, 1704 - 1745 from Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 14 Dec 1680

{his father John Stirling, 2nd of Kippendavie, b. 1622, Dunblane, Perthshire, Scotland and Christian Dog / Doig b. 1640, Kilmadock, Perthshire, Scotland}

and mother Catherine Arbuthnot:

come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott)

and mother Margaret Douglas d. 1754:

her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith.

Frederick Chopin in Edinburgh 1848, came at the instigation of Jane Wilhelmina Stirling, well-known Scottish family. She was born at Kippenross House in Dunblane, on July 15th, 1804. Chopin arrived in London in April 1848.

We know on John Stirling, b. 1822, Scotland, died in Dunblane; John Stirling, 7th of Kippendavie - Perthshire, Laird of Kippenross House, and was descended from a noble Scottish family. Eldest son of Patrick Stirling, and Catherine Georgina Wedderburn. He married Catherine Mary Wellings, daughter of John Wellings and Mary Wedderburn in Brighton, Sessex, England. They had three sons and one daughter.

Remember: 1. Edward Esterling (Stirling / EASTERLING b. ca 1790 ?) and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland had daughters: Odile Esterling b. 1830 (Latvia?) at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, also Charlotte Esterling and Alvina Esterling. Probably that is Yukka, Yuka at Crimea, close to Заозерное / Ялы́-Мойна́к / Yalı Moynaq / Ялы Мойнакъ, 10 км south-west of Евпатория, western Crimea.

2. George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772; George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras. They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

3. Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Mentioned above Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour (b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London).

4. John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816: John Kippendavie, acquired the estate of Kippenross from William Pearson 1778, and Kippendavie, Lanrick, Auchinbie, Shanraw, and Woodland from James Stirling of Keir in 1813.

Children: 1. Patrick STIRLING b. 1782 in Dunblane, Perth; 2. Douglas STIRLING b. 1784 in Dunblane, Perth, 3. Mary STIRLING 1786 in Dunblane, 4. William STIRLING 1787 in Dunblane; 5. Catherine STIRLING 1791 in Dunblane, 6. Charles STIRLING 1796 in Gargunnock, Stirling, Scotland; 7. Thomas STIRLING 1800 in Dunblane, Perth, 8. Sylvester Douglas STIRLING b. 1803 in Dunblane, 9. Jean Wilhelmina STIRLING 1804 in Dunblane.

The same branch: James STIRLING b. ca 1707 in Kippendavie, Stirling, Scotland.

The Chopin family: Marainville-sur-Madon, in the Vosges, 35 km south of Nancy; north-west of Basel. Xirocourt, Ambacourt, Diarville; Xirocourt - 38 km south of Nancy. Ambacourt - ca 10 km south of Xirocourt; Diarville few km north of Xirocourt. Rambervillers - south-east of Nancy; Romont - west of Rambervillers; village Saint-Crespin.

It is also said that the father of Frederick Chopin had left his native village of Marainville-sur-Madon, in the Vosges, to escape the militia - the family had arrived in the Vosges with rear rear grandfather Frederick married in the early eighteenth century in Romont near Rambervillers to be involved in trafficking of tobacco; many of Lorraine may have common ancestors with Chopin, including families Bastien, Oudot, Orchard, Chapellier, Matton, Drouot Moinel, Deflin, Fox, Humbert, Henry Beard - concentrated in the towns of Herguigney, Forcelles-sous-Gugney: with surnames Marcellin, Mayor, Vuidart, Eury, Florentin Marchal, Delepee, Perrot, Roussel, Barber, Contaut, Couturieux, Henry Lhuillier, Adam.

Nicolas CHOPIN, 1712, Xirocourt; d. 1772, Xirocourt. Elisabeth BASTIEN, 1712, Ambacourt - 1747, Ambacourt.

Freemasons and Scotland:

A French trader, Estienne Morin, of the Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744, in 1747, founded an Scots Masters Lodge in the French colony of Saint-Domingue; next 1764 at New Orleans, Mother Supreme Council at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1801; John Mitchell, born in Ireland in 1741, the first Grand Commander of the Supreme Council.
The Grand Lodge of Antient, Free and Accepted Masons of Scotland was founded in 1736:
William Amherst, 3rd Earl Amherst (1836 - 1910), British nobleman and politician;
John Arbuthnot (Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen in 1667 - 1735), a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London, the Scriblerus Club;
1739: John Keith, 3rd Earl of Kintore;
1740: James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, b. 1702, was a Scottish astronomer, President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh;
1746: Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan;
1750: Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine;
1757: Sholto Douglas, Lord Aberdour;
1765: Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie;
1788: Francis Douglas, Lord Elcho;
1792: George Douglas, 16th Earl of Morton;
1800: Sir James Stirling, 1st Bt., Lord Provost of Edinburgh, (b. 1740 - d. 1805) his wife was Alison Mansfield, b. 1750, children:
1. Sir Gilbert Stirling, Baronet, b. ca 1779, of Uppal, Midlothian, Scotland, 2. Janet Stirling, of Midlothian, married Livingstone;
Sir James Stirling in the West Indies had made his fortune, Secretary to Archibald Stirling of Keir, Secretary of Sir Charles Dalling, Governor of Jamaica, the banking house of Mansfield, Ramsay, & Co.;
1833: Henry Erskine, 12th Earl of Buchan.
Interesting!
1. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.
2. Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took Chopin on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848; her father John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family. She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Chopin in 1840 / 1842 / 1843.
The Stirlings of Kippendavie, Perthshire, and Carden in the Stirlingshire, are cadets of the Keir family. The ancestor of the Kippendavie branch was Archibald Stirling, son of Archibald Stirling of Keir, to whom his father gave the lands of Kippendavie in 1594.
John Stirling of Kippendavie married Mary, 2d daughter of William Graham, b. ca 1730, and had a son, Patrick (not at list below!), who married in 1810, Catherine Georgina, 2d daughter of John Wedderburn, Esq. of Spring Garden, Jamaica. He died 1860, leaving the elder son, John Stirling, Esq. of Kippendavie, born in 1811.
Children of Mary Graham and John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742, m. 1781:
1. Katherine, 2. Ann Stirling, 3. Mary, 4. Margaret Douglas, 5. William Stirling, of Kenmure and Jamaica, b. 1787, 6. John Stirling, of Grogar and Blackgrane, b. 1788,
7. James Stirling, of Glentyan, 8. Charles Stirling, 1st of Gargunnock, b. 1796, 9. Sylvester Douglas Stirling, of Glenbervie / Woodside, b. 1803, and
10. Jean Wilhelmina Stirling, b. 1804.
Above mentioned John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816, his parents:
Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 1704 and mother Margaret Douglas.
Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie b. 1704 - 1745: his children
Patrick Stirling, 5th of Kippendavie, b. 1734, and
2. John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742.
His father: Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 1680 - 1736.
Freemasons:
1. Michal Kazimierz Oginski, duke, b. 1728 or 1730 / 1731 died 1800 in Slonim or Warsaw; General, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski - freemason. Michal Kleofas Oginski - freemason.
2. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich / Sandro b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters. Vice-Admiral was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Military Air Fleet, in 1914 or 1915 Inspector of Aviation; aide-de-camp to Nicholas II, an old friend of the Tsar and married to his sister Xenia.
3. Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield.
David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry.
4. A daughter of Alexander Gruzinsky - Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) with four children, including Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) who was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason.
5. Parvus, the future moneybags for the Bolsheviks and arranger of Lenin's return to Petrograd on the sealed train, first made his fortune in the Salonika-Constantinople grain trade run by Volpi's freemasonic associates. Many of the Polish Bolsheviks who played an important role in the early days of Dzerzhinsky's Cheka, had been run by Parvus. In the tiny Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, whose economy and royal house were owned by Volpi from approximately the tum of the century, the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 was N. M. Potapov. Out of this apparent backwater, Potapov in 1915 vaulted to the position of Quartermaster General of the Russian Army.
6. Alexander Pushkin back in 1824 from Odessa to Mikhailovsky, was in Kolpino, close to present city Pustoshka. In those years it was owned by
Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot-Zenovich senior, a member of the Masonic Lodge in St. Petersburg.
Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz junior b. ca 1830, son of Jan Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1800 (grandson of Anna Despot-Zenowicz nee Niemirowicz-Szczytt); The Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz senior (c. 1802 - d. ?), was brother of mentioned Jan. Father of above Jan: Michał Despot-Zenowicz, b. ca 1770? Grandfather Antoni Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1730. In the second half of the XIX century, owner of the Kolpino estate was Stanislav Wrangell (1844-1913) - son of the famous physician Carl Philipp von Wrangel Gyubentalya (1786-1858). Carl Wrangel was married twice. From his first wife Constance, he had two sons. After the death of Constance in 1832, he married Anna Yurevich / Jurewicz. In 1844 they had a son Stanislav, the future judge and the owner of the estate in Kolpino. Anna Jurevich had three estates in Vitebsk - Kolpino, Reblino and Zabel. Kolpino belonged to her mother, nee Despot-Zenovich. Originally, the estate was owned by the Duchess of Polonia Oginska.

7.
1763 Thomas Nugent, 6th Earl of Westmeath;
1767 Ford Lambart, 5th Earl of Cavan; 1770 William FitzGerald, Marquess of Kildare; 1874 James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn; 1886 James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn.
Above mentioned Thomas Nugent, 6th Earl of Westmeath b. 1714 - d. 1792; was an Irish peer and freemason; his father John Nugent, 5th Earl of Westmeath.
Nugent was appointed Grandmaster of the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1763, a post he held for the following four years.
By his first wife, Mary Stapleton, he had one son Richard Nugent, Lord Delvin (1742–1761);
by his second wife, Catherine White, he had three sons and one daughter: George Frederick Nugent, 7th Earl of Westmeath (1760–1814).
Richard Nugent, Lord Delvin (1742 - 1761) was an Irish duellist and Member of Parliament, was the eldest son of Thomas Nugent, 6th Earl of Westmeath and adopted the courtesy title of Lord Delvin in 1754; was challenged to a duel by Capt. George Reilly.
George Frederick Nugent, 7th Earl of Westmeath PC (1760 - 1814), he married Maryanne Jeffries, divorced, 1797 Westmeath remarried Lady Elizabeth Moore, daughter of Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda;
had several children of the first marriage: George Nugent, 1st Marquess of Westmeath.
There were five children of the second marriage, Robert, Thomas, Elizabeth, Catherine and Mary.
George Thomas John Nugent, 1st Marquess of Westmeath (1785 - 1871), The Earl of Westmeath between 1814 and 1821, was an Irish peer. Nugent was born in
Clonyn, County Westmeath,
the son of George Frederick Nugent, 7th Earl of Westmeath, and Marianne, daughter of Major James St. John Jefferyes. Lord Westmeath was married three times. He married firstly Lady Emily Anne Bennet Elizabeth Cecil, daughter of James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury; he married, secondly, Maria Jervis; married, lastly, Elizabeth Charlotte Verner.

Note on the Cercle de l'Union:

John O'Meara, was a member of the British Diplomatic Corps in Paris and secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris / Cercle de l'Union 1839 - 1867, was born at Borrisokane, Ireland, 1797.
He died in Paris in 1867; married to Elizabeth Sophie Fitzpatrick in 1827 in Paris - she was born in Bordeaux, France, 1809, d. 1889 - Paris, her parents: James Augustin FITZPATRICK and Sophie Marguerite SCHRAEDER.

Note at margin:
The Nugent family from Ireland - Dublin, next in Napoli / Naples and Triest:
1. Laval Jeremias Anton Nugent of Nugent b. 1843 in Triest, d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger.
His parents: Johann Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin - Irland and died in Brescia, 1849; married to Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
His grandfather Michael Anton Nugent.
2. We know on John Nugent died 1827.
Walter Nugent, 1st Baron Nugent was died in 1864; was the son of John Nugent (he lived at Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland) and Mary Gregg.
3. Laval Nugent von Westmeath (Ballynacor, 3 Nov. 1777 - died in Karlovac, 21 August 1862).
Ballynacor is located ca 18 km north-east of Mullingar. Ballynacor, Westmeath, Ireland.
4. Baroness Beatrix Nugent of Nugent - Westmeath, born 1819 / 1822 in Naples / Napoli, died 26 March 1880 in Wien / Vienna; she was married Prince Leopold Emanuel Ludwig Croy of Croy - Dülmen, b. 8 May 1827.
5. Helen Georgina Nugent, born 10 July 1842 in Napoli, Campania, Italy or in
Mullingar, Westmeath, Ireland.
Her father Walter Nugent Baron Nugent; she married on 30 July 1873 to
Lived in Cornacassa, the County of Monaghan; children:
1. Georgina Eglantine Hamilton, b. 1876, Cornacassa, Monaghan, Ireland;
2. Agnes Elizabeth Hamilton, of Cornacassa, Monaghan, d. 1972;
3. Edith Louisa Hamilton, b.
1884 in Pau, Pyrenees-Atlantiques, France.

We know about
surgeon Barry Edward O'Meara (1786-1836) who was doctor of Napoleon. Sir Hudson Lowe (1769-1844), Governor of St Helena wrote on the death of Napoleon I, and Lowe's subsequent dispute with Barry Edward O'Meara, Napoleon's surgeon.

Duke Oldenburg, Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Holstein-Gottorp, that is Duke of Oldenburg / Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg, served as an adjutant stationed on the Caucasian Front in Georgia, under command of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich, the Governor General of the Caucasus. Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel Daniel Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command. The Dadiani were respected noble family in Georgia, as a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty. Agrippina Japaridze was Tariel Dadiani's second wife. Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani. On 20 October 1882, Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg entered into a morganatic marriage with a titleless Georgian noblewoman Agrippina Japaridze. Between 1883 and 1892 they produced six children, all of them born in Kutais, the Caucasus:

Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).

Above Prince George Gogo Yurievsky was the son of Tsar Alexander II and his secret mistress, Catherine Dolgorukov, the Princess Yurievskaya. In 1885, Baron Arthur von Mohrenheim, head of the Russian Okhrana (secret police) in Paris, reported that the widowed Princess Yurievskaya had been using her money to finance a group of Russian nihilists who were attempting to kill Tsar Alexander III and his family.

Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg, and to the Dadiani family.

Mentioned above Shote (Chote ? / Schoten ? / Chateau ? / Schatto / Château):

Nicholas Schatto was a French Huguenot who fled, with his family, from Avignon in Catholic controlled France to the Rhineland-Pflaz area of Germany where Protestantism was accepted. Anna Maria married Anthony Keller of Lettweiler, Germany in 1730 at Meisenheim, Rhineland-Pflaz. Chateau de Triac: Triac, 20 km west of Angouleme, 17 km east of Cognac; 70 km east of Atlantic.

In Paris a lot of champagne was drunk in the clubs, at the Union, above mentioned the Cercle Impérial, the Cercle Agricole, and the Jockey-Club, founded in 1834.

At margin:

Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia.

But we know that the same 29 year-old General Paul Armand came from Paris (in 1791) in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay / де Куртене. Armand was not married. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south of France. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.

When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was

trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Bauffremont is a French family which derived its name from a village in the Vosges, close to Orléans; they are descended from the female line of the Courtenay. The last male member of the French Courtenays committed suicide in 1727. However his sister married Louis de Bauffremont, and their descendants assumed the dubious title of Prince de Courtenay, which they bear to this day.

Marquis de Courtenay / де Куртене come from Paris (in 1791) to Russia.
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay (1773–1833), son of Louis served under the Bourbons. He fled France during the French Revolution and settled in the United States. He later returned to France and was made a Count of the French Empire by Napoleon. Louis XVIII made him a peer of France in 1817, and duke in 1818. His two sons: Alphonse (1792-1860), second Duke of Bauffremont; Theodore (1793-1852).
Different source: Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay emigrated to Koblenz then in Spain with the rank of lieutenant colonel in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 as a cavalry captain in the service of France and in 1795 back to France away from politics.


We stayed in 

St Petersburg and Moscow

"Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co." 

abbreviated as 

DEKA 

Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho was a key figure in the development of the Russian  air force; well-bred in

Georgia  /  საქართველო  /   Sakartvelo  

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich born 13 / 25 October 1832 in Peterhof, Field Marshal and on December 6, 1862 was appointed governor in the Caucasus and commander the Caucasian Army, with all rights chief of the army to July 23, 1881. Initiator of the compilation of the 'Caucasian Collection', published in Tiflis in 1876-1912. In marriage he had six sons and one daughter, among others Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April
1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.
Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals. In 1892 he commanded the destroyer 'Revel', in 1895, was a senior officer of a battleship and in 1899, on the battleship 'Admiral Apraksin', then transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, where he commanded the battleship 'Rostislav'. With the beginning of the 1st World War, in fact, led the fleet of Russia. In 1915, Admiral, with the December 1916 field inspector - general of military aircraft; after February 1917 was in the Crimea, and in 1919 went into exile. Since 1903 an honorary member of the Nikolaev Naval Academy, was also the chairman of the Eng. Technical Society. In exile, was the honorary chairman of the Union of Russian military pilots and he was the patron of the National Organization for Russian scouts. He was in France in 1909 and next established the Volunteer Aerial Association under his presidency (All Russian Aero Club) and set up the first military aviation school in Sebastopol in 1909 or 1910 - finally formed at Sevastopol (Sebastopol) for the winter 1912 and in Gatchina for the summer 1912; near to Russian military intelligence. The Duke, Freemason, Vice-Admiral was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian  Military Air Fleet  in 1914 or 1915  and  he  became Inspector of Aviation; aide-de-camp to Nicholas II, an old friend of the Tsar and  married to  his sister Xenia.

Several genealogical relationships between families in Estonia, Georgia and Belarus:

1. Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

2. Otto Magnus Karl Bernhard von Toll / фон Толль (1794 - 1799) born in Thula (Tuula), close to Saue, Harjumaa;
d. 1799 in Walling (Valingu), close to Saue and Keila; and Margaretha Elisabeth Lisette von Toll Freiin von Rosen (1769 - 1824), d. 1824 in Walling (Valingu), close to Saue and Keila. Valingu, 4 km north-east of Tuula, 4 km south-west of Saue. Franziska Helene Magdalena von Toll 1796 - d. 1820 in Walling (Valingu), 3 km east of Keila. Berend Heinrich von Toll, owner of Walling and Tuula / Thula (1758 - 1829).

3. Prince Alexander Leonovich Dadian / Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800 in Simbirsk,
Sengileevsky County and died 1865 in Moscow, adjutant, Colonel, commander of Erivan Regiment; his father Leon Aleksandrovich and Maria nee Naryshkina; His wife's mother,
Elizabeth D. Rosen, was next of kin with Baron Alexander G. Rosen (1812-1874)
- the hero of the battle of Warsaw in 1831. His father Baron Grigory V. Rosen (1782-1841), Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, General of Infantry, Adjutant General in 1818. And grandfather Lieutenant-General V. I. Rosen (1742-1790) from his marriage to the Olympia Raevskaya Feodorovna.

4. Note on the Rosen family:
From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791: Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval, her father - Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Lőve, Pődrala, Valdamaa, Estland; and

her grandfather - Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812, and her great-grandfather - Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola;
her husband - Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892 and his father -
Hans Wilhelm Gustav Freiherr von Rosen 1780 - 1862.

Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval, daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem. Sons of above named Hedwig:
a. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottländer d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval, b. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski. The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemőisa mőis east part of Haapsalu at present.

5. Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, was born 1846 or 1847; her parents: Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800 and mother of Praskovya: Lydia G. Rosen born 1816 and died 1866

(a branch from baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742 died 1792 and his wife Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746).

The fate of life of these people and the noble clans will meet in the future:

1.
Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710, d. 1784 in Tallinn, Harju, Estonia;
daughter of Jakob Johann von Berg and Agenete Wilhelmine von Meck; wife of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau; she was mother of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau; she was sister of Reinhold Wilhelm von Berg and Jakob Friedrich von Berg; Otto Gustav von Berg and Robert Johann von Berg. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.

Many families from Sweden settled in the Swedish provinces of Latvia and Estonia in 17th cent. and 18th century. Among these families was the Hacker or Haker, as well as the family of Pilar Pilchau. Heinrich von Tunderfeldt, m. to Anna von Rosenbach, he d. after 1693, daughter of Bernhard von Rosenbach; with child Anna von Tunderfeldt married in 1669 to Nikolaus Georg Pilar von Pilchau d. 1697: his son Friedrich Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, captain, married 1707, in St. Jürgen (Eesti, Estonia), to Marie Elisabeth von Knorring with child Georg Johann Pilar von Pilchau of Orrenhof (south of Parnu; Orajoe, Estland). Above Heinrich von Tunderfeldt had post of a mayor in Reval 1676. Mentioned above Nikolaus Georg Pilar Pilchau died before or in 1697, his father Wenzel Pilar Pilchau from Morby (Schweden); his son Friedrich Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, his grandson Georg Johann Pilar von Pilchau from Orrenhof (south of Parnu, Estland) married 1732, Reval, to Anna Sophia von Berg with son Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau from Hallick (Hallik), Lechts, Merremois und Jöggis. Above Nikolaus Georg Pilar Pilchau was Sweden Obt-Ltn. in Christianstadt (Schonen). Kristianstad / Christiansstad / Christianstadt is located in the Skane County, Sweden / Provinz Schonen.

2.
Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod, Tver and Pskov; son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699); grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753
(his son Karl Eduard von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, father of Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata, Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livland) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov, Benedikte b. 1750, Peter and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg);
count 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland and led the second and third partition of the Polish kingdom.
Cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia.
From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (embassy of Prussia).
Vyshny Volochyok / Вышний Волочёк, close to Borkovo, ca 80 km north of Torzok; 85 km north-east of Kuvshinovo; 140 km north-west of Tver. 1773 to 1782, Count Sivers Jakov / Яков Ефимович Сиверс acted here (next Jozef Korycki / Осип Иванович Корицкий in 1824/1828).

Peter von Sivers b. 1674 = Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 d. 1726, son of Joachim Sievers; this above named Christian Peter Sievers had children: Anna Magdalena, Joachim Christian / Joachim von Sievers and Maria Elisabeth Gunzel, but Peter Trefilov in 2011 not informed about Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval; Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 had brother Joachim Johann b. ca 1674 - his son Karl Eduard von Sievers b. 1710 of Nybygard; in this branch was Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1699, grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753. Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 was daughter of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and was wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750. He was son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Leonette Wilhelmina Rehbinder / Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder.

The family of Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers b. 1716 d. 1781 and Leonette Wilhelmina von Rehbinder 1729 - 1753: son Georg Johann von Sivers (b. 1750, Euseküll, Estonia; died Hiitola / Pukinniemi / Khiytola - a rural settlement of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) married in 1773 in Tallinn to Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau (b. 1749, Wait, Estonia) with children: Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers 1780, Anna Charlotta Christina von Sivers 1783, Dorothea Wilhelmina Johanna von Sivers, Elisabeth Christina, Catharina Hedvig Elisabeth.

Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869; descended from Lutherans, who had migrated from France some generation previously; also known as Petr Fedorovich Anzhu, on 23 May 1820 with Wrangell, via Moscow, Irkutsk, the Lena, Ust-Yansk, traveled to New Siberian Islands. Anjou was involved in exploration in 1825 - 1826, with Friedrich Rembert von Berg, to Aral Sea.

The Anjou family in Russia:

In XVIII century many foreigners were arriving from the West to Russia; the

Anjou family came from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 16 km north of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade.

The important note:

1. Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south -east of Capua, son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Naples, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille; family owned a thriving factory; his father, a former merchant of Naples.

Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France. Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia:

a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.

After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

2. E. Rastoin is the son of an owner from Aix Provence, Bernard Rastoin, 1803-1859. He has studied School of Arts and Job in Aix Provence, open in 1843. RASTOIN, Roquebrussanne of Var, Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, France 1809-1845; RASTOIN, Val of Var, Côte d'Azur, France 1740-1818; Rastoin is a great French family of Marseille, which has benefited from the rise of the oil mill industry in the late nineteenth century. The first Rastoin oil mill was founded in 1882. Deputy Mayor of Marseille: Émile Rastoin in 1905-1908.

3. Jean François Ricord was appointed judge of the revolutionary court of criminal department and he was elected to the District Court of Nice; Jean François Ricord (1760-1818) was a French advocate of d'Aix / Aix and in Grasse; and was elected deputy of the Var to the National Convention in 1792; close to Robespierre, he was sent as a representative mission in Toulon; 1794 he was commissioner of the Convention with Augustin Robespierre to the army of Italy.

4.

Vasily Troubetzkoy, born 1776, his relatives:
de Voisins Gilbert,
de Rohan-Rochefort,
Manfredi,
de Beauregard,
Mussin-Pushkin,
de Morny,
Silva-Bazan;
his granddaughter Margarita (daughter of Alexander Trubetskoy and Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins), b. 1857, m. Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard - his parents:
Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard and Cecile de Mones d'Elbouix.
Above Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins, b. 1835, d. 1901, daughter of
Jean Pierre Gilbert de Voisins

(d. 1863, son of Pierre Paul Alexandre Gilbert de Voisins and Charlotte Digneron de Beauvoir b. 1775)

and Marie Sophie Taglioni - she b. 1804 in Stockholm, d. 1884 in Marseille, daughter of Philippe Taglioni and Sophie Karsten; she was sister of Georges Gilbert de Voisins

(husband of Sozonga Ralli, b. 1857 in London, d. 1906 in Paris, daughter of Stephanos Rallis b. 1829 in Marseille, d. 1902 in Monte Carlo, son of Augustis Rallis and Sosonga - b. 1804 in Smyrne)

b. 1843 - his son Marie Auguste Gilbert de Voisins b. 1877 in Paramé, St-Malo, France, m. Louise de Heredia daughter of José Maria de Heredia and Louise Cécile Despaigne. Gabriel Voisin b. Belleville-sur-Saône 1880, his brother Charles Voisin b. Lyon 1882, his mother, Amélie lived in Neuville-sur-Saône.

5. Jean d'Anjou from Pertuis, baptized at Aix in 1656, m. in 1695 to Françoise GOYRAN born in Aix in 1664, daughter of the advocate in the parliament of Provence, and Therese of Saurat - southern France; children: a. Margaret Theresa of Anjou born 1696 in Aix, Suzanne of Anjou born 1697, in Pertuis - 5 km north-east of Le Puy-Saint-Reparade, Melchior Anjou godfather, godmother Suzanne Cornarel; b. Jean Joseph Anjou; c. Anne-Gabrielle d'Anjou born 1700 in Aix, Jean Antoine Silvecane godfather, godmother Anne d'Anjou; d. Jean-Baptiste d'ANJOU of Puy Sainte-Réparade, born 1701 in Aix, godfather Jean-Baptiste Estienne, godmother Martha Therese Gouin, died 1765 in Le Puy-Sainte Reparade, married 1735 in Puy Sainte-Réparade to Therese OLLIVIER LA FOREST daughter of Jean Francois Bourgeois and Magdeleine LA BERGE, in the presence of Mathieu Gastaud Pourrieres priest, Joseph and Louis Granon Rocamus. She died before 1773 (1748) in Puy-Sainte-Réparade.

The Anjou family settled in Russia in a provincial town Vishny Volochek.

Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869, received the name Pyotr Fyodorov son Anjou. In 1801 Fedor Anjou received the right to acquire the hereditary nobility. In 1815, Peter made ​​a midshipman, was assigned to serve on the frigate 'Avstroil' and five years later received the rank of lieutenant and appointed head of the polar expedition to study and describe the coast of Siberia. In 1824, this work has been successfully completed; F. F. Berg, whose task was to describe the north-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea and the western shore of the Aral Sea, taken Peter Anjou. 1844 Anjou assigned the rank of Rear Admiral, he was appointed captain of the port of Kronstadt.

A house of Rear Admiral P. F. Anjou is located at Yeleninskaya st., 20-22 in 1848-1849. In 1909 the house of Yeleninskaya 20-22 were registered under Anju Anna Ivanovna.

Samples: Anjou Vladimir Ivanovich (1876-1921), Captain 1st rank, great-grandson of Peter Fedorovich Anjou. Anjou Ivan (?), grandson of Admiral Anjou. Pyotr Anjou (1832-1876), Captain 1st rank, son of an admiral.

Fyodor Anjou / Fedor Anjou was a naval doctor. Son of Frenchman Jean-Andrian Anjou, who had fled to Russia from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence / Aix Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 16 km north of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade (not from the province of Anjou in France - that is mistake).

Anjou Fyodor b. 15/08/1758 - d. 02/11/1824. Born in the family of a watchmaker; 1775 in the Moscow hospital school, after graduating 1779 was soon sent abroad, studied first in Berlin and then in Gettinge where in 1783 received degree of doctor; 1784 - 1788 in Moscow province, enlisted in Vishny Volochek in 1790 to 1797; 1801 he received the hereditary nobility; his son Peter (1796-1869).

Anjou, Peter F. / Anjou Pyotr Fyodorovich (1796 / 1797 in Vishny Volochyok in the Tver province - 1869), Admiral. His grandfather was a native of France, a Protestant. Persecuted for their faith; Peter's father, Fyodor, was a doctor.

His friend Baron Ferdinand Wrangell.

His son Peter sailed on the frigate Pallada, his grandson was the captain of the first rank and the commander of the squadron, who brought the king of France to sign a treaty between France and Russia in 1909. Military glory of Peter F. Anjou gained in the battle of Navarino with the Turks. He commanded the artillery of 'Gangut'; in this battle on the flagship 'Azov', under the M. P. Lazareva, were young officers P. Nakhimov, V. Istomin and V. Kornilov. All three admirals. Year after Navarino, 1828,

Peter Anjou married a young widow Xenia Ivanovna 1807-1870, whom he met in the family of Peter Ricord, countryman of Toropets.

In this marriage born three sons and three daughters: 1834-1897 Ludmila, in marriage Steinheil; Fedor 1842-1858, Marine Corps cadet; Peter sailed on the frigate Pallada - home in St. Petersburg and son Peter

(Petr Petrovich Anzhu (1832-76), 1848 - 50 Danmark, England; Pacific Ocean and Korea. Son of Xenia Ivanovna Loginov and Peter Fedorovich Anjou. He was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery with his father. ​​Japan, Korea Peninsula. In service since 1847, on ships of the Baltic Fleet in the Atlantic Ocean in 1848-1850, officer (1849), 1852 - 1855 leads hydrography near the Korean coast, going to the Pacific Ocean on the frigate Pallada; 1873 - 1875 leads hydrography Ladoga and Onega lakes);

Alexander, died in 1888.

Anjou Vladimir Ivanovich, Captain 2nd class in 1912, born 1876, in service since 1896, midshipman (1898), the war with Japan 1904 - 1905, senior officer of the gunboat Hivinets (1910 - 1911), Europe (1911 - 1912) and Cupid (1912). The commander of the destroyer Valiant (1912 - 1915); speaks English, French, German and Italian; orthodox, married, one daughter (1916). Anjou 1st Peter Ivanovich, Captain 1st class, 1913, born 1872; in service since 1888, hydrographic office of the Naval Academy (1898), cruiser Ukraine (1905 - 1906) and the cruiser Stormbreaker (1906 - 1908); orthodox, married, one daughter (1914).

Anjou Xenia, emigration 1920, she was the participant of the White Movement.

Anjou Olga D., b. 1869, arrested on April 12, 1932, has been sentenced to 3 years in Temlag.

Above mentioned Friedrich Rembert von Berg / Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг / Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg; the Finnish count, b. 1793 or 1794 in Шлосс-Загниц that is Schloss Sagnitz / Сангасте / Sangaste mõisa - d. 1874. He was crucial in crushing the Polish January Uprising in 1863. Sangaste is located in Valga County, 5 km south-east of Keeni, 2 km south-east of Tiidu, ca 22 km north-east of the Latvian border, in southern Estonia.

His stepson Friedrich Georg Magnus Berg b. 1845 in Tartu, Berg's parents were Friedrich Gotthard Karl Gustav von Berg (1796-1861) and Charlotte Katharina Elisabeth von Sievers (1824-1899). She was born in Alt-Ottenhof, Wolmar region, Latvia now; her father Johann Joachim Georg Alexander Graf von Sievers 3rd, 1779 - 1827.

3.
Wilhelm Schaub / Wilhelm Johann-Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub, 1861 - 1934. Vasily Schaub / Wilhelm Johann Christian,
Russian architect, also being built in Moscow, Saratov, Yekaterinburg. Son of (1834 in Göttingen, d. 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia) Wilhelm Karl Albert Emil Schaub. Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony. Grandson of
Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub (b. ca 1800 ?). Probably Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub come from Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER, who had child Johannes 1801 (Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub) + Barbara SCHWOB.
Remember on Heinrich Schaub b. 1802 in Sissach, close to Basel; Swiss politician in the Basel canton 1832, 1838 und 1850, 1869 to 1870.

Wilhelm Johann Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub was father of Woldemar Schaub and Gustav Schaub.
Gustav Schaub, owner of the mechanical production company in Estonia and director of the Society Volta in Revel
(company, also co-operated with the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, specialised in the production of dynamo maschines and electricity motors, and in 1917 its authorized capital amounted to 2,000,000 rubles)
and Director of the Company called Karl Winkler in St. Petersburg. Society Volta supplied also the plant Noblessner in Revel / Tallinn.

4.
William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris
(see: Luke Schaub from Neuchatel and Basel - In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy; Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome in 1839 and Paris in 1839/1840 also!); leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth. Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache; he had daughter,

Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married:
a. Ernest Lord Burghersh,

b. the Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square.
Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta.

The de Luna family come from Don Giovanni Sanchez de Luna b. 1642, III Marquis of Gagliati / Gagliato, 1798, the Sanchez de Luna obtained the title of Duke on the surname.

CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli, d. 1889 in MILAN.
His father: Carlo Luigi and mother: Teresa SANCHEZ DE LUNA. It is hereditary noble family. Noble titles Duca di San Teodoro, di Sant’Arpino, di Casal di Principe, di Parete, Marquis / marchese di Capriglia, of Villamaina; the Neapolitan citizen;
m. LOCK Augusta Selima; children: Teresa CARACCIOLO, married firstly Marcantonio Colonna

(Marcantonio Colonna / Don Marcantonio b. Naples / Napoli / Neapol, 1844, d. 1912 in Rome, 15th Prince and Duke of Paliano - ca 45 km east of Roma, of Sonnino - north-west of Napoli, Avella - north-east of Napoli, Tagliacozzo - north-east of Rome, Tursi - south of Italy, Marino - south-east of Rome / Roma, de Cave - east of Rome / Roma, Ceccano - south-east of Rome, Lord of Genazzano - east of Rome, Morulo ?, Rocca di Papa - south-east of Rome, San Lorenzo east of Rome, Santo Stefano close to Capriglia east of Napoli, Serrone east of Rome, Trivigliano east of Rome, Vallecorsa north-west of Napoli, Vico south of Napoli and Sgurgola south-east of Rome; married in Rome in 1875 to
Teresa Caracciolo b. 1855 Naples / Napoli, d. Rome 1935, of San Teodoro, Sant'Arpino close to Aversa, Casal di Principe close to Aversa, Capriglia east of Napoli and Villamaina east of Napoli, daughter of Duke Luigi and
Augusta Selina Lock / Augusta Selima Locke;
children:
Isabella b. 1879, Duchess of Sant'Arpino, Tursi in south of Italy and Avella south-east of Caserta and close to Nola, m. 1900 to Angel Ansano Chigi Zondadari of San Quirico;

Vittoria b. in London 1880, m. in Rome 1901 to Leone Caetani of Sermoneta on way from Rome to Napoli.
Nola in Italy.
Luigi Scotti Douglas d. 1880, Count of Vigoleno, Regio Rescritto in 1856; his son Alfonso b. in Nola in 1849, d. 1910.
Nola, north-east of Napoli, ca 23 km. South-east-east of Aversa, and south-east of Santa Maria Capua Vetere!
The Scotti family originates from ALBERTO became Lord of Piacenza; from the Lords of Vigolino or Vigoleno. The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples after 1734, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet in Naples, child Joseph, b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais.

Above mentioned
Luigi Scotti Douglas / Louis Scotti was born in 1796 in Naples / Napoli, married Mary Josephine Carlier,
with whom he had Ferdinand, Federico and Alfonso; he began his military career as a bodyguard in 1816; after a long military career in 1859 promoted field marshal. Died in Naples, 1880. The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet, next generation in Napoli: Joseph, Count of Vigolino b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais; his son: Luigi who was above mentioned; his sons: Ferdinand, Federico, Alfonso;
above named FERDINAND Scotti b. 1831, student from 1841 to 1847, captain, 1861 in Gaeta;
FEDERICO b. 1836, served the Guards,
ALFONSO Scotti Douglas, Earl of Vigolino, b. 1849, promoted lieutenant of Engineers and appointed assistant director of the Force in Capua, he returned to college to finish studies, married
Celestina Loencilli with son EDOARDO b. in Naples, 1874 married to Emma Gini, with daughter Annita b. Milan in 1904, and ALFONSO in 1910.
Mary Josephine Carlier - maybe she is Mary Carlier, b. 1811, daughter of Daniel Carlier and Mary Marlain;
sister of Henry Augustus Carlier; William Evans Carlier and David Evans Carlier, half sister of Daniel Carlier - copyright by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com. Above Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India, son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier; inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst, Rachel Cowan, Stephen R Johnson and Stephen David Berryman.
Mentioned above Daniel Carlier, died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu; Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu - Pālamcottah, close to Tirunelveli and Vasantha Nager; places near Palamcottah include Palayankottai, and Palamkotta, that is located at southern tip of India, near by Sri Lanka / Ceylon. Chennai / Madras - Colombo - Tirunelveli are at south and south-east part of India and in Ceylon.

Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 / 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India. Son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier. Husband of Mary Marlain; father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier; brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier,
inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com in 2009;
Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund; he was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India. Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London; he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras from his third wife - her father may be William Evans.
Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.
The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch.
Marriage record for Daniel CARLIER in 1807 to Mary Marlain from Colombo, lived in Fort St George, Madras.
But Elizabeth CARLIER b. 1828 had parents D. CARLIER and Elizabeth.
It is possible that the Huguenot CARLIER from England went to South India with the East India company; above data under copyright by Moira Breen from USA.

Note:
CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli:
landlord of Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere; and owner of Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the Caserta region in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta. Estates: Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, di Parete - 6 km south-east of above named Casal di Principe and 4 km south-west of Aversa, Capriglia - north-east of Napoli, Villamaina - east of mentioned Capriglia.
Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south-east of Capua,
now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta. Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta; he was son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Napoli, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille.

The Croy family in Venezia, and the Nugent family from Dublin, next in Napoli / Naples and Triest:

Jeanne Louise de Croy's (daughter of Philippe François de Croy born 1801 in Wien, who had children: Leopold Croy-Dülmen, Maria, Alexander Croy, Luise, Stephanie, Amalie, and August-Philipp) siblings:
1. Leopold Emanuel Ludwig Croy - Dülmen / Leopold de Croy 1827-1894 married 1864 in Venezia, to Béatrice Nugent 1819-1880, 2nd time to Rosa Caroline von Sternberg 1836-1918;
2. Alexander Gustav August de Croy 1828-1887 m. to Elisabeth Maria von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg 1834-1910;
3. Stéphanie de Croy 1831-1906;
4. Amélie de Croy 1835-1897;
5. Marie de Croy 1837-1915 m. to Karl Maria Lichnowsky 1819-1901;
6. Auguste Philippe de Croy 1840-1913 m. to Adelheid Franziska de Salm-Salm 1840-1916.

Mentioned above Baroness Beatrix Nugent of Nugent-Westmeath / Béatrice Nugent b. 1819 or 1822
(the daughter of Count Laval Nugent of Nugent-Westmeath b. 1777 d. 1862, who m. Duchess Giovanna Riario-Sforza of Riario-Sforza-Corleto b. 1797; Laval Nugent born at Ballynacor, Ireland; son of Count Michael Anton Nugent von Westmeath - Governor of Prague; in 1793 Count Laval Nugent served the Austrian Army; 1815, he commanded the Austrian Army in Italy, liberated Rome; 1817 he entered the service of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in Napoli; 1820, he returned to Austrian Army as Field Marshal in 1849; Nugent died near Karlovac and buried in Rijeka)
in Napoli / Naples / Neapol, Italie, d. 1880 in Wien; m. in 1864 in Venezia, Italie, to Prince Leopold Emanuel Ludwig Croy - Dülmen / Léopold de Croy , who was born 1827 and died in Wien, was son of Philippe François de Croy 1801-1871 and Johanna Wilhelmine Auguste de Salm-Salm.

On above named Rosa Caroline von Sternberg 1836-1918: Rosa Caroline Leopoldine von Sternberg-Serovic 1st time married to Karel Lodewijk Vorst van Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein-Jagtsberg 1837 - 1877; her parentes: Eleonore von Orczy b. 1811 at Budapest and Jaroslau Graaf van Sternberg-Serovic / Jaroslaw von Sternberg / Šternberk b. 1809
(son of Leopold von Sternberg 1770-1858 Vienne [his parents: Adam Frantisek Arno von STERNBERG 1711-1789 and Maria Anna von WILCZEK 1736-1807], and [m. in 1799 Vienne by gw.geneanet.org] Karoline von Walsegg 1781 - 1857: she come from Maria Jozefa Esterházy de Galántha, 1712 - 1756, Hungaria).

The Nugent family in Italy:
1. Helen Georgina Nugent b. 1842 Napoli / Naples: the daughter of Walter Nugent, 1st Baron Nugent and Georgiana Elizabeth Jenkinson; married Dacre Mervyn Archdale Hamilton in 1873.
Walter Nugent died in 1864, was the son of John Nugent died 1827, and Mary Gregg (her children: Walter Nugent, and Henry Nugent); he married, firstly, Louisa Maria Digby, in 1830; 2ndy married to Georgiana Elizabeth Jenkinson.
2. Laval Jeremias Anton Nugent of Nugent b. 1843 in Triest, d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger.
His parents: Johann Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin (above John Nugent died 1827), Irland and died in Brescia, 1849; married to Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
His grandfather Michael Anton Nugent.

The Oginski family from Belarus:
Like Bennigsen, Michał Kleofas Oginski had fallen head over heels in love with Maria Nagurska; Michał Kleofas proposed, Maria accepted, and they were married sometime during 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie. By this time Michał Kleofas Oginski had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg, and was put in charge of Education in Russia's newly acquired lands.
Maria Neri - Nagurska - Oginska wrote to her sister, Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence.
Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence - by Zaluski - "...She (Maria Neri) then sent for her younger sister Cuchina to give her a better life in Lithuanian society, and as a companion for herself. Cuchina complied, and promptly became pregnant by Nicholas Morawski, Maria's former lover's younger brother, and uncle of the writer. So Maria sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry Count Scotti – in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".
At present Hotel Scoti (Scotti, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Located in an elegant 16th century palazzo in Via Tornabuoni.
Ermanno Stradelli b. 1852, Italian photographer, of Borgo Val di Taro currently in the province of Parma, then in the province of Piacenza. His mother, Marianna Douglas Scotti di Vigoleno, place of residence in Borgotaro / Borgo Val di Taro. Castello di Vigoleno north-east of Genova. Borgo Val di Taro - east of Genova);

Teresa CARACCIOLO - Colonna married sec. to Rodolfo Lancrani / Lanciani

(Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani b. 1845, d. 1929, was an Italian archaeologist, was born in Rome or in Montecelio, now Guidonia Montecelio; acted together with British art historians as Austen Henry Layard and John Murray; was married twice, first to an American woman and then to the British widow of Prince Colonna),

and Amalia nee CARACCIOLO.
Brothers and sisters: Carolina, Alonso, Giovanni, Edoardo, Maria, Leonardo. Relatives: CARACCIOLO Carlo Maria - paternal grandfather; CANTELMO STUART, Maria Luisa - father roots; and SANCHEZ DE LUNA Alonso, maternal grandfather - Sánchez de Luna, Alonso, duke de San Arpino (ed. book in 1760, Napoli). Giovanna D'AVALOS, maternal roots; CARACCIOLO Magdalene, aunt, father's sister; above mentioned
CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli, was landlord and military officer, Captain of the National Guard at Napoli.

Estates: Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, di Parete - 6 km south-east of above named Casal di Principe and 4 km south-west of Aversa, Capriglia - north-east of Napoli, Villamaina - east of mentioned Capriglia.

Curiosity at margin only: In Santa Maria Capua Vetere - ("...il processo di I grado a Santa Maria Capua Vetere contro 15 persone ritenute legate alla mafia e al clan dei Casalesi, alleate per monopolizzare i trasporti su gomma e i mercati ortofrutticoli del centro sud. ... fratello di Salvatore, capo dei capi di Cosa Nostra ... di Sandokan...") "...15 people believed to be linked to the Mafia and to the Casalesi clan (The Casalesi clan is a clan within the Camorra, an Italian criminal organization, operating from Casal di Principe in the province of Caserta between Naples and Latium. ... it is a confederation of clans in the Caserta area. The Casalesi clan is believed to be one of the most powerful groups within the Camorra, specialising in construction and keeping a lower profile than clans that focus on drug dealing [a main boss from San Cipriano d'Aversa, 11 km north-west of Sant Arpino; 14 km south of Capua]), allied to monopolize the transport of rubber and fruit and vegetable markets of the Old South: ... boss of bosses of the Cosa Nostra ... the cousin of the same name of Sandokan ... owner of ... a company that, thanks to an agreement between the Mafia and the Casalesi clan, acquired the monopoly of road transport; ... dominus clan Mallard; ... former regent of the Licciardi clan Secondigliano; ... the top element of the Licciardi. The defendants were found guilty, for various reasons, of mafia association, unlawful competition, false registration of property, extortion and arms trafficking. That set up between the Sicilian Mafia and Casale, said the Naples mafia pm Caesar Sirignano, who led the investigation...".

c. Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married 3rd time to Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham / Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician, 1874 to 1875 he served as a Lord-in-Waiting in the second Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli. Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant Arpino and San Teodoro, married 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke, born 1828 in Naples, Napoli, or 1833 in Milano, she died 1906 Eaton Square, Belgravia, Westminster, London. Ernest Fitroy Neville Fane, Lord Burghersh b. 1824 m. Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke, daughter of William Locke and Selina Tollemache, in 1849, but he died in 1851. Augusta Selina Elizabeth Fane married, secondly, Luigi di Santo Teodoro, Duca di Santo Teodoro in 1854, but were divorced. She married, thirdly, Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham, son of Thomas de Grey, 5th Baron Walsingham and Augusta Louisa Frankland, in 1877.

d. Capua:

d1. Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881. Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski in Switzerland.
Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south -east of Capua,
now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta
(Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta);
son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Naples, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille; family owned a thriving factory; his father, a former merchant of Naples; a branch of the noble family of Santa Maria Capua Vetere; the third of four children - after Emilia (1849), Aniello (1851) and before Augustus (1857), he completed his studies in a college, enrolled University of Naples, where he studied medicine for three years without graduating. Malatesta visited Geneva, where he befriended Elise Reclus and Peter Kropotkin, helping the latter to publish La Revolte, finally settling in London. Above Elise Reclus, Jacques Elise Reclus / Jacques Élisée Reclus, 1830 - 1905, French geographer and historian. Caserta, with the Bourbon castle and large domain, was the scene of aristocratic and court life. Between these Santa Maria, rural town of small proprietors and merchants. Errico Malatesta - the University of Naples, about 1868, studying rhetorics, Roman history, Latin and Mr. Gioberti's philosophy, in a cafe at Naples made the acquaintance of Carmelo Palladino, of the International section, a young lawyer; he visited Bakunin with Afiero at the end of 1872; in Locarno in 1874, friend with Carlo Cafiero - born in Barletta (Apulia), 1846, of a rich and reactionary local family.

The Rastoin family:
RASTOIN Jacques, b. 1900 in Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Senator 1966-1971, comes from a large Marseille industrial family of oils and soaps. His father Emile Rastoin, founder of the new oil mill in 1899, chaired the Marseille Chamber of Commerce and Deputy Mayor of Marseille. His brother Edward, also a former president of the chamber of Commerce of Marseille. He is also appointed head of the Savings Bank. The company of Tuileries of the Mediterranean is creates in 1882, by the founder from Marseille, Edward Rastoin (1835-1903) partner with Mr. François Mary Denis Anselm and Michel Agard. The second son of Edward, Albert Rastoin (1866-1946) it succeeds until 1946. Next Rastoin Edward (1895-1997), Jacques (1900-1979) and Bernard (1904-1979) are CEO of company until 1973.

E. Rastoin is the son of an owner from Aix Provence, Bernard Rastoin, 1803-1859. He has studied School of Arts and Job in Aix Provence, open in 1843.

RASTOIN, Roquebrussanne of Var, Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, France 1809-1845; RASTOIN, Val of Var, Côte d'Azur, France 1740-1818; Rastoin is a great French family of Marseille, which has benefited from the rise of the oil mill industry in the late nineteenth century. The first Rastoin oil mill was founded in 1882. Deputy Mayor of Marseille: Émile Rastoin in 1905-1908.

d2. The Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua!

d3. MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern; she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. The same branch: Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.

5.

Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871. That was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia. His father Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau was born in 1769 in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army. The son of above mentioned Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871, was Stanislaw Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska (from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806), she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

6. a. Magnus Wilhelm / Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. On the other side Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano; MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern; she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. The same branch: Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.

b. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871. That was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia. His father Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau was born in 1769 in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army.

The branch of Magnus Fabian:

b1. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar: Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?); Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774; Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

b2. Above Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., his father Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801 from Hallik close to Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremoisa close to Keila-Joa, served for the Polish army as Major in 1757. Yegor Maksimovic Pilar has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

7. Poland - Estonia - Scotland - Ceylon - Napoli - Siberia:

As a Scottish Borders family, the Rutherfords were a family with a Laird rather than a Clan with a Chief. William Edward Rutherfurd, the last Rutherfurd Laird of Edgerston, sold Edgerston in 1915 and immigrated to Kenya.

From the others hands we look at Luigi Scotti Douglas (d. 1880), Count of Vigoleno, Regio Rescritto in 1856; his son Alfonso b. in Nola in 1849, d. 1910. Nola, north-east of Napoli, ca 23 km. South-east-east of Aversa, and south-east of Santa Maria Capua Vetere. The Scotti family originates from ALBERTO who became Lord of Piacenza; came from the Lords of Vigolino or Vigoleno. The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples after 1734.

Above mentioned Luigi Scotti Douglas / Louis Scotti was born in 1796 in Naples / Napoli, married Mary Josephine Carlier, with whom he had Ferdinand, Federico and Alfonso; he began his military career as a bodyguard in 1816; after a long military career in 1859 promoted field marshal. Died in Naples, 1880. The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet,

next generation in Napoli: Joseph, Count of Vigolino b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais; his son: Luigi who was above mentioned; his sons: Ferdinand, Federico, Alfonso; above named FERDINAND Scotti b. 1831, student from 1841 to 1847, captain, 1861 in Gaeta; FEDERICO b. 1836, served the Guards, ALFONSO Scotti Douglas, Earl of Vigolino, b. 1849, promoted lieutenant of Engineers and appointed assistant director of the Force in Capua, he returned to college to finish studies, married Celestina Loencilli with son EDOARDO b. in Naples, 1874 married to Emma Gini, with daughter Annita b. Milan in 1904, and ALFONSO in 1910.
And now different family:

Mary Josephine Carlier - maybe she is Mary Carlier, b. 1811, daughter of Daniel Carlier and Mary Marlain; sister of Henry Augustus Carlier; William Evans Carlier and David Evans Carlier, half sister of Daniel Carlier. Above Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India, son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier.

Maybe Daniel Carlier traded coffee and tea with Naples, bearing contacts with Ceylon and Madras in India. This would be in the years around 1830/1840, when Rutherford from Scotland bought tea plantations at central Ceylon.

Peter Rutherford was tea planter in Sri Lanka (from 1820 / 1840?). Peter Rutherford b. 1794 in Kelso, at Scottish Borders, in Scotland, died 1856, was son of Robert Rutherford and Elizabeth Ruecastle daughter of Walter Ruecastle who died in Hawick, Scottish Borders. Mentioned Robert Rutherford b. 1769 in Jedburgh, Scottish Borders, was son of Patrick Rutherford and Isobel Common. Jedburgh located in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire, south-east of Edinburgh.

We back to Henry Kerr Rutherford (b. 1886) who heard about waterproof plywood that was being made in Estonia, it might be suitable for packing tea; he sent his son, also Henry, from Ceylon to Tallinn. Henry Kerr Rutherford / Henry Rutherford was working for Venesta since 1908 and in 1912 as managing director of Venesta, partner of the A. M. Luther AG. Next the chairman 1944; born 1886, d. 1972 in Banstead, Surrey.

Nelly Luther nee Greiffenhagen was born 1861 in London, and died 1934 in London; she was daughter of August Greiffenhagen / Augustus Samuel, b. 1820 in Kuznechikha, Arkhangelsk province in Russia; wife of above named Rutherford Henry junior. Her sons: Henry Christian Rutherford; Bevan. Above Henry Christian Rutherford, called Harry, b. 1911 in Tallinn, d. 1991 in Haywards Heath, West Sussex. His son Christopher Rutherford.

Again at Sri Lanka / Ceylon:

Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 / 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India. Son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier. Husband of Mary Marlain; father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier; brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier.

Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund;

Daniel Carlier was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India. Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London; he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras from his third wife - her father may be William Evans. Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch. Marriage record for Daniel CARLIER in 1807 to Mary Marlain from Colombo, lived in Fort St George, Madras. But Elizabeth CARLIER b. 1828 had parents D. CARLIER and Elizabeth. It is possible that the Huguenot CARLIER from England went to South India with the East India company; above data under copyright by Moira Breen from USA.

At the time of The Scottish Enlightenment, the most conspicuous Indian fortunes were made by men from modest professional or trade backgrounds:
George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772;

George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras. They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (now Chennai), 1810:

Arbuthnot & Co was a mercantile bank, based in Madras, India. It was founded as Francis Latour & Co in the late 18th century, then became Arbuthnot De Monte & Co and failed in 1906. Parry (now EID Parry), the Binny & Co., and Arbuthnot & Co., established in 1810, that were the city's strongest commercial organization in the 19th century. Arbuthnot & Co had partners: Sir George Gough Arbuthnot, J. M. Young, Patrick Macfadyen, P. Macfadyen & Co as Arbuthnot's London branch. Mentioned above EID Parry Limited is headquartered in Chennai, engaged in marketing of sugar.

Breguet - Roosevelt - Bell - India - waterproof plywood:

In 1876 Cornelius Roosevelt, representing Bell in Paris, put the Breguet firm in charge to introduce of telephones in France. Acc. to http://fredouille.pagesperso-orange.fr/englishbell.htm: "...The Bell Telephone was introduced in France in August 1877 by Mr Bréguet returning from the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The inventor himself offered Mr Bréguet, the two simple versions of the telephone which he brought back", by Journal du Havre. ... The Poussin brothers, very interested in the new scientific developments, went to Paris to meet Mr Bréguet...".

Above Roosevelt / Cornelius Van Schaack / C.V.S. Roosevelt, b. 1794, d. 1871, was an American businessman from New York City, son of

James Jacobus Roosevelt and Maria Van Schaack; his brother James John Roosevelt (1795—1875) served as a New York Congressman.

James John Roosevelt / James I. was an American politician, jurist, businessman; his brother Cornelius Roosevelt was the father of James A. Roosevelt, Robert Roosevelt, and Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., and

paternal grandfather of President Theodore Roosevelt.

We read a letter from Cornelius Roosevelt to Alexander Graham Bell, October 9, 1878 on the telephones in France, and on November 5, 1878, to Mr. Cornelius Roosevelt, merchant, residing in Paris, rue de la Bourse, No. 1, from Mr. Breguet; on November 25, 1878, to Mr. Cornelius Roosevelt, from Breguet in Paris. Pierre Aulas begins his story on the key moment that changed the way the phone until 1876, the Philadelphia Exposition in which Graham Bell first exhibited their devices; 'Maison Breguet' "was responsible for receiving through its director François Louis Breguet the first Bell telephones. From that moment, the phone was taking small steps in France ... In 1878 a new universal exhibition in Paris ... A representative of the "Maison Breguet" called "Cornelius Roosevelt" became the representative of the Bell equipment in France. ... in France in some large French cities were set up some phone lines ... formed the first French telephone companies". The Maison Breguet in Paris supplied them from the French concessionaire, Cornelius Roosevelt.

In Britain they were made for
William H. Reynolds by the THE INDIA-RUBBER, GUTTA-PERCHA, AND TELEGRAPH WORKS COMPANY, LIMITED, known by its location near London as The Silvertown Company;

at the beginning Dr. William Montgomerie from Malaya, Michael Faraday and Charles Mackintosh, manufacturer of waterproof clothing, Thomas Hancock and his brother Charles found gutta percha the ideal material, and Henry Bewley, manufacturer of soda water, formed the Gutta Percha Company on 4 February 1845.

The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India:

Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Christiana Agnes Latour, daughter of Louis and Catherine, born 1825, m. John Milne;

Simon Pierre Latour who married to Jeanette A. Guillo in 1826; Sophia Elizabeth Latour who married William Bernard Carbery in 1831;

And next of kin: Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester,

Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland

- (Robert Sconce was writer in Stirling and Robert Sconce made PLAN of the POLMAISE property in 1769 close to Fallin east of Stirling - north-east of Glasgow, and 18th century plan of Cookspow; one of John McCulloch's daughters married John Sconce, a name that is associated with several men of note in the town's history, amongst them Sheriff Substitute Robert Sconce;

we know about Sconce, Colonel James, Belgrave Crescent, Edinburgh; GIDEON COLQUHOUN SCONCE, Lieutenant, Indian Navy; the church of The Holy Rude in Stirling, Scotland has family monument of John Sconce of 1729; Esq. in the United Kingdom, was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank)

at Calcutta;

Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787.

Different sources:
Joseph Francis Louis Lautour (born 1752) is the son of Count Francois Lautour (b. ca 1720/1730?) and Barbe Ruhn. François / Francis Joseph Louis Lautour de Quercy / Francis Joseph Louis Latour de Quercy come from Quercy, a former province of France located in the country's southwest.
Above Count Francis Joseph Louis Lautour de Quercy gone to India in 1777. The Count's son Joseph Andrew was a military officer in England until 1814, and his son Edward was born 1814 (Edward went to Calcutta in 1837 and served the East India Civil Service; was a judge in the Supreme Court in Calcutta).
Latour Joseph Andrew (Francois / Andre Louis) was born in 1785 in Madras. He died 1845 in Paris. Joseph married Caroline daughter of William; Caroline was born 1793, died in 1869. Joseph and Caroline had the following children:
William Francis Latour died in 1899; de Lautour / Latour Edward, Judge of Bengal, born in 1814, died in 1862; Latour Edgar Frederick, married Davidson Louisa daughter of London and Calcutta merchant Davidson Robert in 1843 in India; Latour Caroline Georgiana, married (?) Colonel Sir George Theophilus John.
Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour (b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London). Above Joseph Andrew De Lautour is the son of Joseph Francis Louis Lautour b. 1752 in Hexton Park (to Madras in 1777), and Ann Hordle b. 1747 in Wareham, Dorset, married in 1780 in Madras.
Lt-General Latour Peter Augustus was born in 1788, died 1866 (Cameron), son (?) of Louis Francis Joseph Latour.

Mentioned above Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour (b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London).

The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India and O'MEARA in Calcutta:

1. Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Mentioned above Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour (b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London).

2. Alfred Léon Jean O'MEARA 1834-1899 married 1862, Calcutta in India, to Mary Anne PRICE-BROWNE.

Above Joseph Andrew De Lautour is the son of Joseph Francis Louis Lautour b. 1752 in Hexton Park (to Madras in 1777), and Ann Hordle b. 1747 in Wareham, Dorset, married in 1780 in Madras. Joseph Francis Louis Lautour is the son of Count Francois Lautour (born ca 1720 / 1730?) and Barbe Ruhn.

Above Count Francis Joseph Louis Lautour de Quercy gone to India in 1777. The Count's son Joseph Andrew was a military officer in England until 1814, and his son Edward was born 1814 (Edward went to Calcutta in 1837 and served the East India Civil Service; was a judge in the Supreme Court in Calcutta).

Above Count Francis Latour / Count De Francis Lautour, b. ca 1720/1730?, was Louis XV (was error of course: "VI's" - sorry!) financial advisor, had a first son Joseph Francois Louis Lautour, who was probably the father of Louis Latour. Joseph Francois Louis Lautour had mother who was lading-in waiting to Marie Antoinette. At the time of the revolution of 1789 Francois / Count Francis Latour / Count De Francis Lautour was living and trading in India and he was the only survivor of his family. Francois was a person without a country, but he was eventually allowed to join his wife and children in England; he didn't use his title of Count. He was also allowed back into France, but all the family's property was confiscated. He died in Paris after 1800?.
See on the Becu family!
Marie-Jeanne Bécu du Barry / Madame du Barry / Barry Marie Jeanne Bécu / Jeanne Bécu 1743-1793, Comtesse, mistress of Louis XV of France, had many lovers from the king's ministers to his courtiers:
Marechal de Richelieu, Louis XV in 1769 at Versailles, de Choiseul, Minister of Foreign Affairs, in 1768 to du Barry's brother, Comte Guillaume du Barry.
Her mother, Anne, was now Marquise de Montrabe.
Her relationship with Marie Antoinette, who was married to the Dauphin of France, was contentious.

In France we know about Maximilian Baillet de Latour, Count Theodor de Baillet von Latour (1780-1848), Joseph Latour-Forget b. 1812 in Ste-Elisabeth, Nicolas Francois Julie, Count of La Tour d'Auvergne (born 1720).

Different sample: Henri Fantin-Latour b. 1836, was a French painter and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers; was born in Grenoble.

Note at margin:

Thomas Robertson and Alexander Tod, both sons of Writers to the Signet who became captains in the Company Navy; Tod commanded ships in the 1770s and 80s to the Coromandel Coast, Bay of Bengal and China; 1782 and 1784 his second officer was Robertson, who by 1788 was commanding the same ship.

The Rutherford family:

Famous Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, b. 1871, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester, where he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium ions. Ernest Rutherford was the son of James Rutherford, who had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth, Scotland.

The Rutherford family comes from an area of the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire; south from Jedburgh, because all Scottish Rutherfords share roots in Roxburghshire. To 1706 / 1707, the Rutherfords moved into other areas of Scotland, such as,
Ayrshire and Perth and south into Northumberland, to Sweden, France and the Netherlands:
Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD

(his parents: David RUTHERFORD

[his father David RUTHERFORD, b. 1764 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland, who was son of James RUTHERFORD b. 1720 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland]

b. 1764 in Kilmadock, Perth, and mother Margaret FULTON from Of Kilmadock, Perth)

b. 1800 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland.

And now very important note on the Bécu / Becu family from France, Lithuania and Poland:

Marie-Jeanne Bécu du Barry / Madame du Barry / Barry Marie Jeanne Bécu / Jeanne Bécu 1743-1793, Comtesse, mistress of Louis XV of France.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death.
Mother or relationship only to Jeanne BÉCU was Anne BÉCU / Becu. Father of Jeanne was probably Jean Jacques GOMAUD of BEAUVERNIER / Jean Baptiste Gomaud of Vaubernier or de Beauvernier, monk. Jeanne's mother married in 1749 a certain Nicolas Ransom who was appointed storekeeper in Corsica; Jeanne Becu was partner of Jean du Barry, keeper of a gambling house; she married to Guillaume, comte du Barry (William, Earl of Barry); Jeanne had relationship with Louis XV the BOURBON, Duke of Anjou, Dauphin of France (1712-1715), King of France and Navarre (1715-1774), born February 15, 1710.
The Scottish origin (Nest de Barri) of the Barry family come from the village of Barry in the former county of
Angus, 60 km north-east of Perth, north of Edinburgh;
include Richard de Barri in the tax records of the county of Suffolk in 1195, whilst in Scotland was William de Barry in 1360; in Ireland, Ho Barry circa 1591, as the first Irish dramatist, while
John Barry (b. 1745 in Tacumshane, County Wexford, southern Ireland; d. 1803), is generally regarded as 'The father of the American Navy'.
Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860), designed the new houses of Parliament in London in 1836.

Guillaume Dubarry / du Barry, Count Roquelaure, Lord Rennery, b. 1732, d. 1811 in Toulouse, is husband of Jeanne Becu / Madame du Barry.
Dubarry name is known from 1400 around Toulouse. Guillaume was the son of Antoine Dubarry, captain, and Marguerite Catherine Cécile Thérese de La Caze; 1750 he moved to Santo Domingo; returned to France, to Lévignac and Toulouse. 1768, his elder brother Jean-Baptiste Dubarry, calls him to Paris. 1768 marriage to J. Becu. Back to Toulouse; after the death of Louis XV in May 1774, moved to castle of Bagatelle near Paris.
Jean-Baptiste Dubarry, Earl of Barry-Ceres, was son of Antoine and Marguerite Catherine Cécile Dubarry Teresa La Caze; husband of Ursula Rabaudy Montoussin Dalmas de Vernongrese; father of Adolphe Dubarry. Jean-Baptiste Dubarry was born in 1723 in Lévignac and was guillotined in Toulouse in 1794. Became the lover of Jeanne Becu 1762, but she married to his younger brother Guillaume du Barry; he received the county of L'Isle-Jourdain and significant institutions in eastern Biscay
(see Armand).
Lévignac (Haute-Garonne), 20 km north-west of Toulouse / Tuluza, southern France.
Marie Jeanne Bécu, during the French Revolution was arrested by the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined on 8 Dec. 1793 in Paris; she was born 1743 in Vaucouleurs, 42 km west of Nancy, north of Dijon, in the present-day Meuse department in Lorraine, France; her friend was Adelaïde Labille born in Paris in 1749, from Marie-Anne Saint-Martin and Claude-Edme Labille, owned a haberdashery shop, La Toilette, became very popular and in 1761 a young girl, Jeanne Antoinette Bécu, applied to work in it, was taken on and became friends with Adélaïde. Whilst there she met the comte du Barry, became his mistress, left the shop and would later become la maitresse-en-titre, the chief mistress of Louis XV.
Her husband Comte Guillaume du Barry; parents Anne Bécu (illegitimate daughter) and possibly Jean Baptiste Gormand de Vaubernier; Jean Baptiste Gormand de Vaubernier, a friar known as frere Ange; one of her mother's acquaintances Monsieur Billiard-Dumonceaux, took both Anne and three-year-old Jeanne into his care when they traveled from Vaucouleurs to Paris and installed Anne as a cook in his Italian mistress' household. 1758, Jeanne left the convent, moved to Nicolas Rançon.
Jeanne was then employed as a companion to Madame de la Garde, as an assistant at shop named A la Toilette, owned by Madame Labille; Jean-Baptiste du Barry, owned a casino, in 1763 installed her in his household and made her his mistress.
Marie-Jeanne Bécu du Barry / Madame du Barry / Barry Marie Jeanne Bécu / Jeanne Bécu 1743-1793, Comtesse, mistress of Louis XV of France, had many lovers from the king's ministers to his courtiers:
Marechal de Richelieu, Louis XV in 1769 at Versailles, de Choiseul, Minister of Foreign Affairs, in 1768 to du Barry's brother, Comte Guillaume du Barry.
Her mother, Anne, was now Marquise de Montrabe.
Her relationship with Marie Antoinette, who was married to the Dauphin of France, was contentious.
After the death of King of France, in 1774 Jeanne was quickly exiled to the Abbey du Pont-aux-Dames near Meaux-en-Brie, next moved to the Louveciennes, later also fell in love with
Henry Seymour of Redland.
Henry Seymour of Redland b. 1729, d. 1807, was a British politician. Close to Louveciennes 8 km north of Versailles, was the pavilion of Madame du Barry, and a villa called Prunay, occupied by a Englishman named Henry Seymour,
he was English Ambassador at the French Court;
calls him Lord Henry Seymour. He was the son of Francis Seymour, of Sherborne, Dorset, by Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Popham of Littlecot, Wiltshire, and widow of Viscount Hinchingbrook. His uncle was Sir Edward Seymour, seventh Duke of Somerset, in 1750;
Henry Seymour of Redland married Lady Caroline Cowper, daughter of the second Earl Cowper, occupied the family seat, Panshanger, near Hertford; Sherborne; Knoyle, in Wiltshire; Northbrook Lodge, Devon; Redland Court; property at Norton, near Evesham. Lady Caroline Cowper d. 1771, left Caroline, who married William Danby, of Swinton, Yorkshire, and
Georgina, wife of Comte Louis de Durfort, French Ambassador at Venice
(m. in 1794 to Félicité Jean Louis de Durfort, Comte de Deyme / Félicité-Jean-Louis-Étienne, comte de Durfort / Felicite Jean-Louis Etienne, Count Durfort, was born in Paris 1752; served the regiment of cavalry in Chartres, colonel in Champagne,
Mestre-de-camp-Lieutenant of Cavalry Regiment in Poland in 1777 - 1778;
was ambassador of France to the Republic of Venice at the time of the French Revolution. Revoked in 1792 by Dumouriez (Foreign Minister), when his name had been placed on a list of emigrants, and then left in Italy. Died in Venice / Venise, 1801.
He was eldest son of Louis-Philippe of Durfort (1733-1800), Count of Deyme and Marie Françoise Le Texier Menetou; had a younger brother, Stephen Narcissus Durfort, Lieutenant-General; married, in 1772, to Armande-Jeanne-Claude de Béthune (1753 d. before 1794), daughter of Armand-Louis, Marquis of Béthune, Colonel general of the cavalry, and Marie-Edmee de Boulogne, his first wife. From this marriage came Armand Celestial, Count of Durfort (1774-1856), field marshal).
Seymour 2nd time married Anne Louise Therese, Comtesse de Panthou, a young widow, and had a son, Henry, born 1776.
In 1778, Seymour settled in France, rented a house in Paris, Rue de la Planche, and house in Prunay.
Around 1779 or 1780, Seymour became the lover of Madame du Barry. He separated from his second wife in 1781. The French Revolution led him to flee France in 1792.
In 1792, Madame du Barry had fled the French Revolution and in the following year she was finally arrested.

Augustas Ludvikas Bekiu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, his father - Jean Becu / Jan Ludwik Bécu, probably ca 1770 moved to Poland, and in 1775 taken noble title for his family, mother Karolina nee Hein. August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816, and has two daughters: Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872, m. Teofil Januszewski, brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki. August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki, when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8.

August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK) to investigate smallpox vaccination.

Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 was a closest next of kin of Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Bekiu / Becu. Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar. Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау born 1802, in Wilno / Вильнюс, was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski. His mother Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю and father Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born 1768. His grandfather Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Катарина Хелена фон Таузас. Place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti.

And about the Cochrane / Cochran clan from Scotland:

John Dandes Cochrane / John Dundas Cochrane / Cochran, British explorer, Captain of the Royal Navy, b. 1793 - d. 1825. In 1820 journey across Siberia, which went to Kamchatka and back; a year in Kamchatka, he moved to Okhotsk, to Yakutsk and the Lena up in Irkutsk, Nercinsk and Tsuruhaytu on the Chinese border, Kiakhta, Irkutsk (John Dundas Cochrane / John Cochrane was in 1822 in Irkutsk or 1823), Tomsk, Omsk, Tobolsk, the Urals. John Cochran, at journey from St. Petersburg across Siberia to Kamchatka, married in 1822 to the Siberian girl and returned to England and published an interesting book about his journey. Kotchoubey suspected him of being a spy, in a letter to Speranskii in 1872. Captain John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825, was a Scottish naval officer, son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone; he was a cousin of Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, and nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane. Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722; 1793 he married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun; the Governor of Dominica; next he had married Amelia Constance Gertrude Etienette, a widow and the only child of a French governor of Guadeloupe, in 1803.

Above named Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician;

he was the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine.

Mixed Swiss-Scottish roots:

The parents of Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov met and married in Russia: 1891 first child was born Arthur Eugene Leonard, the other three daughters and two sons: 1892 Maria Eugenia Bertha / Maria, 1894 Victor Alexander Rudolph, 1896 Anthonine Catherine / Nina, 1899 Vera Olga Berta / Olga, 1902 Victor Alexander Boris. All six children under the laws of the Swiss Republic.

Swiss Italian-born Christian Petrovich Frautschi (Christian Frautschi son of Paul or Petr Frautschi) in the estate Mykolaivka met Didrikil Augusta.

Augusta's grandfather was from Scotland. He was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna.

The family of Edward Esterling (Stirling / EASTERLING b. ca 1790 ?) and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland, and next generations:

1. Olga Avgustovna Didrikil next of kin to Sverdlov;

2. Bertha Didrikil nee Esterling b. 1835 in Riga, her husband Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik / Август Иванович Дидрикиль / Didrikil; her son Edward Avgustovich Didrikil and her daughter Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938;

her father mentioned above Edward Esterling who had daughters: Odile Esterling b. 1830 (Latvia?) at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and above Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, also Charlotte Esterling and Alvina Esterling.

Probably that is Yukka, Yuka at Crimea, close to Заозерное / Ялы́-Мойна́к / Yalı Moynaq / Ялы Мойнакъ, 10 км south-west of Евпатория, western Crimea.

Ейск - east of Crimea, see Armand family.

At margin: Johann Heinrich Junge, b. 1802 in Kurlandie was father of Юнге Эдуард Андреевич / Johann Eduard Junge b. 1831, with wife Екатерина Фёдоровна Толстая 1843—1913; Johann Eduard Junge after 1883 lived in Коктебель, Crimea, east part of Crimea.

Hereditary cheesemaker Christian Frautschi came to Russia in search of a good steady income, to the north-western province (Estonia), for cattle, and it took two or three years; here Christians Frauchi married to one of the four sisters of the Didrikil family, of the Estonian, Latvian, Russian, Scottish and even French blood.

One of the sisters, Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov.

Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil (Bertha Didrikil nee Esterling, married to Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik / Август Иванович Дидрикиль / Didrikil) who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county. Mikhail Kedrov b. 1878, Moscow – killed 1941, secret policeman and one of the builders of the Cheka; Kedrov was reportedly extremely cruel and barbaric, even by the standards of the Red Terror. Kedrov and his son Igor had complained repeatedly to Joseph Stalin about Lavrenti Beria, who increasingly came to control the Soviet secret police in the 1930s. Kedrov in 1912 emigrated to Switzerland. Maintained contacts with Lenin, and lectured medicine at the universities of Bern and Lausanne. In 1916, on the instructions of the Central Committee returned to Russia, on the Caucasian front.

Nina Avgustovna / Anthonine Catherine / Antonina Avgustovna Didrikil / DIDRIKIL Avgustovna Nina b. 1882 - d. 1953 - married to an exile Nicholas Podvoisky / Podvoisky Ivan Ilyich / Podwojski.

Avgustovna Augusta to Swiss cheesemaker.

Maria Avgustovna remained an old maid but she known the renowned journalist, the future chairman of the OGPU Vyacheslav R. Menzhinsky / Vyacheslav Menzhinsky.

Podvoisky become one of the founders of the Red Army;

Kedrov - one of the builders of the Cheka (December 20, 1917 was formed Russian Extraordinary Commission headed by F. Dzerzhinsky), shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne;

Menzhinsky - deputy and successor of the first chairman of the Cheka - Dzerzhinsky;

Christian's Frauchi wife was interlocutor of Podvoisky, Kedrov, Ангарский / Angarskij and Klestov.

In 1903 the whole family Frauchi / Frautschi moved to Novgorod province, where, moving from one estate to another, Arthur's father, together with his assistants was doing cheese. Estates: Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putyanin, Petrovskoe, Davydkina.

Samples: Didrikil Edward son of August / Avgust Didrikil / Didrikil Jeduard / Дидрикиль Эдуард, journalist of an Agriculture newspapers, in the Pskov government in 1913. Didrikil wrote among other things in 1916 in Bern on the national problem.

Didrikil Maria daughter of Georgij Didrikil / Дидрикиль Мария Георгиевна, born 1872; served for the Armed Forces of South Russia 1919, evacuated at the end of 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.

Didrikil, A. A., author of the Report on Public Education, ed. Moscow in 1903.


East Asia 1904 - 1914

Ireland - Japan - Port Arthur - Ceylon - Odessa:

Cornacassa, County Monaghan, Ireland - ca 75 / 80 km north of Ballynacor.

Tacumshane, County Wexford, southern Ireland, 70 km east of Piltown - south-east of Ireland.

Ballynacor, Ireland - 75 km north of Mountrath.

Piltown - south-east of Ireland, 75 km south of Mountrath.

Tyrone south-east of Galway, west Ireland, west of Borrisokane.

County Queens - Mountrath in the central part of the county; south-west of Dublin.

Borrisokane, Ireland - 50 km west of Mountrath; Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin.

Reilly is an Irish surname and is derived from the Counties Cavan and Westmeath.
Lieutenant Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873, d. 1925, was a Jewish Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by Scotland Yard, the British Secret Service Bureau and later the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS). He is alleged to have spied for at least four nations; his friend, British diplomat and journalist Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, publicized their thwarted operation to overthrow the Bolshevik regime in 1918.
A research conducted into the family of William Melville revealed that his first wife Catherine's maiden name was Reilly. According to family records, her father came from the Mayo village (or the Mayo county !?) as Michael Reilly, the father of the deceased infant Sidney. Mayo, 11 km west of Lough Allen Lake, northern Ireland.
Mary (nee Reilly) Stanton b. ca 1794 in Mayo, Ireland - wife of John (Powseitch) Stanton in 1820 in Parramattamap, mother of Margaret Duffy, John Stanton, Hannah Stanton and Bridget Stanton, died ca 1830 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Parramattamap - close to Sydney. Bridget Reilly b. 1857, her parents were John Reilly b. 1823 in Mullaghroe, Ireland, d. 1896 in Gladaree, Belmullet, County Mayo. His parents were Anthony Reilly and Catherine Monaghan. Anne Reilly b. 1866 in Gladree. She married Anthony GAUGHAN of Gladree - west of Ireland. Her parents were John Reilly and Mary McIntyre. Sibilings: Pat (b. abt 1862), Mary, Anne, John, Margaret (Peggy), Catherine (Kit), William and Michael.
Belmullet, Co. Mayo, western Ireland.

The Franciscan Abbey of Cavan - 10 km south-east of Lough Oughter
- was founded by Giolla Iosa O'Reilly, while five O'Reillys have held the Primacy as Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland. The Count Don Alexander O'Reilly from County Meath had a distinguished military career, first in the Austrian service and then in the Spanish army. He ended his days as Governor of the French colony of Louisiana where he died in 1797 or he d. 1794, Bonete, Spain.
County Meath - the county border is 20 km east of Mullingar. Baltrasna, in County Meath, 50 km east of Mullingar.

Egan O'Rahilly (1670-1726) was of a family long established near Killarney. The County Cavan situated north of Mullingar. Killarney of south-west Ireland. The Westmeath county with Mullingar! South of The County Cavan. The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India is next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland. Above Lieutenant Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873 (1874 ?), known as the Ace of Spies.
Sidney George Reilly claimed to be the son of an Irish merchant seaman, or an Irish clergyman, and an aristocratic landowner.

The O'Reilly territory was around Lough Oughter - 58 km north of Mullingar - in County Cavan and for centuries they were in Breffny / Breifne. Breffny / Breifne 6 km south-east of Lough Oughter. Mountrath - 60 km south of Mullingar. Tombricane - 48 km west of Mountrath - owned by a Tommy Moran,
whose parents are believed to be Michael Moran and Mary Hogan, acc. to Erin Smith. By George Thomarat: RICHARD KELLY, SR. born 1792 in County Queens - south-west of Dublin, Ireland, married ANN MORAN born 1795 in Tyrone south-east of Galway, west Ireland - died 1874 in Foxley River.
John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.

County Queens - Mountrath in the central part of the county; south-west of Dublin. The Franciscan Abbey of Cavan - 10 km south-east of Lough Oughter - was founded by Giolla Iosa O'Reilly, while five O'Reillys have held the Primacy as Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland.
The Count Don Alexander O'Reilly from County Meath had a distinguished military career, first in the Austrian service and then in the Spanish army. He ended his days as Governor of the French colony of Louisiana where he died in 1797 or he d. 1794, Bonete, Spain.
County Meath - the county border is 20 km east of Mullingar. Baltrasna, in County Meath, 50 km east of Mullingar.
Marshal Alejandro, Conde de O'Reilly (born 1722, Dublin, Ireland), was an Spanish governor of colonial Louisiana. His grandfather John O'Reilly was a colonel in the army of James II.
The family was from mentione above Baltrasna, in County Meath.
He joined Spanish forces fighting in Italy against the Austrians. After campaigning in the Spanish invasion of Portugal, become a brigadier general. Egan O'Rahilly (1670-1726) was of a family long established near Killarney.

The County Cavan situated north of Mullingar. Killarney of south-west Ireland. The Westmeath county with Mullingar! South of The County Cavan.

The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India is next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland.

Above Lieutenant Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873 (1874 ?), known as the Ace of Spies - he was maybe the son of a merchant marine captain.

At margin note: 1.
Alexander Lvovich Parvus / Алекса́ндр Льво́вич Па́рвус / Israel Lazarevich Gelfand / Ге́льфанд (1867-1924); was born to an ethnic Jewish family in Berazino, Belarus; family's home in Berazino was destroyed by a fire in 1873; moved to Odessa in Ukraine, the hometown of Israel's paternal grandfather; gymnasium in Odessa 1877 - ca 1885;
1886 traveled from Odessa to Basel, Switzerland. He returned to Russia 1887 he was forced to leave the country, to Switzerland, in 1888, at the University of Basle, to 1891.
Remember that Heinrich Schaub b. 1802 in Sissach, close to Basel; Swiss politician in the Basel canton 1832, 1838 und 1850, 1869 to 1870.
Jakob Schaub b. 1862 in Gelterkinden, 4 km east of Sissach, south-east of Basel; editor and printer, Basel, Zürich, in Sissach.
Ascher Ginsberg (not Ginsburg!) - Ahad Ha'am (1856-1927);
1886, he settled in Odessa;
1889, the founder of Jewish newspaper Hamelits; when Alexander Tsederbaum came to Odessa, met with Ginsberg. Ginsberg and his followers took part in the First Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1897 (Switzerland).

2. Lev Puszkin (b. 1805 - died in Odessa 1852, who was brother of famous writer) was living in Odessa.
3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).

Cook states that the arrival of Sigmund Rosenblum in London in December 1895 was via France, because he was living at suburb of Paris or Sigmund Rosenblum arrived in England via Brazil or France, he resided at the Albert Mansions, an apartment block in Rosetta Street, Waterloo, London, in early 1896. Rosenblum married Margaret Thomas and now was as Sidney George Reilly. This new identity was the key to achieving his desire to return to Czarist Russia and voyage to the Far East.
I am, however, completely opposite view and I thing that selecting the name of Reilly prevented conspiratorial operation in Bolshevik Russia.

Reilly had obtained a post in the Cheka, thanks to Vladimir G. Orlov, who as a Czarist official in Warsaw had handled sensitive cases of subversion and espionage, including that of Feliks Dzerzhinsky, and was now in the latter's employ. When Hill and Reilly finished their work, they escaped unscathed, Trotsky and Dzerzhinsky were greatly strengthened, Lenin lay dying, and an American intelligence network in Soviet Russia was smashed. Men from this Hill-Reilly network of 1918 became key figures in the Trust. These included Reilly himself, Reilly's friend, Boris Savinkov, and two of the men in Reilly's anti­Bolshevik network: Yakushev and Eduard Opperput.

Sidney George Reilly claimed to be the son of an Irish merchant seaman, 1899 he became Sidney George Reilly by receiving a passport in that name. He was married to: Margaret Callaghan Thomas, Nadine Massino and Nelly "Pepita" Burton. Born Sigmund Georgievich Rosenblum in Odessa, Russia in 1874, the son of a rich Jewish landowner; learning to speak at least seven languages fluently. As early as 1826 Odessa saw the opening of the first Jewish school for secular education; among the teachers of the new school was Simha Pinsker, who subsequently became the historian of Karaism. This school, the only educational establishment of its kind during that period, served in Odessa as a center for the 'Friends of Enlightenment'; at the same time a large sea-port, with a checkered international population, Odessa outran other Jewish centers in the process of modernization; Sidney George Reilly was arrested as a young man for carrying messages for a group called Friends of Enlightenment. When he was released, he was told that his mother was dead; Sigmund Rosenblum hid in a British ship on its way to South America; in Brazil he adopted the name Pedro. He worked in 1895 for a British intelligence expedition;
Major Fothergill arranged him a passport and a trip to Britain where he adopted the name Sidney Rosenblum. Began to work for MI1c, forerunner of MI6, was briefly trained and sent to Russia.
After a successful mission he received British citizenship to become an official agent.
Later he adopted the Irish surname Reilly, which was the surname of his first wife's father. Reilly was given a permanent position with the British Naval Intelligence Department (NID).
Had a brief affair with Ethel Voynick, later with Margaret Callahan Thomas.

O'Callaghan / Callaghan is an Irish surname. Callaghan were lords of Cineal Aodha in South Cork, west of Mallow along the Blackwater river valley; in the counties Armagh, Louth - north of Dublin, Meath and Monaghan. In County Meath, mainly in the parishes of Kells - 38 km north-east of Mullingar, Trim - 37 km east of Mullingar and Athboy - 28 km north-east of Mullingar, in County Westmeath - around of Mullingar; in County Monaghan it is often found as Keelan.

Margaret Callahan Thomas (O'Callaghan / Callaghan, b. 1874–1933), inherited about £800,000, was married to Reilly in 1898; he would have four wives ­ one of which was Nadine, who went on to marry Gustav Nobel of the Nobel Peace Prize family. Gustaf Oscar Ludvig (Gösta) Nobel, (1886–1951); son of Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel / Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 27.07.1831 and Edla Constantia Collin; brother of Wilhelmine / Mina Esther Nobel; Ludvig Alfred Nobel; Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist; Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff; Rolf Nobel; half brother of Emanuel Nobel; Carl Ludvig Nobel and Anna Nobel Sjögren; acc. to Elle Kiiker.

Göst was in Petrograd, director.
Swedish writer Brita Asbrink has spent the three years researching the Nobel family and their ties to the oil fields of Baku. In addition to writing a book on the subject, called 'Ludvig Nobel: Petroleum Has a Bright Future', Asbrink has produced a TV documentary called 'Red Sun Over the Nobel Oil Fields', which aired this past fall to commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Nobel Prize.
Copyright by Brita Asbrink at http://www.branobelhistory.com/themes/the-nobel-brothers/:
"Gösta Nobel was Ludvig Nobel's youngest son ... Together with his brother Emil, he tries to save both the companies and the home in St Petersburg, but the brothers are finally forced to make a dramatic escape out of the country. Gösta was born in 1886 in St Petersburg... 1917. He turned out to be the last Managing Director of the company (he stayed in 1916 in Baku). His brother Emil, who was a year older, was then head of the machine-building factory and Alfa-Nobel... In summer 1918, their considerably older brother Emanuel Nobel was at the spa in Jessentuki in north Caucasus ... Gösta was called to a meeting in Moscow with the new Soviet Government's central oil committee. ... On 30 November 1918, the two brothers were detained at the breakfast table by the Secret Police, the Cheka ... The brothers were put in front of the notorious and feared Commissar Varvara Jakovleva-Sternberg who declared that Gösta and Emil would receive the same sentence as Mandelstam – freedom or death. ... to the Finnish border by Systerbäck. In Viborg, they then met a large number of Russian refugees. On 22 December 1918, they arrived in Stockholm where the whole Nobel clan gathered to celebrate Christmas together with Ludvig Nobel's widow Edla who was just over 70 and was the clan's central figure. ... In February 1919, Gösta Nobel travelled to England to discuss the S.A.I.C. with the British Government. Gösta saw a partner in Standard Oil of New Jersey, which bought eleven exploration permits at drilling fields in Azerbaijan in 1919. The time had come for a merger. After negotiations and a survey in Baku, Standard Oil
(July 1920 agreement in Paris)
bought half of Branobel's shares.
(the Red Army entered Baku in April 1920. A few months later, during the Great Depression, half of the Nobel's oil company shares were sold to Standard Oil in New Jersey, a masterstroke
negotiated [1919] in New York by Gösta Nobel,
Ludvig's youngest son. And the family's economic future was secured)
... but after Emil's death in 1951 and Gösta's in 1955, Branobel was liquidated in Stockholm in 1969".

1911 - Sidney Reilly had a mistresses Nadezhda Massino, wife of Petr Ivanovich Zalessky, a naval lieutenant who took part in the defence of Port Arthur.

NOTE ON MASSIMO:

In Miezonka were living Bowler Letticia 1917 - 1918, and madam Zaleski / Zalessky, probably ca 1911 / 1914.
We can't say now that Nadezhda Massino - wife of Petr Ivanovich Zalessky, a naval lieutenant who took part in the defence of Port Arthur during the siege of 1904 - is the same person.

In 1904 Reilly is stationed in Port Arthur and forced to help the Japanese. Nadina 'Nadia' Massino (wife number two of Reilly), called Countess Nadia Zalessky / Nadine Massino, or Nadezhda Petrovna (nee Massino). In 1912, Reilly was familiar with Peter Ivanovich Zaleski, adjutant of the Minister of Marine, Grigorovich - with connections to the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In 1914 madam Zaleski / Zalesskaya dispersed, and in 1915 arrived in the United States and married Reilly. Zaleski P. I. was familiarity with Grigorovich in 1904 when he was in Port Arthur. Consequently, his co-operation with Reilly could have even the Port Arthur roots, in February and March 1904.

Piotr Zaleski / Zalesski, Captain 1 rank, b. 20.08.1881 - d. 1939; in service since 1898, graduated from the Marine Corps in 1901, cruiser Angara; awarded the Order of St. Anne in July 1904, after the battle with the Japanese fleet 27.01.1904; the defense of Port Arthur; Greece 1912; senior aide to the Marine Minister on 09/27/1912; Adjutant companion (deputy) Minister of Marine; married, fluent in French (1914); after the Civil War he lived in exile. Died in Yugoslavia.

Reilly in a letter from 1912 declares: '...my friend Grigorovich...'. From the moment when Grigorovich became Minister, Rielly just launched an activity on the orders of the Navy. Reilly disappeared from the Port Arthur in the first half of April 1904, leaving the impression of a spy. It is possible that Reilly represented Vickers. We back to Massino family. Colonel Peter Massino was the commander of the Siberian Military District before May 2, 1905. On this day he was dismissed and arrested. Finally, August 24, 1906, the Siberian Military District Court sentenced that Massino used military hospital train to smuggle contraband commercial goods, from Yekaterynoslav to Irkutsk, for merchant Mrozowski. Family moved from Siberia to the capital Petersburg. The emperor himself ordered cancel the sentence and more wonderful, in 1907 an imperial decree restoring Massino in rank and all privileges. Spring 1917: Massino said on the Provisional Government, that the Americans are seriously take up this unfortunate country, railroads and mines of the Donets Basin. Massino of course, was a merchant, but he has another profession and a different name. His real name is Sidney George Reilly. He is an English spy and organizer of defense against Soviet power. He was sentenced to death in the case of Lockhart and Grenard. Colonel Massino coming from a wealthy Jewish family, who took the Orthodoxy, he made a quick career; in 1853, a private, six years later ensign, and in 1879 a lieutenant colonel. According to the testimony, he is representative of the Brodsky Family Sugar, monopolized the sugar industry in Belarus. Barbara Kondratyevna was living in the capital, with her children George and Natalia; she known probably the Grand Duke Georgy Nikolaevich Romanov. Georgij Pietrovich / George Petrovich Massino moved from Kiev to Izmailovo Life Guards with a personal resolution of the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. As evidenced by Cook, another colonel Massino was a Siberian entrepreneur, banker and publisher: Alexei Filippov Massino, had in St. Petersburg, a number of firms and who have accounts in the Irkutsk branch of the Russian-Asian bank. Philip Massino known probably Rasputin. Mentioned above Варвара Кондратьевна / Barbara Kondratyevna Brodsky had frequent contacts with Rasputin and his girlfriend Sophia at the salon of the Countess Ignatyeva - widow of the former Irkutsk, then Kiev governor-general A. Ignatiev, killed in 1906 by Social Revolutionary terrorist. Daughter of Barbara Brodsky / Brodska - Natalia Massino in 1906 married Lieutenant Peter Zaleski - hero of Port Arthur, a friend of Kolchak and Adjutant of the Naval Minister Admiral Grigorovich. Between Sidney George Reilly and Natalia Brodska Massino began a romance in 1911, in Nice. In 1911, his room-mate at St. Petersburg apartment was E. F. Hoffman, served for the East Asian Trading Company of the Russian-Asian Bank, but he was found in an apartment with a bullet in head. Thus, the Irkutsk branch of the Russian-Asian bank informed about a loss of more than 100 thousand rubles; but Reilly and Nadine, his mistress, lived in St Raphael on the French Riviera; Nadine Zalewski / Zaleski / Zalessky continued to live in New York, they finally divorced in 1920. Hints explains that 1. a Guardsman George Massino was amateur racing, fine swordsman, a frequenter of the elite St. Petersburg Yacht Club, 2. Turkish and Eastern countries negociant was Constantine Massino / Konstantin Markovich Massino, a Turkish trader.

Nadina Massino was born in Poltava in 1885, his father Lt. Col. Piotr Massino / Peter Massino, mother Barbara Kondratyevna Brodski; Nadina's parents were Jewish, but baptized; declared that she is
Swiss by birth, and her name is Nadine; 1906/1907 she married Lieutenant Zaleski, adjutant Admiral Grigorovich, and the latter soon Grigorovich became the Minister of Marine of Russia. Couple rotates in high military circles (general Szydlowski, Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company, general Jacyna). Nadine left her husband. Meanwhile, in 1914, broke the First World. Nadine and Sidney Reilly at this time lived on the French Riviera.
When he goes to Tokyo for contracts of gunpowder, signed an agreement with the American Remington Arms Company
for the supply of 100.000 rifles; he sailed from Tokyo to San Francisco on January 13, 1915 and arranges his office in New York at Broadway 120. At this time in the French port of Le Havre, Nadine buy a ticket on a ship to New York;
but he was soon arrested, as the Orthodox, a bachelor,
son of George and Pauline Reilly of the Irish town of Clonmel;
actually Sidney Reilly, aka Sigmund Rosenblum, Rudolfo Massino, John Gillepsi, Sydney Relinsky or Nicholas Steinberg and so on.

American Remington Arms Company: 1888, E. Remington & Sons was acquired by Marcellus Hartley and partners, the company was named the Remington Arms Company. 1912, The Union Metallic Cartridge Company of Bridgeport and Remington Arms Company were combined into the Remington U.M.C., and produced a model 1891 Mosin-Nagant rifles for Imperial Russia; the collapse of the Imperial Russian government had a severe impact on Remington finances. Russia had ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse Company in the United States in 1915. Remington produced 750,000 rifles before production was halted by the 1917 October Revolution. Vladimir Lenin cancelled payments to the American companies manufacturing the Mosin–Nagant; Russia had not paid throughout the Great War; Remington also supplied ammunition. Reilly arrived in New York on 10 July, 1915. Remington Union would pay Reilly a large sum of money to ensure that their rifles successfully passed through the quality control process by the Russian government. Samuel Prior had signed the agreement with Reilly. In late 1915 the Russian government sent an official committee to New York headed by Gen. A. V. Sapozhnikov, old Reilly acquaintance from Petersburg. Reilly had writing to Lt-Gen. Eduard Germonius on 21 Dec. 1915, stated that Sapozhnikov talked on ordering 1 to 2.000.000 rifles, ignoring the actual state of affairs; Nadine had personal contact with the general Germonius. On 7 Jan. 1916 an agreement was signed between Reilly and Samuel M. Vauclain, John T. Sykes and Andrew Fletcher on behalf of the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation. July 1916 Reilly was reunited with Alexandre Weinstein, who arrived to New York from London; and Moisei Ginsburg arrived from Petrograd shortly after Weinstein. Thwaites (had lunched with both Reilly and Weinstein) spoke to Reilly on Nekrassov: Maj. Norman Thwaites of SIS with Guy Gaunt of BNI investigated Sergei Nekrassov after George Lurich, Estonian, accused Nekrassov of being a German spy.

Acc. to US records: Father of Sidney, George Reilly come from the Irish town of Clonmel - County Tipperary, southern Ireland by the Tipperary river; west of Waterford and Ballyhale in the east - south Ireland. Pauline or Bridget Reilly wife of Sidney Reilly was from Clonmel, too.
Pat O'Callaghan (Callahan) 1906 – 1991, adopted Clonmel as his home town.

Edmund O'Reilly / Edmond Reilly, b. circa 1835 / 1841 in Tipperary, Ireland, d. 1905 in Ballypatrick, South Tipperary, Tipperary County; he was son of John O'Reilly (died 1861 in South Tipperary, was son of Edmond O'Reilly - inf. of 1827 in Kilcash, Clonmel; John O'Reilly was husband of Margaret O'Reilly and father of Edmund O'Reilly, Bridget, and John O'Reilly) and Margaret; husband of Catherine O'Reilly, and father of Mary Catherine Kate Drew, Edmond (Sonny, Pappy), Thomas (Tom), Ellen, Michael, William (Willy), Nicholas D., John, Bridget [Bridget died 1948 in Nine-Mile House, Tipperary, wife of Michael O'Reilly, and mother of Mary, Ethel and John (Jack)], Julia Dolan, Margaret, James and Patrick Joseph. Copyright by Renee Mary Lan of 2013.

Count Francesco Massimo, b. 1806 in Dresden, Sachsen, son of Camillo Massimo, I principe di Arsoli and Maria of Sachsen-Lausitz, Princess;
brother of Princess Giuseppa Massimo-Arsoli; Princess Teresa Massimo-Arsoli; Prince Camillo IX Massimo-Arsoli and Princess Barbara Massimo-Arsoli, acc. to Douglas John Nimmo.
Camillo Massimo, Ist principe di Arsoli - east of Roma b. 1770, d. 1840 in Civitavecchia - north-west of Roma; son of Francesco Camillo Massimo and Barbara Savelli Palombara; the principal residence of the family was Castle at Arsoli.
Many of the Massimo princesses who married into the family were from the most important Royal families of Europe. Count Don Massimo, from Teatina of St. Anthony / Testina di Sant'Antonio - 15 km west of Torino.

Above mentioned Margaret Callahan Thomas (O'Callaghan / Callaghan b. 1874–1933), a governess and the widow of the Revd Hugh Thomas, was married to Reilly in 1898; a patron was Sir Henry Hozier (1838–1907), secretary of Lloyds connected to the War Office intelligence branch.

In 1904 Reilly began working for the trading firm M. A. Ginsburg & Company in Port Arthur, China as a double-agent serving both the British and the Japanese; 1906 he moved to St Petersburg, where he became friendly with members of the revolutionary underground. He was also spying for the Tsarist regime. 1906 he had a lavish apartment in St Petersburg, and was a member of the most exclusive club in the city. Reilly was recruited by Mansfield Cumming, who was the head of the Secret Service Bureau that had responsibility for secret operations outside Britain (later known as MI6).

"...Reilly was sent to Russia where he pose as an armament distributor. Believing that aerial reconnaissance would provide the best opportunity for seeing and assessing the strength of the German fleet, he used his burgeoning bank account to sponsor air races for Russian aviators. In addition to establishing him as a member of the social elite, it also enabled him cover for flying over areas of the Baltic Sea, photographic German vessels. ... Reilly was introduced toa man named Massino, the assistant to the Russian Minister of Marine. Reilly seduced Massino's wife, Nadine, who confided that a German company, Blohm & Voss, were seeking to win the contracts to rebuild the Russian fleet.

Reilly bought a small company (Mendrochovich & Lubersky) and pursuaded Massino to convince Blohm & Voss to name his company as their St. Petersburg agents.

... they sent copies of all of their designs to Reilly's firm, the designs having been based on the German fleet. Before he turned the plans over to the Russian Minister of Marine, he made a full set of photographic copies, which he sent back to England...".

Robert Bruce Lockhart was impressed by Reilly, who he described as having the artistic temperament of the Jew with the devil-may-care daring of the Irishman. Reilly then got a job working for German naval ship-builders. Ca 1912 Reilly went to New York City as a war contractor buying arms supplies for the Russians. Reilly purchased arms from the United States and from Japan. During this period he remained in contact with Mansfield Cumming via William Eden Wiseman, his station chief in New York.

James Markham Dow, born 1869, in Shanghai, China, and died 1910 in Bournemouth, England; he was the son of James Dow (1827-1875) and Marianne Letitia Goodwin (1844-1915); working in St. Petersburg, Russia; for the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank in Penang, for Ginsburg & Co. in Nagasaki 1898 - 1901, Shanghai, and St. Petersburg.

Inf. from: shbrand2@telus.net, at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/:

James Markham Dow, born 1869, in Shanghai. "James DOW and Mary McLEAN were married in Prescot, Lancashire, England, 1851. Both may have come from Scotland. Except for Clementina Caroline Lockett DOW (who married AR Burkill), their children were born in Shanghai China. Walter Norton DOW married Emily Frances ORME in 1887, Hampstead, England. James DOW remarried, after the death of Mary, to Marianne Letitia GOODWIN 1867 in England. They had 4 children, all born in Shanghai: Ehomas Eldred, James Markham, Ellen Maude, and Francis Louis".

The Clan Dow originated in Ireland, as Dowd. Harry Dow married Helen Watt of Kennethmont, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1765 in Kennethmont / Kinnethmont; Andrew Dow b. 1797 in Cluny, Aberdeen, Scotland. Helen Dow was born in 1800 in Echt, Aberdeen; Anne Dow was born in 1802 in Echt, Aberdeenshire; Willian Dow b. 1804 in Echt, Aberdeen, Scotland. Others from Echt, Aberdeen, Scotland; 1860 in Insch, Scotland; Kennethmont; Crimmond, Aberdeenshire; Old Machar, Aberdeenshire; 1815 in Fordyce, Banffshire, Scotland; James DOW and Mary McLEAN were married in Prescot, Lancashire in 1851, both from Scotland; McLean married 1899 in Urquhart, Inverness, Scotland; Thomas MCLEAN was born ca 1855 in Fife - ca 20 km north of Edinburgh, eastern Scotland. Urquhart, Inverness - north Scotland. Crimmond, Aberdeenshire - north of Aberdeen; northern Scotland.

John Maclean b. 1879, was a Scottish socialist, Marxist, and appointed Bolshevik consul in Scotland in 1918. Maclean was born in Pollokshaws, close to Glasgow, Scotland; his father Daniel (1845–1888) from the Isle of Mull - west of Scotland, and his mother Ann (1846–1914) came from Corpach, near by Fort William.

MORRIS A. GINSBURG MESS, a Russian Jew from Odessa, had made his way to Yokohama, working for Lane, Crawford & Co. in 1876 and E. C. Kirby & Co. in 1878, 1879 founded his own company in Yokohama and Nagasaki to ca 1885; with his brothers, Nathan and Marcus Mess in 1883, in Nagasaki in 1887.

Yokohama: Lane, Crawford & Co. in 1876 and E. C. Kirby & Co. in 1878:
Lane, Crawford & Co. founded in Hong Kong in 1850 by two Scots, Thomas Ash Lane and Ninian Crawford at Des Voeux Road and Queen's Road Central. In the early 1900s it also had stores in Canton and Shanghai in China, and Kobe and Tokyo in Japan.

E. C. Kirby & Co. / Kirby & Co. / Birch, Kirby & Co. - shipchandlers, army and navy contractors, shipping Agent and agent for the Kobe Iron Works; In Yokohama 1867 - 1884, Kobe 1872 - 1884: ANDREWS, Blundell, BAYFIELD George, DAINTY, Joseph; DAWE, William; GINSBURG, Morris A.; Rutherford, Georg; proprietor Edward Charles Kirby.

Mentioned above Georg / George W. Rutherford b. 1879 in California, father b. in New York, mother was born in Japan (English); clerical, brokerage, mining, gold mine; May / Mae E. Rutherford wife; Romilly T. Rutherford son; lived in 1910, San Jose, Santa Clara, California. SINGAPORE HARBOUR: after the retirement of Mr. Scott it was decided to appoint a Managing Director Mr. George Rutherford who arrived in Singapore on the 13th February 1902 to take up the appointment, but he was murdered by burglars in his residence on the 10th April 1902.

Ca 1889 M. A. Ginsburg was aid the Russian government; 1896, visiting Russia; Ginsburgs had moved into the residence formerly occupied by Robert Walker, in 1900, M. Ginsburg & Co. had branches in Singapore, Port Arthur, Chemulpo and Yokohama;
1902 in Colombo, Ceylon; 1902 Ginsburg took over the Agency of the Russian Volunteer Fleet in East Asia.
M. A. Ginsburg and his two brothers left Nagasaki in September 1903 for St. Petersburg. Ginsburg and Marcus Mess may have come back to Nagasaki 1906 - 1907; back in St. Petersburg. "Marcus Mess, the younger brother of Morris and Nathan Mess, was born in Odessa in 1862. He came to Japan to work for his brother Morris in 1883..." to 1885. 1893, Marcus became a partner with Morris Ginsburg at Singapore, Nagasaki, 1902 in Colombo; Petersburg, Russia in 1903 - 1909.

In 1885 Jozef Piłsudski

started medical studies at Kharkov University, where he became involved with Narodnaya Volya, part of the Russian Narodniki revolutionary movement.

1886 he was suspended for participating in student demonstrations. He was rejected by the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia;

22 March 1887 he was arrested by Tsarist authorities on a charge of plotting with Vilnius socialists to assassinate Tsar Alexander III - with his elder brother Bronisław.

Bronisław Piłsudski was sentenced to fifteen years' hard labor in eastern Siberia.

Bronislaw Pilsudski in September 1885 left for St. Petersburg to try to obtain a gymnasium graduation certificate as an external student and to enter university studies. March 1887 he was arrested in his Petersburg flat for an problematic involvement in an attempt on the life of Alexander the Third with 14 other accused, including

V. I. Lenin's brother, Aleksandr Ulyanov / Alexandr Ulianov.

He was sentenced to 15 years of hard labor in

Sakhalin near by Japan! Bronislaw Pilsudski was also sentenced to the death and the sentence was only later changed to the exile penalty - started his long march on 9th August 1887;

1896 amnesty; 1898 Bronislaw Pilsudski worked in the Museum, in Vladivostok 1899 - 1902, secretary of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society and worked to a local newspaper; 1902 - 1905 again Sakhalin with ethnographical expedition + Waclaw Sieroszewski;
1903 met with Waclaw Sieroszewski,

October 1905 - Japan; November 1905 again Japan with N. P. Matveyev and Shimei - Hasegawa; to

August 1906 - Kobe, Tokyo, Yokohama and Nagasaki: talked with Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from USA in May 1905. January 1906 Bronislaw Pilsudski again in Tokyo, Japan; but Russel moved to Nagasaki. In February 1906 B. Pilsudski in Tokyo with S. Katayama; in March 1906 in Tokyo with Chinese revolutionaries; July 1906 Bronislaw Pilsudski in Nagasaki with Russel, in Tokyo with Futabatei, Okuma, Iwamoto and Itagaki, Yokoyama.

Bronislaw Pilsuski left Japan
(April 27, Russel started 'Volya' in Nagasaki which Pilsudski promoted; on July 11, Bronislaw Pilsudski in Nagasaki, Japan; Tokijiro sent a letter from Shinjuku in Tokyo to Pilsudski in Inasa, Nagasaki (Mount Inasa / Inasa-yama is a hill to the west of Nagasaki);
July 29, Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki for Yokohama or 23 July
)
to USA, France and Bystre village close to Zakopane in Austria.

АЗБЕЛЕВ НИКОЛАЙ ПАВЛОВИЧ / Azbelev Nikolay son of Pavel Azbelev, arrived to Nagasaki with 'Cesarevich' on 15 April 1891, when as Captain, 1890 - 1891 sailed to the East. Николай Японский aka Касаткин in his Memoirs 1870 - 1911 wrote down on 21 September / 4 October 1903, that after dinner come
Николай Павлович Азбелев / Nikolay Azbelev, general major, member of the 'Комитет Министерства финансов', with Waclaw L. Sieroszewski / Серошевский.
At this time the Russian envoy to Japan government was Baron Rosen / Розен who talked with Russian lieutenant-general Alekseev / Алексеев in Port Arthur - October 1903; in 1903 Waclaw Sieroszewski / Серошевский lived at Hokkaido. Colonel N. Azbelev / Н. Азбелев, sailed at 'Михаил', in Nagasaki, but in 1904 this ship was taken Japanese.
Above mentioned

Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski / Никола́й Константи́нович Судзило́вский / Николас Руссель / Nicholas Sudzilovsky, b. 1850 - d. 1930, a scientist-ethnographer, geographer, Polish - Belarusian origin;

revolutionary populist; leader of the revolutionary movement in Russia, Switzerland, England, France, Bulgaria, the USA, Japan and China. One of the founders of the socialist movement in Romania, Senator Territory of Hawaii 1900;

his father Konstantin Stepanovich Sudzilovsky (d. 1883), Secretary of the Chamber of Mogilev civil and criminal court.

Sisters: Nadezhda Sudzilovskaya (1853), by her husband Tihovskaya, a revolutionary populist. Eugene K. Sudzilovskaya (1854), her first husband - Трофименко / Trofimenko, the second Volynski, a revolutionary populist; brothers: Konstantin Sudzilovsky (d. 1916), Alexander K. Sudzilovsky, Sergey K. Sudzilovsky; children: Vera Sudzilovskaya (d. 1964, Skobel), Maria Nikolaevna Sudzilovskaya (d. 1937).

Sudzilovsky born in Mogilev, in an noble family from an estate Фастов / Fastow in the Mstislavsky County.

Nikolay in 1868 entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. Nicholas Sudzilovsky 1869 was forced to transfer to the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev; 1873-1874 Kiev communes, a socialist student organization; he escaped and fled Russia. 1875 Sudzilovsky in exile in London. Worked in the hospital of St. George, met with Karl Marx. 1877 he graduated from the University of Bucharest. In 1876, under the pseudonym Nicholas Russell participated in the uprising against Ottoman rule in Bulgaria. New name - Roussel. Collaborated with famous Bulgarian revolutionary Hristo Botev. Was among the organizers of the socialist movement in Romania. Lived in Bulgaria, followed by Greece.

In 1887 he moved to San Francisco. Roussel also established contacts with the Russian political emigres who lived in the early 1890s in the United States. Roussel, had an American passport by 1891.

Фастов / Fastow in the Mstislavsky County (Mścisław / Мсціслаў / Мстисла́вль): in 1910 to the Могилёвская губерния, Мстиславский уезд, Старосельская волость:

Стараселле / Староселье / Staresiele / Стараселле / Staroselie / Starasiellie / Starosielee / Староселье / Старосе́лье or Стараселле. Стараселле:

1. It is a village in the Шкловск / Shklovsk region, Belarus: 17 km north-west of Szklow / Shklov. In 1910 owner: Аверкович.

2. But is second village with name Staroselje several km north-east of Szklow; and

3. next Staroselje north-east of Gorki / Horki, north-west of Mstislav, close to (to 1918 - Romanovo = Романово) Lenino - 4 km south-east and Тригубово = Костю́шково / Касцюшкава, Победная = Ползухи, Пунище.

4. We know on Staroselje south of Mstislaw, and north of Kritshev / Krzyczew, close to Bunkovshchyna - 2 km east (Bojary and Kashany west of Staroselje), and Oziero Zamok, ca 5 km south-east of Sialec / Anufryjeu, 200 m of the Russian border. Here were living Георгий, Судзиловский, and Судзиловский Константин / Константин Степанович Судзиловский d. 1883, clerk in Могилёв / Mohylev by Dniepr.

Note on: a. Ksenzovschina - a village in Mstislav County or Malahovschina in Staroselskaya parish, Mstislav county. b. Verkeevschina village is located 19 km southwest of Mstislavl. c. Osmolovichi belonged the Staroselskaya parish, the Mstislav district, Mogilev Province. d. We remember on Chekhovska Lucja / Lucja Czechowska born 13 Dec. 1881 in Głuchówka / Gluchowka / Gluhuvka near Mścisław / Mscislaw now Byeloruss / Belarus. Died on 31 July 1967 in Legionow, near to Warsaw.

In March 1874 Nikolai Sudzilovsky came from St. Petersburg to Saratov. It is possible that a student has been selected Pokrovsk. He was born in Mogilev in 1850. Nicholas Sudzilovsky had relatives in Pokrovsk, the Novouzensk county, Samara province. Father was once a wealthy nobleman;

the origin of the surname associated with the name Sudzily: Sudzilovskaya village that is Fastow in the Mstislavsky district, Mogilev province.
Nikolai Sudzilovsky moved in 1874 to London, 1875 in Geneve, 1876 Bulgaria, 1877 Romania, 1887 San Francisco, next Hawaii
with Елищев, Славин, Федоров, Потемкин, Краус / Kraus / Krauze, Коморский / Komorski, Лебедев, Пеньковский / Pienkowski, Муратов, Ярецкий / Jarecki - inf. by http://via-midgard.info/.
Constantine Sudzilovskaya had 8 children: Nicholas and his seven brothers and sisters. Four brothers and their sister converted to revolutionary activities. In the summer of 1874, Nikolai Sudzilovsky moved to Nikolayev (now Pugachev), where he lived with his brother Sergei, also an active member of the populist movement. It is possible that the move was caused by populists events in Saratov, May 31, 1874. On this day, the police forced to a one-story house on the street Tsaritsyn / Kiseleva, 6 where was living revolutionary Johann Pelkonen, which was something like illegal headquarters. On the last day of May 1874 Pelkonen was arrested in Saratov and have detained 193 revolutionary populist. However, according to other sources, Sudzilovsky back in March 1874 to Nikolayev, not in Pokrovsk. In Nikolayev got a medical assistant in a local hospital. At work he was received by Dr. Alexander Kadyan, revolutionary too, a graduate of the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy; , a member of the student unrest, collaborated with the Populists and help them. In Nikolayev acted a group of Voynaralsky, which was attended by Nicholas Sudzilovsky and
Kadyan - he was arrested on June 24, 1874, and Nicholas Sudzilovsky - according to one version - went with his brother in Samara, on the other - in Nizhny Novgorod. Nicholas Sudzilovsky-Roussel after an unsuccessful escape blocked entrances to the apartment, along with colleague, a countryman, Sergei Kovalik. However, Kovalik and Sudzilovsky reached the Volga, where decided to take a ferry to the right bank of the Volga region, and then on the boat to go to Nizhny Novgorod. In Samara, Kovalik and
Sudzilovsky parted, miraculously escaped arrest and left Russia, - abroad Sudzilovsky took the pseudonym Roussel: meeting with Marx and Sun Yat-sen, the establishment of the socialist movement in Romania and participated in anti-Ottoman uprising in Bulgaria, moving to North America, the presidency of the Hawaiian Islands
and in the last years of his life, he decided to return home, but he disagree with the Bolsheviks; the new government did not forget the old revolutionary Sudzilovsky received from the Soviet government personal pension; but he was a member of the National Society of Political Prisoners, published in the journal; but to Russia, he did not return. On the way home from China, he died on April 30, 1930. Sudzilowski looked toward America as the center of democracy, already in 1860's when he was still a student of the University of Kiev; Sudzilowski and some friends founded the 'American Circle', for establishing an agricultural commune in America. When Sudzilowski came to California, he immediately became involved in American political life changing his name to Russel.
He got a job as an American consular official in the Caribbean Islands. Later, in 1890, he settled in Hawaii. In 1900 as Каука Лукини / Kalka Lukin was a senator of Hawaii, 1900 / 1901 as president of the Hawaiian Senate.
Russel used his authority to aid patriots from Ukraine. He helped some thirty Ukrainian families to settle on Hawaiian plantations in 1900's. During the Russo-Japanese War he journeyed to Japan, he became active among the Russian prisoners of war, giving medical aid and he spoke at meetings, contributed to newspapers, wrote theoretical Pamphlets on political and humanitarian issues, attacking the Russian regime. After his Japanese adventures, Sudzilowski-Russel decided to stay in the Far East, settled 1921 in China and acted with Sun Yat Sen / Sun Yat-sen; in China he died in 1930. In 1912 Kalka Lukin / Sudzilowski-Russel lived in Philippines.
His wifes: 1. Любовь Федоровна Савич / Sawicz (married in Geneve / Genewa in 1875),
2. Леокадия Викентьевна Шебеко / Shebeko / Szebeko (1887),
3. мадам Охара (1920?).
His children: Вера, Мария, Dik / Дик and Garri / Гарри (in Philippines), Ясумицу Охара and Flora / Флора.
Liubov Savich / Sawicz / Любовь Федоровна Савич b. 1852, daughter of Федор Федорович Савич and София Петровна Lishina / Лишина, b. 1832.
Федор Федорович Савич b. 1811 was son of Федор Петрович Савич b. ca 1758 died in 1829, and Варвара Гавриловна Божич b. 1773, daughter of Гавриил Иванович Божич d. 1781.

Oura / Ōura in Nagasaki, Japan.

Jozef Pilsudski visit Japan in the summer of 1904.

It had at least secured the assistance of Japanese officers in the embassy in Paris in training Poles in the making of explosives and the construction of bombs. Piłsudski traveled to Tokyo, where he offered to supply Japan with intelligence in support of war with Russia. He proposed the creation of a Polish Legion, suggested a 'Promethean' project to Yamagata Aritomo for starting a guerrilla war in Poland. Pilsudski received Japan's help in weapons and ammunition for the combat organisation; in the fall of 1904, Piłsudski formed the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party; in March 1905 the paramilitary began using bombs to assassinate selected Russian police officers. In June 1905, Piłsudski sent paramilitary aid to an uprising in Łódź.

Bronislaw Piłsudski also stayed in Japan from the beginning of October 1905 to August 3rd, 1906, visiting Hakodate, Kobe, Tokyo, Yokohama, and Nagasaki. Futabatei Shimei was the most important person Piłsudski met in Japan, Tokyo in 1906;
see: A. F. Majewicz & T. Wicherkiewicz, Bronisław Piłsudski and Futabatei Shimei ..., 1999.

Futabatei had a great interest in Russian and Polish revolutionaries and he ungrudgingly helped Piłsudski, introducing him to various people, and about an estate of 100 acres, which Nikolaj Russel (1850-1930) owned in Hawaii, in order to make funds for Russian and Polish revolutionaries.

Russel / Sudzilovskij, "...was a Polish-Russian revolutionary who took refuge in America in 1887 and was later naturalized in the Hawaiian Kingdom. In May 1905 he came to Japan with the aim of turning Russian and Polish prisoners of the Russo - Japanese war against the Russian tsar. He became a journalist for the Russian weekly 'Japonija i Rossija' in Kobe for Russian and Polish prisoners. ...

Russel later moved to Nagasaki, where he rallied his comrades to publish the Russian revolutionary newspaper Volja (Liberty) on April 27th 1906. Futabatei and Piłsudski enthusiastically visited the famous Japanese statesmen Okuma Shigenobu and Itagaki Taisuke, the proprietor of Mainichi Shinbun ... Shimada Saburo, the educator and critic Iwamoto Yoshiharu...".

Piłsudski, in a letter to Russel dated April 10th 1906, wrote: I have visited Okuma and several other persons... Piłsudski in another letter to Russel, dated March 3rd - 4th of the same year, wrote: Nothing changed here. ... In this connection the declaration of V. Gorvits 'Ot redaktsii' was published in the sixth issue of Volja...

Russian and Polish revolutionaries were secret allies of the Japanese government. Futabatei's friendship with Piłsudski did not stop. Futabatei regarded Piłsudski as an 'old infant' and liked him as such. Piłsudski and Futabatei organized the Polish-Japanese Society and decided to translate the literature of each country in order to promote the development of relations between Poland and Japan in the future. Futabatei introduced Piłsudski to Yokoyama Gennosuke (1870-1915) in the spring of 1906; Piłsudski met Volkenshtein in Japan.

At the beginning of July 1906 Piłsudski went to Nagasaki.

On July 30th he left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America. On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Piłsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and

foreign-made wines later.

In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Piłsudski.

Russel-Pilsudski letters were wrote from Kataoka, Oura, Nagasaki in December 1906 to Kobe: "...Unfortunately my ship Manchuria, in which I was supposed to go ... I have to wait as long as 10 days, Aug. 30 departing next ... for the past week with no cablegrams from Russia. What's this? ... strike or silence ... We need nationless state, ... composed not of major national and regional ... such as the Amer. state or the Swiss cantons. Why the Swiss do not have a 3-regional parliaments: German, French and Italian? ... Thank you very much for your detailed letter, ... Do not forget me and write often address 'Freedom', Bow Debski and Raevskii. Yours sincerely, Dr. N. Russel. P. S. If you're in Washington, DC, to see my friend Professor Henshow, enclose a card". And letter from Kataoka, Nagasaki, November 16th: ...Raevskii S. Franciszek going out soon to move to Austria, Poland. His plan - to work among the Poles ... Plossky left here yesterday with his family through the Suez Canal to Galicia. Next letter from Kataoka, Oura, Nagasaki - Japan, to Bronislaw Pilsudski: ... promised to send letter to Baron Vaclav Lyudvigovich Statler, now in Krakow, I tried to persuade Plosski stay here. ... Prof Henshow writes me from Washington that received your letter...

Piłsudski goes to Nagasaki and directly supports Russel in his activities. Next Bronislaw Pilsudski on board the Ship 'Dakota' from Nagasaki to Seatle.

In Oura, Nagasaki, Japan, a church was built soon after 1853. Ōura in Nagasaki, Japan (Oura Higasimati district; Oura Ishibashi str.; Oura-machi).

GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Ōura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.

GRAY, B. C. T., 1883 he became Acting Agent for W. G. Bayne, Agent for the North China Insurance Co., Head Office Shanghai and the Commercial Union Assurance Co. (Marine Branch), located at Yokohama.

GRAY Nicholas b. 16.12.1848 in St. Petersburg, d. 06.1912 in Vladivostok. Nationalized in the USA, he arrived in Nagasaki on June 3, 1897 as Agent of the Russian Volunteer Fleet, accompanied by his wife Catherine. An agency for the fleet was established in Nagasaki at 47 Ōura by Nicholas Gray in 1897. Their son Nicholas was sent to the China Inland Mission School in Chefoo. Parents arrived in Vladivostok in June 1907, with children: Alice / Alla, b. 1896, Esther / Glaya, b. 1898), Frank / Lolya, 1900, and Violet b. 1901. Nicholas Gray passed away in Vladivostok in 1912 serving as US Vice Consul for Commerce. 1922 Catherine Gray and her 10 children had settled in Northern California.

GRAY, W. J., 1865 until 1868 Merchant in Nagasaki.

Morris A. Ginsburg from Odessa who changed his name from Mess and fled the country; was nationalized as US - citizen. In 1874 Yokohama and in 1875 Lane, Crawford & Co., Yokohama; 1877 Kirby & Co., Kōbe Iron Works, 1878 he established M. Ginsburg at Yokohama to 1880; was joined in Japan by his brothers Nathan and Marcus Mess. 1885 a branch office in Nagasaki at 50 Ōura, being able to aid the Russian government in acquiring coal for its Far Eastern Squadron; 1887 he became Agent of the Russian Volunteer Fleet in Yokohama and in 1891 he was agent for the Russian East Asian Fleet. 1896 he was working for M. Ginsburg & Co., the Imperial Russian Navy and the Russian Volunteer Fleet, and next for the "Russian Navigation and Trading Co. - Odessa" at Yokohama. 1892 - 1898 a partnership with D. Marcus from London forming Marcus & Ginsburg; Henry J. Neville became manager; 1895 Morris Ginsburg established a branch in Kobe. 1896 Nicholas Gray returned to Japan and became Agent for the Russian Volunteer Fleet in Nagasaki; Ōura by Nicholas Gray in 1897; 1902, Gray transferred the agency to M. Ginsburg & Co.; left Nagasaki in 1903 for St. Petersburg, back by 1906, managed by I. M. Hornstein.

The Russian Volunteer Fleet was created in 1878 in St. Petersburg, at the behest of Tsar Alexander III; started sailings from Odessa to Vladivostok in 1880; made service between Nagasaki, Shanghai, Vladivostok and Odessa, like the Russian East Asian Fleet, it spent the winter in the port of Nagasaki. An agency was established in Nagasaki by Nicholas Gray in 1897 to 1902, when Gray transferred the agency to M. Ginsburg & Co. Passenger sailings from Libau to New York started in 1906 to 1908;

the agency for the Russian Volunteer Fleet remained in Oura of Nagasaki, where it was managed by N. P. Azbeleff.

N. P. Azbeleff / Nicholas Azbelew / Nikolai son of Paul Azbelev. His brother: Azbelev Peter P., b. 1868 in Vologda, died after 1927, major-general of the Russian fleet, the Korean Peninsula in 1896. His father Pavel / Paul B. Azbelev, d. after 1901, a Councillor of State, lived in St. Petersburg (1913 in St. Petersburg, Apothecary No 6); brothers and sisters: above mentioned Azbelev, Nikolai Pavlovich / Nicholas Azbelev d. 1912, major-general of the Admiralty; Ivan b. 1862, died in Ekaterinburg 1931; Alexander d. 1913; Constantine b. 1895 died after 1920; Julia d. after 1913. P. P. Azbelev was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt'.

In 1906 the Russian Volunteer Fleet bought a ship renamed Khazan / Kazan for Far East service, but it went aground near Colombo, Ceylon and wrecked 19th Apr. 1906. Wissotzky Tea Ltd., with the London office established in the tea area of the city in 1907 by one of the greatest Russian Jewish philosophers, Ginsburg / Ahad Haam, from "1907 to 1922, was to purchase tea through the London auctions and to take responsibility for Wissotzky's British operations. During this period, the company acquired plantations in both India and Ceylon, and continued to flourish in Russia and western Europe".

The Wissotzky Tea is family owned tea company based in Israel with offices in London and the United States; founded in 1849 in Moscow by Kalonimus Wolf Wissotzky / Kalman-Volf / Vulf Yankelevich; he was born in Žagarė; by 1904 the company extended its activities to Germany, France, New York and Canada. In 1907 Wissotzky establishes the Anglo-Asiatic company with its head offices in London, managed by Ahad Ha'am, with plantations in India and Ceylon; 1917, Wissotzky Tea Company was the largest tea company in the world; the Wissotzky family emigrated to the U.S. and Europe, opening branches in Italy and Gdansk / Danzig, Poland; in London it was managed by Boris Lourie; in Poland was run by Solomon Seidler, a tea specialist. In 1936 Simon Seidler, the son of Solomon Seidler, left Poland for Palestine. In 1945, Boris Lourie married Anna Wissotzky, and had two sons, Serge Lourie (born 1946) and Michael Lourie (born 1948). In 1936 Simon Seidler established a Wissotzky hub in the Middle East. Above Žagarė / Žagare / Żagory / Zhagar is a city located in the Joniškis district, northern Lithuania, close to the border with Latvia. Rabbi Yisroel ben Ze'ev Wolf Lipkin / Yisroel Salanter (1810-1883), the father of the 19th-century Mussar movement in Orthodox Judaism, was born there and Isaak Kikoin (1908–1984), a Soviet physicist. Yom Tov Lipman Lipkin 1846 - 1876 was a Lithuanian Jewish mathematician and inventor, the youngest son of Rabbi Yisroel Salanter. Klonimos Wolf Wissotzky / Wolfe Yankelevich / Kalman-Wolf / Wolf Kalonimus Vysotsky b. 1824 in Old Zhagora / Žagarė; died 1904, Moscow, the founder of 'V. Vysotsky and Ko', Wissotzky Tea; philanthropist and activist Hovevei Zion in Russia; settling in Moscow in 1858, in 1903 Vysotsky controlled 35% of the tea market in the Russian Empire. Was a friend of the writer Ahad Ha'am (1907 - 1921 Ahad Ha'Am headed tea firm in London). Was an honorary member of the Одесски комитет Общества вспомоществования евреям земледельцам и ремесленникам в Сирии и Палестине / the Odessa Committee of the Company's welfare Jews farmers and craftsmen in Syria and Palestine. In 1884 he participated in the conference Hovevei Zion movement in Katowice. 1885, as a representative of the movement Hovevei Zion, he visited Eretz Israel for examining the situation of the Jewish settlements - in 1908 Tehniona in Haifa. His son David Vulfovich V. Vysotsky 1861 d. 1930. And grandsons: 1. Fedor Davidovich Vysotsky 1879 d. 1933, tea-dealer, a board member of the V. Vysotsky and Co; 2. Alexander D. Vysotsky 1881 d. 1937, socialist revolutionary, member of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, was shot, teacher, resident in Barnaul, arrest: 1937.08.17, convicted 1937.11.06. And great-grandson: Leonid Vysotsky, lived and worked in London.

Одесский комитет or Общество вспомоществования евреям земледельцам и ремесленникам в Сирии и Палестине / the Odessa Committee / The Society for welfare Jews farmers and craftsmen in Syria and Palestine / The Odessa Palestinian society, an organization in Russia created at the Congress in Druskininkai (1887). The first meeting of the society was held in Odessa in 1890, with the representatives of the movement Hovevei Zion; 1891 - А. Гринберг (1841–1906) / A. Grinberg; Ahad Ha'am visited Eretz Israel in 1891 and 1893; in 1900, Baron E. Rothschild gave supports of Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel; the Odessa Committee organized in Odessa, Istanbul, Beirut, Jaffa, Jerusalem and Haifa network of information offices.

But the second source wrote:

Ascher Ginsberg (not Ginsburg!) - Ahad Ha'am (1856-1927); 1886, he settled in Odessa; 1889, the founder of Jewish newspaper Hamelits; when Alexander Tsederbaum came to Odessa, met with Ginsberg. Ginsberg and his followers took part in the First Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1897 (Switzerland).

In South Africa a Russian immigrant named Benjamin Ginsberg (not Ginsburg!), whose family had long traded in European teas, recognized the marketing potential of the South African rooibos tea / bush tea / mountain tea, and Ginsberg in 1904 became the first exporter of rooibos. Benjamin Ginsberg, the Founder of Rooibos Tea, b. 1890; Benjamin Ginsberg, a young Russian from a Moscow tea merchant family (see: Ginsburg from Odessa, Nagasaki, Colombo!), joined his trader father in the Cederberg in 1903. Benjamin started buying Rooibos and reselling it in other areas, he applied ancient Chinese tea curing techniques. He sold his 'Mountain Tea' to settlers in the Cape and shortly became the first exporter of rooibos using contacts of the family tea business.

Azbelev Nikolay Pavlovich / АЗБЕЛЕВ НИКОЛАЙ ПАВЛОВИЧ in 1877, April 30, by order of His Imperial Highness General-Admiral made ​​in midshipmen, graduates of the Naval School Cadets and Navy.

On Azbelev Nikolai Pavlovich inf. from Vladivostok, 01/12/1912, that retired Major General Azbelev was shoted; signed Kolyupanov. Azbelev Nikolai Pavlovich b. ?, died 31/11/1912, of the hereditary nobility, Orthodox, brothers: Ivan (b. 1862?), retired captain; Peter (27.02.1868 - died ?), a retired Major General Navy.

Wife: Maria Antonivna nee Artsimovich (1863-1928, Leningrad), the daughter of Dr. Antoni Arcimowicz ?, Senator (1895).
A name and patronymic of Azbelev wife is not clear, maybe "Adams" !:
Mary nee Adams
daughter of Anthony Adams, and maybe 1st married to Arcimowicz?.

Son: Victor (b. about 1882, died after 1931, the Soviet Union), graduated from the Military Medical Academy (1905). He known English, graduated Sea School and made ​​in Midshipmen (04/30/1877). Promoted to the rank of Midshipman (1878). Served on the ships of the Baltic Fleet. He was graduated from the Hydrographic Department of the Nikolaev Naval Academy, and the course of the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy (1883). In the campaign of 1884 with the rank of Lieutenant served on the corvette Askold and worked as Midshipman of Nautical astronomy and navigation. In 1886, Lieutenant Azbelev published in "Sea Collection" article "Tactical table for ships of the fleet". In 1890-1891 as a tutor sailed from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean on frigate Memory of Azov. Agent of the Voluntary Fleet in Nagasaki. Professor of the Nikolaev Naval Academy in 1912, a member of the Imperial Russian Astronomical Society. Collaborated with the publishing house Brier. Translation from Byron and Kipling. Author of the book "The Soul of Japan. Japanese novels, novellas, short stories, ballads..."; the article "Theatre in Japan" in the Journal of God's World, 1904 December.

Azbelev Ivan Pavlovich b. 1862, Ekaterinburg, died 1931, from the nobility; midshipman 09/27/1882, the Director of the North Ships Society, remained in the USSR, jailed in February 1930, shooting in April 1931; his son Nikolai (1889-1944, Tashkent), lieutenant of cavalry, was exiled to Kazakhstan in 1935.

Azbelev Viktor was born in 1881, St. Petersburg; lived in Leningrad, was arrested on March 19, 1935, rehabilitated 24 August 1989.

Azbelev Nikolai Ivanovich was born 13/08/1889, St. Petersburg, lived Leningrad, was arrested on March 9, 1935, 5 years exiled in Irgiz, rehabilitated 30 August 1989.

Azbelev Pavel Petrovich was born on 08.25.1900, St. Petersburg; economist, Leningrad, was arrested on March 20, 1935, denying the right of residence, Uralsk.

Azbelev Petr Pavlovich was born in 1868, Vologda, lived in Leningrad, was arrested on June 11, 1927, denying the right of residence, rehabilitated September 22, 1994.

Azbelev Vera Vikentievna, wife of General Major, in Petersburg 1904.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Reilly: "...Reilly claimed to be the son of an Irish merchant seaman, or an Irish clergyman, and an aristocratic landowner... Some sources say Reilly was born Georgi Rosenblum in Odessa, ... author Andrew Cook states that Reilly was born on 24 March 1873, in the Jewish Kherson gubernia of Tsarist Russia, as Salomon (Shlomo) Rosenblum ... There is speculation that he was the son of a merchant marine captain ... Cook states that the arrival of Sigmund Rosenblum in London in December 1895 was via France, ... a residential suburb of Paris ... Sigmund Rosenblum arrived in England via Brazil or France, he resided at the Albert Mansions, an apartment block in Rosetta Street, Waterloo, London, in early 1896. became a paid informant for the emigre intelligence network of William Melville, superintendent of Scotland Yard's Special Branch and, according to Cook, later the clandestine head of the British Secret Service Bureau, which was founded in 1909. ... On 22 August 1898, Rosenblum married Margaret Thomas and now was as Sidney George Reilly. ... Robin Bruce Lockhart recounts Reilly's alleged involvement in obtaining a newly developed German magneto at the first Frankfurt International Air Show in 1909. According to Lockhart, on the fifth day of the air show a German plane lost control and crashed, killing the pilot. The plane's engine was alleged to have used a new type of magneto that was far ahead of other designs. Reilly and a British SIS agent posing as one of the exhibition pilots ... The SIS agent quickly made detailed drawings of the German magneto, and when the engine had been removed to a hangar, the agent and Reilly managed to restore the original magneto. ...

(SEE: a magneto branch in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company).

In 1918, Reilly began to work for MI1 ... under Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming. Reilly was allegedly trained by the latter organization and sent to Moscow in March 1918 to assassinate Vladimir Ilyich Lenin or attempt to overthrow the Bolsheviks. He had to escape...".

Port Arthur and Reilly

(copyright by http://www.rulit.net/books/ and Cook Andrew, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly):

"...According to the marriage register, the two witnesses at the ceremony were Charles Cross and Joseph Bell. Bell at this time was a clerk at the Admiralty, while Charles Cross was a local government official. ... it is noteworthy that both eventually married daughters of Henry Freeman Pannett, a one-time associate of William Melville. ... Sigmund Rosenblum adopted the name Reilly from his father-in-law's middle name. ...why had Margaret not declared this middle name on her 1895 marriage certificate? If Reilly was her father's middle name, then it would have been given to him at baptism. His baptismal records show, however, that this was not the case. ... The answer lies in the fact that Rosenblum wanted a new, legitimate identity, ... Prior to Sigmund and Margaret's marriage, Melville had found a suitable Irish identity for Rosenblum to use - Sidney Reilly. ... found only one Sidney Reilly in the whole of Ireland. Interestingly, the child died soon after birth. ... More intriguingly, research conducted during the spring of 2003 into the family tree of William Melville revealed that his first wife Catherine's maiden name was Reilly. According to family records, her father came from the same Mayo village as Michael Reilly, the father of the deceased infant Sidney. ... In late August 1898, according to Margaret, Sigmund Rosenblum went to Spain for an unspecified period, well supplied with money. ... While Sigmund was away in Spain, Margaret 'liquidated' the Manor House in Kingsbury. ... On his return from Spain, Sigmund settled into a life of leisure at 6 Upper Westbourne Terrace, Paddington, ... According to Foreign Office passport records, a passport was issued in the name of S. G. Reilly on 2 June 1899, shortly before their departure from Upper Westbourne Terrace. ... Leaving London behind, Margaret and Sidney Reilly proceeded to Russia in June 1899 where they remained until the autumn of the following year. During the summer of 1900, Reilly travelled around the oil-rich Caucasus, visiting the ports of Petrovsk and Baku while Margaret remained in St Petersburg. It is noteworthy that during these months, War Office records note that: 'Mr Stevens at the British Consulate in Baku, has an agent who travels between Petrovsk, Baku and along the T. C. Railway and reports to Stevens by word of mouth'. ...

In September 1900, the Reillys made their way to Constantinople and took a ship to Port Said in Egypt.

Here the SS Rome departed for Colombo,

where they again changed ships for the final stage of their journey to Shanghai via Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. After several months in Shanghai, they proceeded to Manchuria, arriving in Port Arthur during the early months of 1901.

... Records, for example, indicate his involvement in lumber trading, real-estate speculation and shipping. Closer inspection, however, reveals that all these ventures were effectively linked by the mutual involvement of one Moisei Akimovich Ginsburg. Ginsburg, born on 5 December 1851 in Radzivilov in the Ukraine, had long-standing associations with the Rosenblum family. ... At fifteen he went to the seaport of Odessa from where he proceeded to Germany, England and America. ... in San Francisco, he bought a third-class ticket for a ship heading for China. On the way the ship docked at the Japanese port of Yokohama ... By 1877 he had set up his own trading company in Yokohama supplying ships sailing in Japanese waters. He soon gained a reputation as 'the only Russian in Japan who knew perfectly the local conditions'. The Russian Pacific fleet, then based at the port of Vladivostok, was only in its early stages of development and its facilities struggled to supply the fleet with even the barest of essentials.

... The consensus of other Reilly writers is that they left England for the Far East between 1900 and 1902. Michael Kettle places their departure about 1900, whereas Robin Bruce Lockhart has Reilly playing a role in Holland in the Boer War, spying on Dutch aid bound for South Africa. When the Boer War ended in 1902, Lockhart states, Reilly was sent to Persia to report on the possibilities of oil exploration in the area, and was eventually sent to Port Arthur in Manchuria around 1903.

He also writes that Margaret stayed in England while Reilly was away on these missions... the employ of

NID, the Naval Intelligence Department.

... It therefore follows that they left England in June 1899 for Russia, and thence to China. ... On 17 April, Petr Rachkovsky, chief of the Paris Ochrana, had written to William Melville at Scotland Yard seeking information concerning individuals residing in London who were 'without any doubt' involved in a massive rouble-counterfeiting ring operating in London. The counterfeiters had a contact inside the currency-printing firm of Bradbury and Wilkinson, and the contact obtained a plate that was copied by an engraver. ... According to Ochrana records, Rosenblum had an interest in the Polysulphin Company, in Keynsham, Somerset. The factory produced a host of chemical products including soap, which it exported abroad. This was an ideal vehicle for smuggling money and indeed other commodities. Although the file itself is now incomplete, and therefore inconclusive, Polysulphin must be considered a prime suspect in terms of the counterfeiters' distribution network. ... Rosenblum may therefore have played a wider role outside that of mere distribution. ... Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, who raised the Russian tricolour over Port Arthur in 1898, recalled Ginsburg as a 'benefactor on whom the entire Pacific navy depended ... everything - from a pin to an anchor, and from rivets to a smoke stack - we got everything from Ginsburg'. ... Ginsburg & Co. set up its new head office on Port Arthur's main thoroughfare. The import-export company now had branches in Nagasaki, Yokohama, Chemulpo, Odessa and Singapore, and an annual turnover of over 1 million roubles. With his flair for languages and business, Reilly was seen as a distinct asset when he joined the staff of Ginsburg & Co., where he worked initially under G. M. Gandelman, Ginsburg's office manager. In addition to direct trading, the company also acted as agents for other enterprises such as the East - Asiatic Company, a steamship line with branches in Odessa, St Petersburg and Copenhagen. Reilly was charged by Ginsburg to deal directly with all the line's business and in this connection Reilly attended a major trade conference on behalf of the company in February 1902. Reilly's responsibilities as representative for both companies thus explains why

East-Asiatic's business address in Port Arthur is the same as that of Ginsburg & Co. Also trading from the same address was Grunberg & Reilly, which along with the American firm Clarkson & Company was the main importer of American lumber.

... V. Grunburg, was, according to East-Asiatic records, also a representative of the naval steamship company and the Chinese East railway. The approaching war with Japan was no secret for Moisei Ginsburg... Ginsburg and Reilly had been purchasing enormous amounts of food, raw materials, medication and coal. On 10 July 1903, for example, the Russian War Ministry in St Petersburg wrote to the Russian-Asiatic shipping company in Port Arthur, asking them to make enquiries about provisions sent to Grunberg and Reilly, intended for delivery to the 4th East-Siberian Rifle Regiment. ... Reilly was speculating in ground-lots during this period, another indication that he was well aware of what was looming. ... Authors Winfried Ludecke and Richard Deacon state clearly their view that Reilly was a Japanese spy, while Robin Bruce Lockhart portrays Reilly as being distinctly anti-Japanese in his account of events. Professor Ian Nish, of the London School of Economics, and author of Causes of the Russo-Japanese War, is therefore right to refer to Reilly's role as one of the unsolved riddles about the Russo-Japanese War. The first known and recorded suggestion that Reilly had been a Japanese spy is contained within a US Bureau of Investigation report written by Agent L. Perkins on 3 April 1917. Written while Reilly was living in New York during the First World War, the report refers to information volunteered to the Bureau by one Winfield Proskey, an engineer with the Flint Arms Company, who stated that Capt. Guy Gaunt, the British Naval attache in New York, had told him that Sidney Reilly had once spied for Japan. ... When the inevitable conflict between Russia and Japan broke out into open hostility on 8 February 1904, it was as a result of a surprise Japanese attack against the Russian Pacific fleet at Port Arthur. ... it is highly probable that Reilly would have come into regular contact with port and naval officials at all levels. ... Reilly and Ho are further linked by their mutual disappearance, for shortly after Ho's escape, Reilly too departed. In 1917 Moisei Ginsburg recalled that Reilly had suddenly vanished, leading the local Russians to conclude that he was a spy.

Winfried Ludecke and Richard Deacon have both maintained that Reilly concluded the Russians had their suspicions about him after discovering someone associated with East-Asiatic was in the employ of Russian intelligence.

This theory again finds corroboration in Moscow archives, which reveal that one of Russia's most valuable espionage finds was a British citizen by the name of Horace Collins who indeed happened to work for the East-Asiatic Company. Collins was born on 12 March 1870 in Hever, Kent. ...

Anna Grigoryevna Collins, Horace Collins' Russian-born wife. She not only knew of his work for the Russians, but was also known to be having an affair with an associate of her husband.

Having made a swift exit from Port Arthur, Winfried Ludecke suggests that Reilly headed for Japan in the company of 'a lady with whom he had been flirting'. Whether Anna and the lady companion are one and the same is conjecture.

If Reilly did go to Japan, he could not have stayed there very long (February 1904 to May 1904 acc. to me), for in June 1904 we find him in Paris.

During the brief time he spent in the city he renewed his acquaintance with William Melville, whom he had last seen in 1899, shortly before his hurried departure from London...".

In February 1915 in New York City, Reilly married

Nadine / Nadezhda Zalessky, b. 1886, a Jewish Ukrainian national of Swiss ancestry, for her close ties with prominent Russian officials;

Reilly's first marriage was around 1905 to a woman named Anna, although no documentation exists that such a marriage ever took place, acc. to 'crimelibrary.com'; Reilly was working in New York City as managing officer for the Allied Machinery Company on Broadway until 1917, which supplied munitions, machine parts and other goods to allied forces. 1917 he left his wife and traveled to Toronto, Canada where he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps and he trained at the School of Military Aeronautics in Toronto; next in England; the British Secret Intelligence Service was conducting an intensive investigation of Reilly, by Rachael Bell.

The head of the SIS, Captain Mansfield Cumming / 'C' personally interviewed Reilly and given to him the code name ST1, and sent off to Russia,

Archangel, Petrograd and then in May 1918 to Moscow to Vladimir Bruevich. In November 1918, Reilly found his way back to London.

Reilly and SIS agent Capt. George Hill, set off to Russia in late December 1918 and arrived on Christmas Eve 1918 on the Black Sea. Reilly returned to New York City to Nadine, but within of months Reilly met Caryll Houselander. His new mission going to Poland to anti-Bolshevik Boris Savinkov, but in 1922 the SIS officially severed all links with Reilly. Reilly moved to Prague, and in December 1922 Reilly was introduced to South American named Pepita.

Different sources:

He claiming his wife Margaret had died in a train crash. He then paid Massino a large sum of money to divorce Nadine, whom Reilly eventually married in New York City in 1916 - Countess Nadia Zalessky / Nadine Massino, ex-wife of a adjutant of the Minister of Marine Grigorovich. In New York as an arms dealer made a fortune for himself selling to the Russians vast amounts of ammunitions. In America he was investigated by the FBI, from there he went on to Canada and eventually got himself a job with the SIS. 1917 saw him parachuting into Germany with false papers. Disguised as a Russian peasant, Greek traveler and Turkish merchant, Reilly finally boarded a Dutch trading ship and reached London. There he divorced Countess Nadine Massino and started a relationship with a Caryll Houselander. In 1923 he married Pepita Bobadilla. After spending a short time in London in 1917, Reilly was smuggled into Germany; on his return to England in October 1917 he joined the Royal Flying Corps as second lieutenant. In April 1918 MI6 sent Reilly to Russia, he was asked by Lieutenant Ernest Boyce, the local station chief, to assassinate Lenin and Leon Trotsky. Reilly worked closely with Boris Savinkov in various plots against the Bolshevik government.

When Hill and Reilly finished their work, they escaped unscathed, Trotsky and Dzerzhinsky were greatly strengthened, Lenin lay dying, and an American intelligence network in Soviet Russia was smashed. Men from this Hill-Reilly network of 1918 became key figures in the Trust. These included Reilly himself, Reilly's friend, Boris Savinkov, and two of the men in Reilly's anti­Bolshevik network: Yakushev and Eduard Opperput.

Reilly smuggled out of Russia on board a Dutch freighter, but MI6 agents, Robert Bruce Lockhart, Ernest Boyce and George Hill were arrested, and eighteen couriers and agents were executed. These men were released in October 1918 when they were exchanged for Maxim Litvinov and other arrested Soviet officials in London. In 1921 Reilly became a business adviser to Brigadier Edward Louis Spears, who told Winston Churchill that he had received an attractive offer from a big financial group interested in opening up Poland, the Ukraine and Rumania and in securing trade privileges in those countries for Great Britain; Reilly now joined a conspiracy that was determined to overthrow the MacDonald government. In September 1924 MI5 intercepted a letter signed by Grigory Zinoviev, chairman of the Comintern in the Soviet Union, and Arthur McManus, the British representative on the committee. In the letter British communists were urged to promote revolution through acts of sedition. Hugh Sinclair, head of MI6, believed the letter was genuine. After the election it was claimed that two of MI5's agents, Sidney Reilly and Arthur Maundy Gregory, had forged the letter. Major George Joseph Ball (1885-1961), a MI5 officer, played an important role in leaking it to the press. In 1924 Reilly was a charter member of the International League to Combat the III International and in the same year helped found the American affiliate, the Anti-Bolshevik League. Since 1922 the GPU had been plotting the downfall of both Reilly and Savinkov by operating a bogus anti-Bolshevik Front, the Monarchist Union of Central Russia (MUCR), better known as the Trust. On 13th October 1925, Reilly wrote to Felix Dzerzhinsky, head of Cheka, saying he was ready to cooperate and give full information on the British and American Intelligence Services. Sidney Reilly's appeal failed and he was executed on 5th November 1925.

WE BACK AGAIN TO IRELAND:

Mountrath - 60 km south of Mullingar.

Tombricane - 48 km west of Mountrath -

owned by a Tommy Moran, whose parents are believed to be Michael Moran and Mary Hogan, acc. to Erin Smith. By George Thomarat: RICHARD KELLY, SR. born 1792 in County Queens - south-west of Dublin, Ireland, married ANN MORAN born 1795 in Tyrone south-east of Galway, west Ireland - died 1874 in Foxley River.
John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.

Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; he was son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux.

John O'Meara, was a member of the British Diplomatic Corps in Paris and secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris / Cercle de l'Union 1839 - 1867, was born at Borrisokane, Ireland, 1797. He died in Paris in 1867; married to Elizabeth Sophie Fitzpatrick in 1827 in Paris - she was born in Bordeaux, France, 1809, d. 1889 - Paris, her parents:
James Augustin FITZPATRICK and Sophie Marguerite SCHRAEDER.

Walter Nugent, 1st Baron Nugent was died in 1864; was the son of John Nugent (he lived at Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland) and Mary Gregg.

Baroness Beatrix Nugent of Nugent-Westmeath / Béatrice Nugent b. 1819 or 1822 (the daughter of Count Laval Nugent of Nugent-Westmeath b. 1777 d. 1862, who m. Duchess Giovanna Riario-Sforza of Riario-Sforza-Corleto b. 1797; Laval Nugent born at Ballynacor, Ireland; son of Count Michael Anton Nugent von Westmeath, Governor of Prague; in 1793 Count Laval Nugent served the Austrian Army; 1815, he commanded the Austrian Army in Italy, liberated Rome; 1817 he entered the service of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in Napoli; 1820, he returned to Austrian Army as Field Marshal in 1849; Nugent died near Karlovac and buried in Rijeka.

In Ireland, Ho Barry circa 1591, as the first Irish dramatist, while John Barry (b. 1745 in Tacumshane, County Wexford, southern Ireland; d. 1803), is generally regarded as 'The father of the American Navy'. Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860), designed the new houses of Parliament in London in 1836.

Children of Elizabeth Lock and Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt: Henry Joseph Blake b. 1823, William Richard Blake b. 1825, Elizabeth Frederica b. 1827, Elizabeth Nina b. 1830, Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt b. 1841, d. 1918: 1874 married, firstly, Lady Jane Harriet Charlotte Stanhope, daughter of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington and Elizabeth Still de Pearsall; married, secondly 1896, Mary Ethel Palliser, daughter of Sir William Palliser and Anne Perham; educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire; he was extra Aide-de-Camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.

Her next of kin: 1. Helen Georgina Nugent b. 1842 Napoli, m. in 1873 to Dacre Mervyn Archdale Hamilton. Dacre Mervyn Archdale Hamilton d. 1899 in Cornacassa, County Monaghan, Ireland. Helen Georgina Nugent was daughter of Walter Nugent, 1st Baron Nugent and Georgiana Elizabeth Jenkinson. Children of Dacre Mervyn Archdale Hamilton and Helen Georgina Nugent: Georgina Eglantine Hamilton and Agnes Elizabeth d. 1972. Walter Nugent, 1st Baron Nugent was died in 1864; was the son of John Nugent (he lived at Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland) and Mary Gregg.

2. Count Laval Jeremias Anton Nugent of Nugent b. 1843 in Triest, d. 1923 in Florence.

Watchmakers:

1. Edward Brown from London became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm; Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920. At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye. Watch maker, William Brown was dad of Edward Brown (born abt 1829). He was a watch maker, too. William Brown b. ca 1800, acc. to me; here was mistake - 1819. Elizabeth Brown maybe was a wife.

2. On the Clerkenwell district in London: Izydor Jakub Gudak / Isadore Jacob Gudak / Irving John Good / I. J. or Jack Good b. 1916, a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing; from a Polish-Jewish family in London. His father Mosheh Oyved / Morris Edward Good or Moshe Oved alias Edward Good b. in Poland in 1885 - d. 1958, was a watchmaker, artist, sculptor (also from Jacob Epstein and Ben Uri; friend of John Ringling), the owner of a jewelry shop (Cameo Corner in Museum Street near the British Museum; on cameos, antique watches and clocks; Jewish ritual objects), poet, Zionist and the founder of the Ben Uri Society / Ben Uri Gallery / Museum in London, a Yiddish writer, a dealer in antique jewellery. He learnt the trade of a watches ca 1900, but in 1902 or 1903 emigrated to England. Mother Sophia Polikoff. Mosheh Oved / Moshe Gudak in London set up an antique jewellery shop. Sophia Polikoff was born in Russia and came to London at age eight with her parents. Morris and Sophia met in London. The Cameo Corner was founded in 1908 in New Oxford Street (No 1, close to Kingsway Str., and ca 1700 meters to west-south-west of Clerkenwell in London, by the Theobalds Road to the west) by Moshe Oved and in 1939 moved to its permanent home in Museum Street, Bloomsbury (1200 to 1400 meters to the west of Clerkenwell). Cameo Corner was the principal centre for the sale of jewellery in London for the first half of the twentieth century.

3. The Brown family and others in Clerkenwell: James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from Lenin 'Iskra'), Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of Lenin 'Iskra'). The Baume Brothers, Importers of Geneva Watches, at 9, Ashley street, Northampton square, Clerkenwell, and at Aux Bois, Canton of Berne, Switzerland. BROWN Sophia b. 1859 in Clerkenwell, London, parent James Brown.

4. Antoine-Louis Breguet drove the prestigious business into bankruptcy. His son, Louis-Clement Breguet, eventually took over. He invented the first electric clocks but decided to leave and concentrate on electric telegraphs and telecommunications. The business was sold to the English watchmaker, Edward Brown. So he took on noted English watchmaker Edward Brown of Clerkenwell to look after the Paris factory. London-born Edward Brown became the factory manager, his partner - 1870 - and, after Breguet's death, the owner and head of the company. His sons Edward and Henry Brown headed the firm into the 20th century. Under Brown and his descendants, Breguet remained a niche Parisian watchmaking boutique for the next century. Thus Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm. The watching making firm continues to market itself under the name of 'Breguet'. The electrical instrument business trades first under the name of 'Breguet fabricant' and from 1881 - 'Maison Breguet'. The Brown family owned the Breguet watch brand for 100 years, five years longer than the Breguets. The complicated watches were built by the Joux Valley's leading watchmakers including the Victorin Piguet workshops. 1881 'Maison Breguet' that is Maison Breguet SA was the name given to the Breguet family business after it had sold off to Edward Brown in 1870 and reorganized by 1881. It manufactured electrical instruments, telegraphs, telephones, and industrial engines. It continued to operate in Paris until 1898 when its factories were moved to an industrial area in northern France, acc. to http://dssmhi1.fas.harvard.edu/emuseumdev/ Address: 1881 at 81, boulevard Montparnasse in Paris, next at rue Didot in Paris, and after 1898 in Douai.

Louis and Jacques Breguet, of the famous clock- and watch-making family, were interested in aviation from an early age and on 19 September 1907, they, in cooperation with Professor Charles Richet, created the first helicopter.

Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet / Louis Francois Clement, born on December 22, 1804 in Paris, died 1883 in Paris, returned to Neuchatel (Switzerland), where he lived with his godfather J. F. Huguenin. He acted in the early days of telegraphy in France, was educated in Switzerland. Louis Clément Bréguet was husband of Eugénie Caroline Lassieur and father of Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 and Louise Bréguet - wife of Ludovic Halévy and mother of Elie Halévy (Élie Halévy b. 1870 d. 21 August 1937, was a French philosopher and historian who wrote studies of the British utilitarians, born in Étretat, Seine-Maritime, where his mother had fled as the German army marched on Paris, 1892, Emile Boutmy invited Halévy to lecture on English political ideas at the newly founded School of Political Science, and on the history of socialism) and Daniel Halévy.

Marie Eugénie DUBOIS 1858-1903 married to Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 (son of Louis Clément Bréguet) with children: Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900, Louis BREGUET 1880-1955, Jacques BREGUET 1881-1939 (see: Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg). Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900 married Jacques Bizet b. 10.07.1872, d. 1922.

Breguet, Louis François Clément was son of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet (Antoine-Louis Breguet drove the prestigious business into bankruptcy; his son, Louis-Clement Breguet, eventually took over. He invented the first electric clocks but decided to leave and concentrate on electric telegraphs and telecommunications) b. on August 13, 1776 in Paris, d. 1858 in Champcueil and JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France.

He was son of Louis Abraham Breguet and Cécile Marie Louise L'huillier; grandson of Jonas Louis Breguet b. June 11, 1719 in Neuchatel, Switzerland; died 1758; m. Susanne Marguerite Bolle; she was mother of above mentioned Louis Abraham Breguet and Louise Breguet - wife of David Lassieur and mother of Jonas Louis Lassieur, grandmother of Sophie Niaudet, great-grandmother of Daniel Berthelot, Marcel André Berthelot, Camille Berthelot, Marie Helene, Philippe, Rene Berthelot.

5. Adrien-Jean d'Anjou from noble French family, was born probably ca 1700 / 1710, in France! Circa 1740 in Russia (ca 1750 had home in Moscow; Protestant); named Andrej Anjou by Russian. He lived before 1740 (the first maybe in Germany because he known German language) in Switzerland (here like watchmaker!). He had son in Russia in 1758. The Anjou first arrived to Moscow in 1740 as a master watchmaker at the request of Catherine the Great. This is Adrien-Jean d'Anjou from noble French family, left France when Catholics slaughtered Protestants. They received Russian citizenship and were sailors, admirals and commanders of the ship and the name D'Anjou was given to new islands of Siberie. Anjou, Peter F. - Admiral; his son Peter Anjou / Анжу sailed on the frigate Pallada, his grandson was the captain of the first rank and the commander of the squadron, who brought the king of France to sign a treaty between France and Russia in 1909. But the first of Anjou in the 1750s was a watchmaker. In Russia, his watches were very much needed. The Anjou family built in Moscow a house, between 1740 and 1750; 1759 there was a mansion. Admiral Peter Fedorovich Anjou, was the great friend of Wrangell. Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou born 1796 / 1797. Baron Ferdinand Friedrich Georg Ludwig von Wrangel / Фердина́нд Петро́вич Вра́нгель / Ferdinand Petrovich Vrangel b. 1796 / 1797 in Pskov, died in Dorpat in Estonia; was a Baltic German explorer. Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou made his entry into the Naval Cadet Corps in 1808; here he met Count Ferdinand von Wrangel, after graduation, the young men were assigned to the port of Revel in Estonia.

6. Fyodor Anjou / Fedor Anjou was a naval doctor. Son of Frenchman Jean-Andrian Anjou. Anjou Fyodor b. 15/08/1758 - d. 02/11/1824. Born in the family of a watchmaker; 1775 in the Moscow hospital school, after graduating 1779 was soon sent abroad, studied first in Berlin and then in Gettinge where in 1783 received degree of doctor; 1784 - 1788 in Moscow province, enlisted in Vishny Volochek in 1790 to 1797; 1801 he received the hereditary nobility; his son Peter (1796-1869).

7. At the beginning Louis Franzevich Dyuflon founded technical office in the 2nd half of the 19th century in Moscow. L. Duflon / Dyuflon and Apollon Konstantynowicz acted in the St. Petersburg branch of the 'Breguet' Company (A. Konstantynowicz / Apollon Konstantinovich / Constantinovich for the Breguet Moscow branch). It was founded by Abraham-Louis Breguet in Paris in 1775. Abraham-Louis Breguet or Bréguet b. 10 January 1747 and died on 17 September 1823, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland (Neuchatel - see Duflon, Schaub, Christian Frautschi / Fraucci/ Frautchi / Frauchi b. 1839). Originally Prussian, Abraham Louis Breguet began his career as a watchmaker but also a physicist. His son Louis-Antoine Breguet. His ancestry was French but his family were Protestants so they fled to Switzerland after Edict of Nantes in 1685. He met Abraham-Louis Perrelet and Xavier Gide. In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris. Circa 1807 Breguet brought in his son, Louis-Antoine (born 1776) as a business partner, and from this point the firm became known as Breguet et Fils. He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker, John Arnold. Louis Francois Clement Breguet work in the early days of telegraphy, educated in Switzerland. Louis François Clément Breguet was a French physicist, 1835 and 1840 he standardized the company product line of watches, and diversified into scientific instruments, electrical devices, recording instruments, an electric thermometer, telegraph instruments and electrically synchronized clocks (Masson, Antoine Philibert and Louis Breguet in 1841 ed. 'Memoire sur l'induction', Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris, 4 (3), p. 129-152; Masson describes the toothed wheels that functioned as an interrupter). With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph to replace the optical telegraph system and a later step-by-step telegraph system in 1847, manufactured the rotating mirror Fizeau-Foucault apparatus, and 'spark coil' (archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff) is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses, were widely used in x-ray machines, spark-gap radio transmitters, arc lighting and quack medical electrotherapy devices from the 1880s to the 1920s, lighting Geissler tubes, Tesla coils.

8. Emil Ramseyer Iv., born 1863 and died 1925; from Swiss, Bern, occupation: 'Gov. Peter. Loan (Učetnyj i Ssudnyj Bank) Bank' in 1917; Chrm. of the 'Atlas Petrograd'; top member of the 'Deka' that is Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co.; top member of "Volta" and Oil N. Hartmann. The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel, close to border on France, and area north of Lausanne and Neuchatel: La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. It is located few kilometres south of the French border. Its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watch making industry. It is the most important centre of the watch making industry in the area known as the Watch Valley. Completely destroyed by a fire in 1794; from St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.

9. Sydney Gibbes / Charles Sydney Gibbes / Sydney Ivanovich (1876 in Rotherham, Yorkshire, east of Manchester - 1963); a son of John Gibbs - he ran the bank on the corner of High Street and Wellgate and they lived at Bank House - and Mary Ann Elizabeth Fisher, the daughter of a watchmaker. We know about: 1. in 1865 John Gibbs (b. 1841, banker's clerk of Rotherham, son of John Gibbs senior, plumber) married at the Parish Church, Rotherham, to Mary Ann Elizabeth Fisher, b. 1841 / 1842, of Rotherham, daughter of Walter Fisher, printer; 2. 1875, was born Charles William Albert Florack Fisher, son of Emma and W. J. E. Fisher, at High Street in Rotherham. 3. 1883, died Walter Fisher, copperplate printer, b. 1815, brother of James Fisher of Herne Hill. 4. 1906, died Mary Ann Elizabeth Gibbs, wife of John Gibbs, bank manager, at Old Bank House, Rotherham. Her son was Percy Gibbs, from Erdington. In 1901 Charles Sydney Gibbes went to Saint Petersburg, Russia, as tutor to the Szydlowski / Shidlovsky family and then the Soukanoff / Suhanov family. Sydney Gibbes spent the summer of 1901 with a family called SHIDLOVSKY = Szydlowski; he was taken on as tutor to two boys and lived in St Petersburg 1901/1908. He was then appointed to the staff of the Imperial School of Law, and by 1907 he was qualified as vice-president and committee member of the Saint Petersburg Guild of English Teachers. Gibbes was appointed English tutor to the Tsar's children in 1908; 1913 he became tutor to Tsarevich Alexei. March 1917 he was in Saint Petersburg at the time, and immediately after returning to Tsarskoe Selo was transported to Tobolsk in Siberia. In May 1918 the Imperial family was moved to Yekaterinburg, but Gibbes and Pierre Gilliard stayed in the railway carriage in Tyumen but returned to Yekaterinburg after the murder of the Imperial family; next Gibbes and Gilliard left for Omsk. Gibbes was appointed as a secretary to the British High Commission in Siberia in 1919, and after employed at the British Embassy in Beijing and then in the Chinese Maritime Customs in Harbin to 1922. Gibbes returned to England in 1928, to Oxford, but again back to Harbin, China - 1934 - returned to England in 1937 to London. He died in 1963, and is buried at Headington cemetery in Oxford.


1892

At the beginning Louis Franzevich Dyuflon founded technical office in the 2nd half of the 19th century in Moscow. L. Duflon / Dyuflon and Apollon Konstantynowicz acted in the St. Petersburg branch of the 'Breguet' Company

(A. Konstantynowicz / Apollon Konstantinovich / Constantinovich for the Breguet Moscow branch).
At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye (L'Abbaye is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne). It was founded by

Abraham-Louis Breguet in Paris in 1775.

Abraham-Louis Breguet or Bréguet b. 10 January 1747 and died on 17 September 1823, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland (Neuchatel - see Duflon, Schaub, Christian Frautschi / Fraucci/ Frautchi / Frauchi b. 1839).



Acc. to 'rootsweb': Willaim Milton at Taunton in Somerset, died in 1844. CHILDREN: John Milton b. 1822, and wife Ann Cook had child Sydney Milton b. 1862 - who was living in Clifton Bristol. In 1890 Sydney Milton married Lina Susette Schwab / Lina Schaub b. 1867, St. Blaise / Hauterive in the Neuchatel district, Switzerland; Lina's parents were Jakob Schwab / Schaub probably b. in Ferenbalm, Bern canton, and Susanna Teuscher born in Daerstatten, Bern.
Ferenbalm / Les Baumettes, is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, 25 km east of Neuchatel, ca 20 km south-east of St. Blaise, and ca 22 km north of Fribourg.
Saint-Blaise is a municipality in the district of Neuchâtel in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. St. Blaise, close to Neuchatel, ca 6 km north-east. Hauterive is 5 km of Neuchatel, near by St. Blaise. Among others Pierre Duflon was living in Lausanne and Neuchatel, Suisse; Marc Duflon from Neuchâtel and BOVERESSE, 16 km north-west of Concise, and south-west of Nauchatel.
Sydney Milton / SIDNEY MILTON had the following children: Lina Rosalie Milton b. 1890, John Sidney Milton or Sidney John Milton b. 1891, William Frederick Milton, George Albert, Albertina Marguerit Susette Milton, Ellen Frances May Milton, Charles William Milton. Sidney was off in the Boer war; Lina died in 1904. The family SCHAUB, come from Neuchâtel, in 1868. Lina Schaub / Schwab, 1901 and was living in Bristol, England, but was born in canton de Neuchatel and married John Sidney Milton. It is believed that they died in Bern in the early 1900's; may have been living later in Canton de Friborg / Fribourg / Fryburg.
In Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel, Suisse, 21 km north-east of Concise (Schaub family; maybe as the Schwab), and 14 km south-east of Neuchatel, 19 km north-west of Fribourg; probably in the 18th cent. in Saint-Aubin were the Schaubs. Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bâle / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel and in Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Cobham - British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy.

Let's look again on ambassadors in the 18th century in Poland, France, in London. Let us remember about such persons as:
Stanian / Stanyan, Schaub from Switzerland, Sivers / Sievers from Estonia and Latvia. In the background are the family Rebinder / Rehbinder and von Pilar - Pilchau from Estonia. Of course, it is the branch of
Pilar Pilchau, which settled in Mickuny and Parnu.
Now details:
1. Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710, d. 1784 in Tallinn, Harju, Estonia; daughter of Jakob Johann von Berg and Agenete Wilhelmine von Meck; wife of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau; mother of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau; she was sister of Reinhold Wilhelm von Berg and Jakob Friedrich von Berg; Otto Gustav von Berg and Robert Johann von Berg. Copyright by Peter Trefilov. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jõgisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.
Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland).
2. Father of above Anna Sophia Pilar Pilchau: Jakob Johann von Berg b. 1686 d. 1734. Husband of above Anna Sophia: Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau b. 1709, d. 1752, son of Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth von Knorring, father of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau, all by Peter Trefilov.
3. Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699); grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753 (his son Karl Eduard / Карл Ефимович von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, father of Elisabeth / Елизавета Карловна Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata, Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov, Benedikte b. 1750, Peter and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg); count 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. Cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (embassy of Prussia), here he also had the opportunity with his superiors Count Tschernschew to travel to France and Germany and next to England. After he was active in the Livonian District and became in 1792 Russian ambassador to Poland. Then he initiated the process for the second partition of Poland. In 1794 he was an ambassador, after successful negotiations, recalled. Jakob Johann von Sievers b. 1731, from Wesenberg / Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Estland; brother of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1741; Carl Eberhard von Sievers b. 1745; Marie Helene von Guldenhof; Anna Magdalena von Köhler and Peter Christian von Sievers b. 1754, by Are Saarne.
4. Above Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1675. Above Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 was daughter of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and was wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750
(son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Leonette Wilhelmina Rehbinder / Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder
[family of Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers b. 1716 d. 1781 and Leonette Wilhelmina von Rehbinder 1729 - 1753: son Georg Johann von Sivers (b. 1750, Euseküll, Estonia; died Hiitola / Pukinniemi / Khiytola / Хийтола - a rural settlement of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) married in 1773 in Tallinn to Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau (b. 1749, Wait, Estonia) with children: Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers 1780, Anna Charlotta Christina von Sivers 1783, Dorothea Wilhelmina Johanna von Sivers, Elisabeth Christina, Catharina Hedvig Elisabeth];
grandson of Peter von Sivers b. 1674
[maybe Peter von Sivers b. 1674 = Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 d. 1726, son of Joachim Sievers; this above named Christian Peter Sievers had children: Anna Magdalena / Анна Магдалена, Joachim Christian / Joachim von Sievers and Maria Elisabeth Gunzel, but Peter Trefilov in 2011 not informed about Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval;
Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 had brother Joachim Johann b. ca 1674 - his son Karl Eduard or Карл Ефимович von Sievers b. 1710 of Nybygard; in this branch was Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1699, grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753]).
5. Mother of Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 (wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750), was Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710. Georg Johann von Sivers was son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder; grandson of Peter von Sivers b. 1674 / maybe Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671.

Luke Schaub, Lukas Schaub, Lucas Schaub b. 1690 in Basel, Swiss descent. Son of a notary, a study of law in Basel, diplomatic career in the service of England; 1715-1716 he was a British charge d'affaires to the Holy Roman Empire; 1720, he was - by the English King George I - knighted; 1721-1724 he was an English ambassador in Paris; 1737 he mediated in the so-called salmon fishing dispute between Basel and France. He married Marguerite de Ligonnier du Buisson, b. 1717, d. 1789. Father of Hans Heinrich Schaub (you must check!) and Frederica Augusta Schaub b. 1750, d. 1832 - she married William Lock; her child William Lock 2nd b. 1767, d. 1847. He married Elizabeth Jennings (d. 1847), daughter of Henry Constantine Jennings / Jennings-Noel, in 1805. He lived at Norbury Park, Surrey, England.
Above William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris (Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!); leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth. Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache; he had daughter, Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married
1. Ernest Lord Burghersh,
2. the Duca di San Teodoro
(Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840 - was an Italian philosopher and historian. Cecilia / Cecylia Mariano Pilar von Pilchau died 1896 in Italy, Neapol. She was born 1847 in Audern, close to Parnu, Livonia. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor of the University of Naples. Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna von Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt). That is on Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847–1896), from Italian cementery. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar. Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. Gorki was living on Capri Island (Lenin and Dzierzynski were here). Capri is close to Sorrento, ca 13 km on west; south of Napoli / Neapol where was living MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani - was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera; his two wifes from the Pilar Pilchau family of Audern and Parnu. From Capri to Napoli: kilometers 32, bearing: SW),
and 3. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham.
Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician, 1874 to 1875 he served as a Lord-in-Waiting in the second Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli. Marriages to Augusta Selina Elizabeth LOCKE / Selina Lock in 1877, Marion GWYTHERNE-WILLIAMS and Agnes Baird HEMMING.

Child of William Lock and Elizabeth Jennings: Elizabeth Lock b. 1806, d. 1877 (Baroness of Wallscourt or Bessie). In 1822 she married Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt, son of Colonel Henry James Blake and Anne French;
children of Elizabeth Lock and Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt: Henry Joseph Blake b. 1823, William Richard Blake b. 1825, Elizabeth Frederica b. 1827, Elizabeth Nina b. 1830, Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt b. 1841, d. 1918: 1874 married, firstly, Lady Jane Harriet Charlotte Stanhope, daughter of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington and Elizabeth Still de Pearsall; married, secondly 1896, Mary Ethel Palliser, daughter of Sir William Palliser and Anne Perham; educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire; he was extra Aide-de-Camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Children of Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt: Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt b. 1875, Erroll Wyndham Lincoln Blake b. 1875, unmarried, Elizabeth Lucy Eily Blake b. 1877, d. 1966 (she married Major Leycester Penrhyn Storr, son of Reverend John Storr and Amy Theodosia Leycester, 1907 and had: Norah Storr, b. 1908, m. F. D. Atkinson; Leila Storr, b. 1909, 1958 m. Edward McGarel-Groves; Winifred Storr, b. 1911; Jane Storr, b. 1916; Eliabeth Storr, b. 1918, m. Ian Spence), Elizabeth Honoria Blake, Margaret Phyllis Blake. Above Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt was married Ellen Mayo, daughter of Joseph Mayo. Literature by Rudolf Massini, 1953; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography in 2004; Stefan Hess. Above data copyright by www.thepeerage.com.

STANYAN, ABRAHAM (1669 ? - 1732), diplomatist, elder son of Laurence Stanyan of Headley, Middlesex. 1702, he was appointed secretary to the Earl of Manchester at Paris; 1705, as envoy to the Swiss cantons, taking with him bills of exchange upon the bankers of Genoa for the allied forces in Italy. Stanyan at once hastened to Neuchâtel; Stanyan returned home in February 1709, but was soon back again in Switzerland, and was in 1710 with a mission to Piedmont and 1712 at Milan. 1716 - 1717 appointed envoy to Vienna. 1719 - 1720 ambassador to the Porte in Constantinople, succeeded Edward Wortley Montagu; member of the Kit-Cat Club, Stanyan was on friendly terms with Pope. Abraham's younger brother, Temple Stanyan (d. 1752), appointed secretary under Viscount Townshend, 1719 he was appointed clerk in the room of his brother, and numerous diplomatic letters addressed to him from Paris during the embassy of Sir Luke Schaub; he left a daughter Catherine (d. 1801), who married Admiral Sir Charles Hardy the younger. Above Charles Edward Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester, d. 1722, educated at Cambridge,
envoy to Vennice, ambassador to France.

Sir William Trumbul d. 1716, was English envoy at Tangir. Lord Cobham, on a secret mission to Vienna to the Emperor Charles the Sixth; with General Cadogan and Sir Luke Schaub (he was secretary to Richard, lord Cobham, who was English ambassador at Vienna in 1715) were sent to Vienna to negotiate the Barrier Treaty. 1714, Cobham and Stanhope went together on an embassy to Vienna. Viscount Cobham = Richard TEMPLE, b. 1675, son of Richard Temple senior, 1706 Major-General, Field Marshal in 1742, Envoy to Vienna 1714-1715, Constable of Windsor Castle, 1716-1723; created Baron Cobham, 1714; created Baron Cobham and Viscount Cobham, 1718; 1749, the Barony of Cobham of Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England.
Admiral Sir Charles Le Hardy (1714 or 1716-1780) was the son of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Le Hardy and Elizabeth Burchett. In 1749 he married Mary Tate and in 1759, following her death, he married Catharine Stanyan (see: Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland and Abraham's younger brother, Temple Stanyan d. 1752). The couple had three sons and two daughters. Sir Charles Hardy died at Spithead, leaving his estate at Rawlins, Oxfordshire, to his eldest son, Temple Hardy. By Catharine's death in 1801, only Temple survived of the three sons. Hardy's brother, Josiah, was a merchant and Governor of New Jersey. Captain Temple Hardy / Charles Temple Hardy (1765 – 1814) was an English naval officer active during the French Revolutionary Wars, in the capture of the Cape Colony in 1795. He was a son of Admiral Charles Hardy, at Rawlins, in Oxfordshire. The will, left his possessions to his wife and to his two unmarried sisters, Clare and Rachael Emilia. Rawlins, in Oxfordshire - Rawlins House, in Adderbury, close to Banbury, in Oxfordshire, north of Oxford.
In Concise (Suzanne Jean SCHAUB lived in the canton of Vaud between 1830 and 1866. In Concise, Vaud, close to Grandson, Cortaillod, south-west of Neuchatel; north of Lausanne, ca 45 km), in the Vaud canton - 14 km north of Demoret / Démoret (Démoret in the canton of Vaud - ca 30 km north of Lausanne and Cully, 9 km north of Moudon). Chavornay (Duflon) is 18 km west from Demoret (Schaub). L'Abbaye (Breguet) is ca 18 km west-south-west of Chavornay (Duflon).

The Schaub family in Switzerland - details: Sebastian SCHAUB, b. 1705, wife Elizabeth TSCHUDI, had Jacob, Elizabeth, Hans Heinrich b. 1735, Sabastian, Jr b. 1738, and Anna b. 1739. Hans Schaub b. 1700 in Ormalingen, d. 1760; Hans Jakob Schaub b. 1725 in Ormalingen, d. 1785; Heini Schaub b. 1728 in Ormalingen; Hans Schaub b. 1729, Ormalingen; Martin Schaub b. 1730, Ormalingen; Catharina Schaub b. 1734 - Ormalingen. Johann Jacob Frey b. 1648 in Baregg, Knonau, Zurich, Switzerland, husband of Anna Maria Schaub(en) b. 1649 in Langensoultzbach, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France, daughter of Matthias Schaub and Ursula Lange. Matthias Schaub from Langensoultzbach, Bas-Rhine, France. Lucas Schaub b. 1690, d. 1758, father of Hans Heinrich Schaub, by Carl Theodor Ekelöf and Magnus Ljungkvist. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. in Sissach, Switzerland in 1681 to Bastian Schaub and Maria Kirsteiner. Hans Heinrich married Ursula Horand and had a child. Sebastian Schaub 1704-1733, in Switzerlamd 1704 to Hans Heinrich Schaub and Ursula Horand. Sebastian married Elisabeth Tschudi and had 3 children, died 1733 in Sissach, Basel, Switzerland. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. 1681. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. 1695 d. 1745. Sebastian Schaub b. 1715 in Sissach + Elsbeth Tschudin. Anna Maria 1751-1820 m. to Martin SCHAUB 1742-1826. Johannes 1728-1818 m. 1749 to Anna KESSLER 1724-1804 had Anna 1749, Maria 1751, Hans Jakob 1756-1828, Elisabeth 1758, Anna Barbara 1760, Johannes 1766 m. 1792 to Catharina MEIER 1771-1792 with children: Hans Jakob 1792 m. 1821 to Anna LUEDIN; above Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER: Johannes 1801 + Barbara SCHWOB, Martin 1802, Martin II 1804 m. Barbara HEID, with children: Luise 1837, Martin 1841-1889 + 1869 to Elisabeth ERB 1845-1924 with children: Lina 1872 died 1923, Auguste 1876, Luise 1877, Elisabeth 1811.

As an independent director of the Noblessner was elected nobleman A. Shaub / A. Schaub / А. В. Шауб, co-owner of two St. Petersburg industrial enterprises, acc. to: M. N. Baryshnikov, Noblessner: Formation of Financial and Industrial Group in St. Petersburg in the Early Twentieth Century, ed. 2013 - this article is devoted to the research of the formation of financial and industrial group Nobel-Lessner in St. Petersburg in the early twentieth century. It should be noted that for the Nobel interest is important activities of his brother (cousin acc. to me) - Gustav Schaub, owner of the mechanical production company in Estonia and director of the Society Volta in Revel (company, also co-operated with the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, specialised in the production of dynamo maschines and electricity motors, and in 1917 its authorized capital amounted to 2,000,000 rubles) and Director of the Company called Karl Winkler in St. Petersburg. Society Volta supplied also the plant Noblessner in Revel / Tallinn.

The Tallinn plant Volta / 'Volta tehas', was one of the largest enterprises of the Estonia, specialized in the production of electric motors of different types and capacities. It was in Tallinn, street Teestuze; historical Volta factory was founded in 1899.
On April 15, 1899 Joint Stock Company Volta, had shareholders:
Карл-Вильгельм Лутер / Carl Wilhelm Luter / Charles William Luther, Кристиан Лутер / Christian Luther, Girard, Кристиан-Бертольд Роттерманн / Christian Berthold Rottermann, Rosen and Ingmann and the Riga Commercial Bank (former German company AEG).
Joint Stock Company Volta has acquired land in Revel and began construction of the plant, received its name from the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta; the plant began work on January 5, 1900 and was originally produced electric motors, generators, lighting systems, including equipment for the Tallinn power station. Generators produced at the Volta, gave the first electricity for homes of Tallinn in 1913. Before the revolution, the plant employed about a thousand people; In the summer of 1903 Carl Wilhelm Luter, during a trip to Berlin, died aged forty-four. Carl Wilhelm Luther - the eldest son of Alexander Martin Luther / Александр Мартин Лютер, the founder of a furniture factory, famous not only in the province of Estonia; after graduating from Riga Polytechnic, he worked for several years in St. Petersburg, after which he returned to his hometown. In Revel, son of the founder of a furniture factory, Luther was not only the owner of the enterprise, but also led the technical management of production; 1899, together with his younger brother Christian, Carl founded the electro-mechanical factory Volta, becoming its director; he is the author of Charles Luther Public House in Revel, 1904.

Carl Wilhelm Luther born 1859 in Tallinn, d. 1903 in Berlin, as a son of the German Baltic merchant and entrepreneur Alexander Martin Luther (1810-1876) and his wife Henriette Caroline Steding (1825-1905). Carl's older brother was the entrepreneur Christian Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914); Carl Wilhelm Luther concluded in 1885, the Polytechnic of the Livonian capital Riga in mechanical engineering, working in St. Petersburg, and next he returned to Estonia. Carl Wilhelm Luther was son of Alexander Martin Luther and Henriette Caroline Luther, and was husband of Sidney Frances; he was father of Winifred Luther, by Ilmar Raudmägi. Alexander Martin Luther b. 1810 in Tallinn, Harju. Son of Christian II Wilhelm Luther and Johanna Amalie Amalie. Brother of Gerdruta Carolina Paulsen; Auguste Charlotte Luther; Catharina Henriette Luther; Helene Amalie Luther; Johann Christian Luther; Leopold Luther; Moritz Wilhelm Luther and Ferdinand Wilhelm Luther, by Lasse Söderström, Raul Kalev, Epp Ehasalu. Above mentioned Johanna Amalie Amalie Luther nee Gebauer b. 1774; daughter of Johann David Gebauer, II. Above Christian II Wilhelm Luther b. 1774 in Tallinn, Harju; d. 1841. Son of Georg Christian Luther, II and Maria Helene. Copyright by Lasse Söderström and Ehasalu. Above Georg Christian Luther, II was born 1717 in Breslau / Wroclaw, Poland. The entrepreneur Georg Christian Luther (1717-1800) in 1742 emigrated to the Russian Empire to Tallinn. Above mentioned Alexander Martin Luther b. 1809 / 8th Jan. 1810 in Tallinn, Estland; d. 22 September 1876. In 1870, Alexander Martin Luther co-operated with the businessman Markel Makarov; from 1848 to 1864 Luther was councilor in Tallinn, 1855 to 1864 he was treasurer of Tallinn. Luther's sons: Christian Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914) and Carl Wilhelm Luther (1859-1903). Alexander Martin Luther was married three times, to Louise Gebauer, to Therese with three daughters and a son, and to Henriette Caroline Steding (1825-1905). In last marriage, three sons were born: the entrepreneur Christian Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914) and Carl Wilhelm Luther (1859-1903) and the theologian John Henry Luther (1861-1932) in Kadrina, and in Narva; Kadrina in the Lääne-Viru in Estonia. The A. M. Luther Company was founded in Tallinn in 1877; it was winner of the Grand Prix of Paris for a waterproof glue, with alliance of other companies such as

Venesta of London - A. M. Luther Venesta, which operated the tea trade between Ceylon and London. Christian founded a shareholder company Luterma which later went into a partnership with Venesta, in London; 1909 he started a factory in Staraja Russa; Martin began his career at Venesta but returned to Tallinn to run Luterma.
Henry Kerr Rutherford / Henry Rutherford was working for Venesta since 1908 and in 1912 as managing director of Venesta, partner of the A. M. Luther AG. Next the chairman 1944; born 1886 in London, UK, d. 1972 in Banstead, Surrey. Son of Henry Kerr Rutherford senior; husband of Dorothea Elizabeth Olga and father of Henry Christian Rutherford, and Bevan. The A. M. Luther AG / Luterma / A. M. Luther Mechanical Woodworking Factory was founded in 1883, in 1908 Luterma established a sister company in London, the Venesta Plywood Company and branch offices in many European countries including Germany, Sweden, France, and Italy. Above
Rutherford Henry was a tea planter in Sri Lanka and was involved in importing it to England.
He heard about waterproof plywood that was being made in Estonia, it might be suitable for packing tea; he sent his son, also Henry, to Tallinn; he met Christian Luther and also met his daughter Dorothea Dolly; Dolly and Henry were married in Tallinn in 1910. Their son Henry called Harry, was born in Tallinn in 1911 and the family moved back to England in 1912. Henry became CEO of Venesta which was the UK partner firm of A. M. Luther. Above Dorothea Elizabeth Olga Rutherford nee Luther, b. 1890 in Tallinn; she was daughter of Christian Wilhelm Luther and Nelly; Christian Wilhelm Luther b. 1857 in Tallinn, son of Alexander Martin Luther and Henriette Caroline; Mentioned above Nelly Luther nee Greiffenhagen was born 1861 in London, and died 1934 in London; she was daughter of August Greiffenhagen / Augustus Samuel, b. 1820 in Kuznechikha, Arkhangelsk province in Russia.
For the Venesta acted B. J. Butler 1909, director 1946; S. A. Field.

Ken Rutherford in 1896 had been in Tyllyrie; he was the prominent figure in Ceylon's planting annals, in an article published in 1907, Rutherford describes the progress made by Ceylon in the plantations sector, in the decade just passed. Working together with D. Reid and E. A. Cooke, he had purchased land in the Dickoya valley for coffee and tea at estate called Tillyrie. Ceylon’s growers agreed with Rutherford and in 1886 they formed a voluntary tea syndicate. At the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held in London in 1886, Tillyrie was awarded. This was followed by a certificate awarded in 1889 by the United States of America. Kelani Valley Plantations ca 70 km east of Colombo (Luccommbe & Rutherford). Tillyrie Estate Dickoya / Dickoya is 24 km east of above named Kelani, south of Kandy, capital of The Central Province of Sri Lanka. J. H. Rutherford Lee in Kohowalla, manager 1912 in the Pillagoda Valley 1927-1928. Rutherford Henry was a tea planter in Sri Lanka and was involved in importing it to England; was born as Henry Kerr Rutherford b. 1886 in London, UK in family of Henry Kerr Rutherford senior, b. 1846, d. 1943, (Ceylon Tea Planter's Note-Book by H. K. Rutherford, 'Times of Ceylon', Colombo, 1931) who was son of Peter Rutherford and Eliza nee Kerr. Peter was brother of Mary Aitken; Robert Ruecastle, Elizabeth Ruecastle Davies; Janet Roberts and Peter.

Peter Rutherford was tea planter in Sri Lanka (from 1820 / 1840?). Peter Rutherford b. 1794 in Kelso, at Scottish Borders, in Scotland, died 1856, was son of Robert Rutherford and Elizabeth Ruecastle daughter of Walter Ruecastle who died in Hawick, Scottish Borders. Mentioned Robert Rutherford b. 1769 in Jedburgh, Scottish Borders, was son of Patrick Rutherford and Isobel Common. Jedburgh located in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire, south-east of Edinburgh.

Henry Kerr Rutherford (b. 1886) heard about waterproof plywood that was being made in Estonia, it might be suitable for packing tea; he sent his son, also Henry, from Ceylon to Tallinn. Henry Kerr Rutherford / Henry Rutherford was working for Venesta since 1908 and in 1912 as managing director of Venesta, partner of the A. M. Luther AG. Next the chairman 1944; born 1886, d. 1972 in Banstead, Surrey. Nelly Luther nee Greiffenhagen was born 1861 in London, and died 1934 in London; she was daughter of August Greiffenhagen / Augustus Samuel, b. 1820 in Kuznechikha, Arkhangelsk province in Russia; wife of above named Rutherford Henry junior. Her sons: Henry Christian Rutherford; Bevan. Above Henry Christian Rutherford, called Harry, b. 1911 in Tallinn, d. 1991 in Haywards Heath, West Sussex. His son Christopher Rutherford.

More at www.clanrutherfurd.org: 1. Sir John Rutherfurd, Lord Edgerston, b. 1687, wife: Elizabeth Cairncross of Langlee; 2. John Rutherfurd (1712-1758), younger, of Edgerston, born 1712, died at the battle of Fort Ticonderoga, he represented Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire in Parliament. 3. John Rutherfurd of Edgerston (1748-1834), born at New York. 4. Jane / Jean Rutherfurd, sister of John Rutherfurd of Edgerston, wills 1753 and 1758, died 1820, married William Oliver of Dinlabyre in Liddesdale. 5. William Oliver-Rutherfurd (1781-1879), eldest son of Jane and William Oliver, born at Weens 1781 and educated at Eton and Edinburgh University.

And now compare the data concerning the Ceylon with another English - French family:

Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India, son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier; inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst. Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 / 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India. Husband of Mary Marlain; father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier; brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier, inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com in 2009; Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund; Daniel Carlier born in 1770 / 1766 was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India. Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London; he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras province, from his third wife - her father may be William Evans. Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

At this same time Peter Rutherford was tea planter in Sri Lanka (from 1820 / 1840?) / Ceylon!

The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch. Marriage record for Daniel CARLIER in 1807 to Mary Marlain from Colombo, lived in Fort St George, Madras. But Elizabeth CARLIER b. 1828 had parents D. CARLIER and Elizabeth. It is possible that the Huguenot CARLIER from England went to South India with the East India company; above data under copyright by Moira Breen from USA.

The A. M. Luther furniture factory was created by Christian IV Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914); Alexander was the father of both Ferdinand Justinus, Fred Luther's grandfather, and of Christian IV; another Alexander Martin was Uncle Martin. Father Christian IV Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914) and son Martin Christian Luther (1883-1964) were successive directors of the plywood factory in Tallinn since 1884. The fire at the Venesta Works, Silvertown, London on January 19th, 1917, occurred at a munitions factory; 50 tons of trinitrotoluene (TNT) exploded. The factory was built in 1893, but production of TNT began in September 1915. The method used was invented by F. A. Freeth; another plant, at Gadbrook, was built in 1916; in 1896 'The Venesta Syndicate' was formed for the tea-chests, and in 1906 Venesta Ltd. used the southernmost portion of Napier Yard, as manufacturer of wood and metal cases, boxes and barrels.

In France in some large French cities were set up some phone lines by formed the first French telephone companies. The Maison Breguet in Paris supplied them from the French concessionaire, Cornelius Roosevelt. In Britain they were made for William H. Reynolds by the THE INDIA-RUBBER, GUTTA-PERCHA, AND TELEGRAPH WORKS COMPANY, LIMITED, known by its location near London as

The Silvertown Company - The Gutta Percha Co., High Street, Stratford; 3 and 1/2 km north of Venesta, walking by Prince Regent Ln!

At the beginning Dr. William Montgomerie from Malaya, Michael Faraday and Charles Mackintosh, manufacturer of waterproof clothing, Thomas Hancock and his brother Charles found gutta percha the ideal material, and Henry Bewley, manufacturer of soda water, formed the Gutta Percha Company on 4 February 1845. Venesta of London - A. M. Luther Venesta. The factory was built in 1893 on the south side (River Thames side) of North Woolwich Road (now the A1020, nearly opposite Mill Road) by Brunner Mond, a forerunner of Imperial Chemical Industries, to produce soda crystals and caustic soda. Venesta Ltd., now Aluminium Foils Ltd., North Woolwich Road, Silvertown.

Василий Васильевич Шауб / Wilhelm Schaub / Wilhelm Johann-Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub, 1861 - 1934. Vasily Schaub / Wilhelm Johann Christian, Russian architect, also being built in Moscow, Saratov, Yekaterinburg. Son of Василии Иванович Шауб (1834 in Göttingen, d. 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia) / Wilhelm Karl Albert Emil Schaub. Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony. Grandson of Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub (b. ca 1800 ?).

Probably Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub come from Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER, who had child Johannes 1801 (Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub) + Barbara SCHWOB.
Wilhelm Johann Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub was father of Woldemar Schaub and Gustav Schaub. Brother of Amalia Marie Julie Wasmer (1862 Petersburg - 1935 Berlin, wife of Richard Julius Wasmer); Alexander Schaub (1866 - 1934, husband of Emma, father of Boris Schaub; Wera Kudrevich / Wiera Kudrewicz and Alexander Schaub junior) and Heinrich Wilhelm Schaub. All above data acc. to Karin Lindsalu Heermeyer at geni.com, his mother Julia Maria Schaub nee Zeh. Above Gustav Schaub, b. ca 1885? husband of Sophie, father of Sophie younger. Brother of Woldemar Schaub who was husband of Waleska Schaub / NN nee Walewska?
Hans Jakob 1768-1827 m. Elise MEYER and Verena WALLISER had: Verena 1794-1849 + Rudolf SCHAUB 1778, Hans Jakob 1797, Hans Jakob 1798 + Anna Barbara EHRSAM 1806 with children: Johan Jakob 1829 (Johann Jakob Schaub b. 1828 in Itingen, 1 km near by Sissach), Anna Barbara 1829, Johan Jakob 1831-1890 + Anna Margaretha TSCHUDIN b. 1845 with children: Anna Maria 1867, Anna Barbara 1868, Johan Heinrich 1869, Johan Heinrich 1870, Anna 1877, Rudolf 1883; Rosina 1833, Anna Barbara 1835, Johan Rudolf 1837 + Anna Maria BOLLIGER 1839-1907 with children: Arnold 1880; Johan Rudolf 1837 + Elisabeth TSCHUDIN 1841-1879 with children: Johan Jakob 1860, Rudolf 1862, Elisabeth 1863, Emil 1865 + Regula STAUFER had Jakob Ewald 1891-1913; Wilhelm 1867 + Elisabeth KYBURG had Johan Wilhelm 1891-1912, Ernst 1896-1918; Albert 1869, Maria 1873 + Alexandre CEPPI; August 1876, Emilie 1879; Johannes 1839-1911 + Anna Margaretha GISIN 1837-1872 had Johan Jakob 1858 + Elise GENTSCH with Elisabeth 1885, Anna Barbara 1859, Johannes 1861, Elisabeth 1863, Johannes 1864-1923; Johannes 1839-1911 + Verena BUSER had Arnold 1873, Verena 1878, Arnold 1886; Ursula 1845, Johannes Heinrich 1849 + Emma FLUBACHER had Johan Heinrich 1873-1919 + Sophie WAGNER, Karl 1875.
Around 1750, the baker, Johann Jakob Schaub, bought the Inn zum Engel in Basel, and in 1801, the son-in-law of Johann Jakob Schaub, Martin Leutenegger. Above baker is maybe Johannes 1728-1818 m. 1749 to Anna KESSLER 1724-1804. Conrad Schaub was born 1843, in Oberglatt county - 13 km north of Zurich, Switzerland, to Solomon Schaub and Susanna Maag. Solomon was born 1805, in Switzerland; Conrad Schaub became a civil engineer in southern Germany, Worms; married Maria Anna Alker in 1867. They moved back to Switzerland in 1869, and Karl Conrad jr. was born to them in 1869, Zurich. Descendants of Johannes Friedrich Schaub b. 1717 in Buss (?), Switzerland, and died 1801 in Bethania, N.C. He married DESERTE MARIA SCHUMAKER in 1743 in Marienborn, Germany.
Heinrich Schaub b. 1802 in Sissach, close to Basel; Swiss politician in the Basel canton 1832, 1838 und 1850, 1869 to 1870.
Jakob Schaub b. 1862 in Gelterkinden, 4 km east of Sissach, south-east of Basel; editor and printer, Basel, Zürich, in Sissach.
Johann Jakob Schaub b. 1828 in Itingen, 1 km near by Sissach.
Others in Switzerland: Otto Schaub (1886–1955), Samuel Schaub (1882–1962), Walter Schaub b. 1885 in Sissach; d. 1957 in Bottmingen, near to Basel, Swiss politician. Schaub family in Ferenbalm / Les Baumettes, is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, 25 km east of Neuchatel, ca 20 km south-east of St. Blaise, and ca 22 km north of Fribourg.
At this time to Basel in Switzerland goes Parvus of Berezina in the Minsk province from the Russian Empire, too. Alexander Lvovich Parvus / Israel Lazarevich Gelfand (1867-1924), from Jewish family in Berazino, the Ihumen county; next he moved to Odessa to Israel's paternal grandfather; he had left wife Tanya Helfand and his son; 1886 - 1887 in Basel, Switzerland; and again in 1888 Gelfand at the University of Basel to 1891; next Germany, 1900, met Lenin in Munich and begin publishing his revolutionary paper 'Iskra'; he again met Lenin in Bern in May 1915.

Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel, Suisse, 21 km north-east of Concise (Schaub family), and 14 km south-east of Neuchatel, 19 km north-west of Fribourg; probably in the 18th cent. in Saint-Aubin were the Schaubs. Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bâle / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel and in Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Cobham - British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy.

François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (near by Cully in the Lavaux; the Lavaux is a region in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, in the district of Lavaux-Oron; the Lavaux at northern shores of Lake Geneva; village Forel = Lavaux, north-east of Lutry) and Villeneuve was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The Demontet family - in Villette in the Vaud province. Villette on way from Lutry and Cully. Cully is near to Riex. The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel and La Chaux-de-Fonds - is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne (St-Aubin-Sauges is 6 km north-east of Concise where the SCHAUB family lived in the canton of Vaud between 1830 and 1866), Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel. La Chaux-de-Fonds 15 km north of Neuchatel.


Originally Prussian, Abraham Louis Breguet began his career as a watchmaker but also a physicist.

His son Louis-Antoine Breguet. His ancestry was French but his family were Protestants so they fled to Switzerland after Edict of Nantes in 1685.
He met
Abraham-Louis Perrelet and Xavier Gide.

In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris. Circa 1807 Breguet brought in his son, Louis-Antoine (born 1776) as a business partner, and from this point the firm became known as Breguet et Fils. He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker,

John Arnold.


Abraham-Louis Breguet died in 1823 and it was carried on by Louis-Antoine to 1833 (he died in 1858), and after the business continued under Abraham-Louis' grandson


Louis François Clément Breguet born on 22 Dec. 1804

in Paris.



Louis Francois Clement Breguet work in the early days of

telegraphy, educated in Switzerland. Louis François Clément Breguet

was a French physicist, "1835 and 1840 he standardized the company product line of watches, ... and diversified into scientific instruments, electrical devices, recording instruments, an electric thermometer, telegraph instruments and electrically synchronized clocks

(Masson, Antoine Philibert and Louis Breguet in 1841 ed. 'Memoire sur l'induction', Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris, 4 (3), p. 129-152; Masson describes the toothed wheels that functioned as an interrupter).

With

Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph to replace the optical telegraph system ... and a later step-by-step telegraph system in 1847 ... manufactured the rotating mirror Fizeau-Foucault apparatus ... and 'spark coil'

(archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff)

is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses ... were widely used in

x-ray machines, spark-gap radio transmitters, arc lighting and quack medical electrotherapy devices from the 1880s to the 1920s ... lighting Geissler tubes ... Tesla coils...".

Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet / Louis Francois Clement, born on December 22, 1804 in Paris, died 1883 in Paris, returned to Neuchatel (Switzerland), where he lived with his godfather J. F. Huguenin. He acted in the early days of telegraphy, educated in Switzerland. Louis Clément Bréguet was husband of Eugénie Caroline Lassieur and father of Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 and Louise Bréguet - wife of Ludovic Halévy and mother of Elie Halévy (Élie Halévy b. 1870 d. 21 August 1937, was a French philosopher and historian who wrote studies of the British utilitarians, born in Étretat, Seine-Maritime, where his mother had fled as the German army marched on Paris, 1892, Emile Boutmy invited Halévy to lecture on English political ideas at the newly founded School of Political Science, and on the history of socialism) and Daniel Halévy.
Marie Eugénie DUBOIS 1858-1903 married to Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 (son of Louis Clément Bréguet) with children: Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900, Louis BREGUET 1880-1955, Jacques BREGUET 1881-1939 (see: Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg). Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900 married Jacques Bizet b. 10.07.1872, d. 1922.
Breguet, Louis François Clément was son of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet b. on August 13, 1776 in Paris, d. 1858 in Champcueil and JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France.
He was son of Louis Abraham Breguet and Cécile Marie-Louise L'Huillier / Cécile Marie Louise L'huillier d. 1780; grandson of Jonas Louis Breguet b. June 11, 1719 in Neuchatel, Switzerland; died 1758; m. Susanne Marguerite Bolle / Suzanne-Marguerite Bollein; she was mother of above mentioned Louis Abraham Breguet and Louise Breguet - wife of David Lassieur and mother of Jonas Louis Lassieur, grandmother of Sophie Niaudet, great-grandmother of Daniel Berthelot, Marcel André Berthelot, Camille Berthelot, Marie Helene, Philippe, Rene Berthelot.

Abraham-Louis Breguet / Bréguet b. 1747 in Neuchâtel, Switzerland d. 1823, was a horologist in France; Breguet's mother remarried to Joseph Tattet, watchmaker in Paris; in 1762, he was sent to an unknown Versailles master watchmaker; he took classes in mathematics under
Abbe Marie, tutor of de Berri, and Breguet was introduced to King Louis XVI; met Abraham-Louis Perrelet in Switzerland in 1784, Xavier Gide 1787 - 1791; 1792 the Duke of Orléans, John Arnold, revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat, who also was from Neuchâtel; Breguet escaped to Switzerland, from where he travelled
to England, for two years he worked for King George III; Breguet returned to Paris 1795;
1807 Breguet brought in his son, Antoine-Louis as a business partner; sent his son to London to study with John Arnold; entered the French Academy of Sciences in 1816.

Alphonse Foy informed Morse that his system would not be accepted in France. He also requested Louis Francois Breguet (b. 1804), grandson of Abraham Louis Breguet to produce an electrical telegraph with needles in France. The resulting Breguet - Foy telegraph used two needles. It was first tried in 1842. In 1842 tests were made with optical telegraph at night. In 1845 test of electrical telegraph was made along the railway route, the Breguet two - needle telegraph, too.

As a result the Breguet equipment was installed in 1845 on the Paris-Rouen route. Breguet replaced his telegraph also called the French telegraph, which was standard equipment on French railways and L. Breguet in 1851 had in Paris a fourth floor added to his building for this work.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter);
Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).
Note: Winnie Buller b. in Bacton, Norfolk, receives pilot's license from Breguet School at Douia, France.

In Russia, St Petersburg - Moscow electrical telegraph line was established as the first; in 1853 a line to Kronstadt, 1854 to Warsaw. The Russian state telegraph network of 11000 km was constructed by Siemens - Carl Siemens - in the period 1853 - 1855. 1863 to Tbilisi in Georgia upon the initiative of Grigola Orbeliani, d. 1883. 1860 to Sweden from Russia.

"...The first electromagnetic telegraph created a Russian scientist Paul L. Schilling in 1832. ... Paul Schilling also developed the original code in which each letter of the alphabet corresponded to a spec