Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Belarus, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania. Константинович - биография. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Troubetzkoy, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Sedykh from Kazan, Soltan, Oginski, Paszkowski and Kalinowski from Cracow, Zbieranowski, Zarako-Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, Azbelev, Holynski of 18th cent., Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.  The Baltic German families in Estonia: von Gernet, Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss and Dubbelt from Moghilev, Riga and Tbilisi.

Education and information - author Konstantynowicz Bogdan.
History and genealogy of the noble  families:
Konstantynowicz / Constantinovich / Constantinowitz / Konstantinovich
(Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Russia, Poland,
Georgia / Sakartvelo),
Armand, Troubetskoy, Sedykh / Siedoch / Siedych, Kalinowski, Oginski,  Radziwill, Demontet or Demonets, Paszkowski, counties Orlov Denisov and dukes  Gruzinsky-Bagrationi.

The Duflon / Dyuflon / Dufflon and Konstantynowicz Company 1892 - 1918 in Moscow, St.  Petersburg / Piotrogrod and Zaporozh'e / Zaporozhye / Zaporizhzhya.

Gernet, Nobel, Masse, Armand, Azbelev, Brilling - a top members of the Deka Company.
© author Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович

Berezyna and Lubuszany / Luboszany - the estate of Sapieha and Potocki / Krystyna Tyszkiewicz Potocka - the line to the Templars of Krzeszowice, General Franciszek Paszkowski and the Poniatowski Home.
Miezonka-Swolna-Moscow-St Petersburg and the family history of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantynowicz: Dyuflon / Duflon / Dufflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.

References:  see: Fox coat of arms  

1939 Warszawa

Zbrojna agresja Zwiazku Sowieckiego na Polske we wrzesniu 1939 roku a stan wojny z Sowietami po 1939.


Zamach stanu generala Wladyslawa Sikorskiego we wrzesniu 1939 roku


Bartosz Paprocki of 1578 and 1584 

Kojalowicz of 1648  

"The Armorial of many houses in (...) the Grand duchy of Lithuania" by S. J. Dunczewski, edited in 1757 

Pogon Pahonia"The Armorial of the Orsa area" of 1775 

"The Inventory of nobility in the Vilkmerge district" of 1795 

"The Inventory of nobility of the Dzisna district" 1796 

an armorial by Jan Dworzecki - Bohdanowicz   and   "The List of nobility of the Vilna district (...)" 1809  

"The Record of rental (...) nobility from the Barysau district" of 1812 

"The Inventory of nobility in the Lida district" of 1855 

Stanislaw count Mieroszowski  (Stanislaw count Grocyn pseudonym, 1827 - 1900 or Jan Stanislaw Mieroszowski),  "(...) about Polish heraldry",  Cracow 1887 

N. Szaposznikow, "Heraldica"   and  "The List of landowners of the Minsk government" 1899 

a manuscript of armorial by Boleslaw Starzynski  and an armorial by Leszczyc of 1908 / 13  

Jerzy count Dunin - Borkowski of 1909 

Uruski of 1910 

Andrzej Zajaczkowski, "Polish nobility", edit. by "Semper" 1993 

Jan Ciechanowicz, "Knightly ancestries (...)", vol. 1 - 5, edit. Rzeszow 2001

Smolensk 10 kwietnia 2010 katastrofa samolotu

Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович, History of the lineage from Lithuania as compiled by Bogdan Konstantynowicz. Includes the surnames Malkiewicz / Малькевич, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Brzezinski and Zarakowski. 2003 / 2010

Breguet, Brown, Masson, Rey, Armand, Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz, Duflon and history of research on telegraph, radio and electricity. Deka Company in Petersburg, Moscow and Zaporoze - Russian engines and airplanes.

Ancestors of ours 

- Piotr Konstantynowicz who was born c. 1610 in the Minsk province; he lived in the Mscislau  province A.D. 1669 

- Augustin / Augustyn Rokoz Konstantynowicz (Augustyn was a clerk of the Lithuanian military  confederation since 1661 by 1667 and after a special envoy of Michal Pac to Moscow to ask tsar Aleksei / Aleksey to put up his son Feodor /  Fiodor III as a candidate to Polish election; the municipal and territorial writer in the Mscislau province, born c. 1635, had died 1713 or before  1713

- Adam  Konstantynowicz of 1697 

- Krzysztof  Konstantynowicz in 1697 

- Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович, Map of the north east Poland 18 cent.; The Konstantinovich ancestry in Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus in 16th cent. to the beginning of the 20th centuryAdam Franciszek Konstantynowicz A.D. 1707  

- Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz near of kin with Holynski family from Soino (either Big  Soino or Voronove Slobody near by a  farm of Mielkovka = Mietkowka), and his siblings and Hurko family also (from  Krotowsza otherwise called Krynki  or  Krotovshe that belonged to Romejko - Hurko family in the Orsa district)  were in trouble  for this reason with Holynski  (Kazimierz  son of Stefan Kazimierz Holynski from Chlyszczewo i.e. Chwostowo close by  border between Belarus and  Russia, from  Soino and Uszpol) family after 1714.  
   The above
 Soino is situated 18 km east away from Mscislau, at territory of Russia now i.e. 7 km from present border; it was the Grand duchy of Lithuania 1359 - 1772 and next in Russia: the Mstislavl district, Soino region = "volost" that is similar to county, in a parish of Mscislau (archbishopric of Mahileu, in the Mscislau - Klimavicy catholic area were three parishes: Lozovica, Mscislau and Smolensk in the 19th cent.); one our leg lived in the territory of  present Belarus, but the second one stood  at the present land of Russia in borders after 1992. A fortunes of Poles in this remote easterly territories of the former Both Nations Republic turned out differently than by Vistula, because not a few Poles had got to choose military service in the Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent. or they worked as engineers in different corners of former Russia since second half of the 19th century.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody). In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry). January 31, 1664 a priest of  the  Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters (a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of  M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457). Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in  will to her brother Kazimierz and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of  Jesuits. Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was her first husband; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714 (I think that the above error about the Rohoza nickname arose from confusion between this nickname and surname Rahoza; for example Michał Rahoza with the Szreniawa coat of arms from Kiev in 1579). 

- Antoni Konstantynowicz signed the Second Manifesto of Lithuanian Nobility in 1763 

The third partition of Poland - all Belarus to Russia in 1795.

- Dominik Konstantynowicz / Константинович was born in the Mahileu (either Mogiliow or Mogiljow by Dnepr, Mogilev =  Mahilyow by Dnieper, Moghilev) Government in Russia near by Krycau / Krychaw c. 1805.
Grandson of Dominik Konstantynowicz that is Stanislaw Konstantynowicz / Константинович was owner of Miezonka - noble locality in east-central Belarus - ex Stefania nee Radziwill property.

Note about Wittgenstein and Trubecki families:

1. Ludwig Adolf Peter zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born 1769 in Negine in the Kiev government; his wife Antuanetta Snarska / Antoinette Snarski born 1778 in Polock, her daughter Emilia Pietrovna Wittgenstein b. 1801, d. 1869, with husband Trubecki Piotr Ivanovich b. 1798, d. 1871; her children: Piotr Trubecki / Trubeckoy b. 1822, Mikolaj / Nikolaj b. 1828, Aleksandr b. 1830, Olga b. 1838 with husband Dolgorukov.
2. Mikolaj / Nikolaj Trubecki b. 1828, with his wife Liubov Vasilievna Orlov - Denisov, b. 1828 died 1860 but not 1869, for example, son: Piotr Trubecki / Piotr Nikolaievitch Trubetzkoy b. in Akhtyra 5 Oct. 1858 and died in Novotcherkask on 17 Oct. 1911, married in Moscow on 13 Oct. 1884 to Alexandra Vladimirovna Obolenskaya b. Moscow on 8 Nov. 1861, d. Authon-la-Chapelle on 14 Dec. 1939.
You see:
3. Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania. Her children: Piotr Wittgenstein b. 1831 and Maria b. 1829 with husband Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Her husband from 1828 Ludwik Adolf  F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) born 8 June 1799 in Kowno, He was first son of Ludwik Adolf Piotr / Pjotr Christianovich zu Sayn und Wittgenstein / Пётр Христианович Витгенштейн, who was born 1769 in Pierejaslawl Zalesskij either Нежин / Negine or Переяславл, and died 11 June 1843 in Lwiw / Lwow.

On the Wittgenstein and the Prince Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij families:

a. Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834 died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919, see about Bagrationi Gruzinski / Bagration Gruzinsky family; he was child of August 1788-1874, who married 1823 to Franziska Allesina von Schweitzer, and he was grandchild of Christian Heinrich 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831), great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741. His father Ludwig Franz 1660 - 1694. See below (point e)! 

Western Georgia has the semi-independent prince-regent Dadian Grigol of Mingrelia. In 1803, his country was taken under direct Russian suzerainty until the dignity of Dadian was finally abolished in 1867. Prince
Alexander Dadiani, colonel of the Erivan Regiment, was an imperial aide-de-camp but tsar Nicholas taken his sword from him, and have him sent off to the fortress of Bobruisk. Nicholas Dadiani in 1867 was compelled to cede all his sovereign rights to the Tsar in exchange for 1.000.000 rubles, a grant of estates in Russia, and the title of Prince Dadian-Mingrelsky, and his brother Andrew has the name of Prince Mingrelia. Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, was born 1846 or 1847; her parents: Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800 (his father Leon A. Dadiani, his grandparents Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753 died 1812; parents of above Alexander: Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja died March 19, 1780. Parents of above Piotr / Peter: George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747) and mother of Praskovya: Lydia G. Rosen born 1816 and died 1866 (a branch from baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742 died 1792 and his wife Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746).
Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811. Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me! He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728. Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706. Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675. More inf.:

Connections to the Paats family in the Parnumaa / Parnu district and the Helme parish in the area of Viljandimaa / Viljandi County

Ludwig Adolf Peter (Piotr) zu Sayn-Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolph Peter vel Pjotr Christianowitsch, Graf zu Sayn-Wittgenstein b. 1769 in Negine in the Kiev government or in Perejaslaw-Chmelnyzkyj, d. 1843, his parents: Count Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg and his first wife Countess Amalie Ludowika Finck von Finckenstein. In 1798 he married Polish lady from Polock, Antonia Cecilie Snarska / Antuanetta Snarskaja / Snarski and had in this marriage 11 children.  
Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg or Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1725 and died 6 May 1797, Rheda. He was a son of Count
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg and his wife Countess Helene Emilie zu Solms-Baruth. He was taken captive in 1761, settled in Russia, and then serving in the Caucasus. He was married two times: to Amalie Ludowika Finck von Finckenstein and to Anna Petrovna Dolgorukova.
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg was a side line of the Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg family, created by Graf Casimir b. 1687 - d. 1741, ruled 1694-1741, for his brother,
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1694 died 1750. Above named two brothers were sons of Ludwig Franz b. 1660 d. 1694, ruled 1684 - 1694.
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg) b. 1694 - d. 1750 and his wife Countess Helene Emilie zu Solms-Baruth b. 1700 d. 1750. 

4. Ludwig Adolf Peter zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born 1769 Negine in the Kiev government with his wife Antuanetta Snarskaja / Snarski (Polish roots) born 1778 Polock and her son Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, born 1799 Kowno, second son Stanislaw Piotrowicz Wittgenstein / Станислав Петрович Витгенштейн, born June 1800, Alexander zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born August 1803, Riga, and Georgij, Aleksiej and Nikolaj; her daughter Emilia Pietrovna Wittgenstein / Эмилия Петровна Витгенштейн b. 1801, d. 1869, with husband Trubecki Piotr Ivanovich b. 1798, d. 1871; her children: Piotr b. 1822, Mikolaj / Nikolaj b. 1828 in Moscow, Aleksandr b. 1830, Olga b. 1838 with husband Dolgorukov.
5. The director of the Moscow branch of the Imperial Russian Musical Society, Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki with the first wife countess Liubov Vasilievna nee Orlov - Denisov, she born 1828 and died February 1860.
Liubov Vasilievna duchess Orlov - Denisov married Trubeckaya died 1860; a date of 1869 is error; her daughter Sofia Nikolajevna Trubeckaja married Glebova, b. 04 November 1854 died 7 September 1936; 5 October 1858 was born Pietr Nikolajevich Trubeckoj and Maria nee Trubecki / Trubeckaja born circa 1860!

Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka born circa 1840 was married to Konstantynowicz / Константинович / Konstantinovich (he was born ca 1840) before 1873, and next was living in Kazan in 1874 and she was probably from the Belarusian - Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy princely family (Трубецкой и Эстония). I need to emphasizes that this is only a hypothesis but all genealogical and historical data lead towards the Belarusian - Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy family. A son of Maria Trubecka - Wiktor Konstantynowicz / Victor Konstantinovich / Константинович - was living in Piotrogrod / St Petersburg in 1917 and Tallinn after 1918 but 1924 he lived in the town of Viljandi google map Viljandi.

Note at margin: Otto Magnus von Rehbinder (1727 died 1792) born in Polli - 23 km south of Viljandi; the Commander-in-chief of the Estonian Army Johan Laidoner was born 1884 in Raja farmstead near Viiratsi, site now located in nearby Vardja village in Viljandi / Viiratsi area, 2 km from Viljandi in the south. President Konstantin Pats born 1874 in Tahkuranna, Parnumaa - the Parnu district, and his grandfather Hans Pats was born 1819 in Holstre - Viljandi County / Viljandimaa - Holstre in the Paistu Parish is situated about 10 km south east from Viljandi, Estonia. Vilms, Jüri b. 1889 Kabala, Viljandi county, studied at Pärnu Gymnasium and was expelled for participating in the revolutionary events of 1905. After studying privately, he graduated from school in 1907. On 19 February 1918 Vilms, together with Konstantin Päts and Konstantin Konik, was elected a member of the Estonian Salvation Committee. Kabbal = Kabala, is 7 km north-west of Pilistvere, (about 30 km north of Viljandi) belonged to Koo Parish in Viljandi County, Estonia. Pilistvere, Koo Parish, Estonia. The parish belonged to the historical Viljandimaa County (Kreis Fellin).

6. Children of the second wife Zofia Lopuchin from 1860 and Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki:
among others 1862 Sergiej / Siergiej, 1863 Evgenij / Evgenii, Marija / Maryna / Marina Trubecki b. 1877 - died 1924 and Maria born 1864 - died 1926 ('the second') married Kristi or Christi

(the husband of Maria Nikolaevna Trubetskoy from April 1, 1881 became a cornet of the Guard Hussar Regiment, Grigory Christie b. 1856 d. 1911; but she was only 17? In 1902 - 1905 G. / Jerzy Christie has successfully taken the post of governor of Moscow; June 14, 1882 in Uzkoje, his son Vladimir was born, d. 1946),
Grzegorz, and so on.
Webpage '' is informing only about 12 children but was 13, including two sisters from the first wife and son Pietr. Polish data base inf. only about the second wife of Mikolaj Trubecki! In 2011 I was writing on 13 children. 
Some false information about countess Sofia Vasilievna Tolstoi / Sofya Tolstaya / Tolstoj concern her life when she took children of her early deceased sister Princess Lyubov Vasilyevna Troubetzkoy (1828 - died 25 Febr. 1860), on the parenting:  Sophia (1853 or 1854 died in 1936),
Peter (1858 - 1911) and

(1860 - 1926, but here date of birth is false; Sofia Nikolajevna Trubeckaja married Glebova, b. 04 November 1854 died 7 September 1936 and Mary / Maria nee Trubecki was born in 1860 or ca 1853!
Different source inf.: Maria, born Moscow on 24 February 1860, died in Romania 1926 married on 1 April 1881 to Gregori Kristy. And next Marija / Maryna Trubecki b. 1864, died 1926 and - ? - was married to Kristi or Christi; this information is deliberately confused and mixed
Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya was born ca 1853 or circa 1860

because the father, Prince Nikolai Petrovich Trubetskoy on 12 May 1861 married to Sophia Alexeevna Lopukhina, and from his second marriage he had ten children. For older Trubetskoy - Sophia - was Vladimir Glebov, the wedding was July 2, 1878.

Some about the Tolstoy family and Golitsyn

Golitsyn Prince Alexei Borisovich 1732-1892, Major-General, his wife Princess Anna Georgijevna Gruzinskaya 1754-1779
and his daughters
: Maria 1772-1826, Princess, her husband Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769-1844, five sons and four daughters; and Elizabeth 1779-1853, her husband Alexander Ivanovich Osterman-Tolstoy 1770-1857, had no children.
Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769/70-1844, from 1797 Adjutant General, in 1806-1807 the main army chief of staff, in 1829, Chief of St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. His wife Maria Golitsyn Alekseevna 1772-1826. Children among others: Egor / Jegor 1802-1874, Lieutenant-General, Senator since 1861, his wife Princess Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy; and Vladymir 1805-1875, Major General, his wife Countess Sofya Orlov-Denisov.
Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy died February 12, 1900, marriage: Jegor / Egor / Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy b. July 19, 1802 and died March 12, 1874, child: Mary Yegorovna / Marija Jegorovna Tolstaya born 1843.
Father of Varvara - Peter Petrovich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. August 23, 1793 and died August 13, 1840.
Grandparents of Varvara: Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. 1760 died 1817 and Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family died 1796.
And also:
Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn b. 8 / 19 November 1794, musician, and served in the Second Caucasian war 1820 - 1832, held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, great-grandson of Field Marshal Mikhail Golitsyn and son of Lieutenant-General Prince Boris A. Golitsyn 1766-1822 and Princess Anna Alexandrovna Bagration of Georgia / Bagration Gruzinskaya 1763-1822, granddaughter of the king of Kartli - Bakara III and great-granddaughter of Alexander Menshikov. Above Nikolai Golitsyn was also personally acquainted with Chopin and Oginski - both Poles.

7. Liubov Vasilievna duchess Orlov - Denisov: her husband Nikolay Pietrovich Trubeckoj b. 1828 died 1900; his mother Emilia Wittgenstein b. 1801 died 1869; his father Pietr / Piotr Ivanovich Trubeckoj b. 1798. Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy in 1861 married again to Sophia Alekseevna Lopukhin b. 1841 died 1901; the second marriage of  N. Trubetskoy had ten children that is half-brothers and sisters of  P.   Trubetskoy (younger).
Above Countess Sofya / Sophia Tolstoy, born Countess Orlov-Denisov, died November 30, 1885. When V. P. Tolstoy died on February 8, 1875, his widow Sofya lived in Uzkoje estate with favorite niece, the Countess Maria Yegorovna
b. 1843 and married Orlov-Davydov; she was the daughter of Count Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy, who was one of the owners of this estate in 1844 - 1845, and his wife Varvara Petrovna, nee Princess Troubetzkoy. When a son of G. I. Kristi - Vladimir was born on June 14, 1882 in Uzkoje, landowner of the village Uzkoje, Countess Sofya Tolstaya held his son at baptism, June 14 at a local church.
Above Sophia V. nee Orlov-Denisov b. 1817, her parents Vasily Orlov vel Orlov-Denisov b. 1775 and Maria A. Vasiliev; she married to Vladimir Tolstoy born June 13, 1805; 

sisters of above Sofia Vasilievna nee Orlov Denisov: 

Nadjezda married Michail Katenin, 

Ljubov married to Nikolaj Pietrovich Trubeckoj; brothers: 

Fiodor with wife Elizabeth A. Nikitin died 1898, and Michail with wife Tchertkova.

The Nikitin family - among others:

Boris Nikitin b. 1883 and died August 11, 1943, Russian officer of the Imperial Army, son of General Vladimir Nikitin; educated in Tiflis Military School, he served in the Kabardian Horse Regiment, on November 30, 1916 served in the Quartermaster General Staff of the 7th Army; from March 12, 1917 counter-intelligence chief of the Petrograd Military District, from June 1917 Quartermaster - General of Petrograd Staff and after head of Intelligence in Department GUGSH, from July 1917
(July 1, 1917 Boris Nikitin,
head of counterintelligence of Petrograd taken from French captain Laurent P. a telegram intercepted by Allied intelligence; their authors and recipients were Lenin, Zinoviev, M. Y. Kozlovsky, A. Kollontai, Sumenson and Hanecki; under the influence of evidence on the same day July 1, Nikitin wrote out a warrant for the arrest of 28 leaders of the Bolsheviks led by Lenin; a government collected 21 volumes of investigative materials destroyed after the October Revolution; see a memoirs of counterintelligence chief of the Petrograd Military District B. V. Nikitin, 'Fatal years', Moscov 2000, p. 85-86);
in September 1917, appointed Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Corps and sent out from Petrograd; from 1918 to February 1919 the commander in Dagestan.
His father Vladimir Nikitin born 1848, Russian general of artillery, the commander of the Odessa Military District 1914, Commandant of the Pietropavlovskaja fortress 1916-1917 and he was meeting with Rasputin; the daughter of V. Nikitin, Lidia, maid of honor of the Imperial Court, was a hot fan of Rasputin, was part of his closest circle. 

A certain Konstantynowicz was gotten married with Oktawia Piottuch - Kublicki from Kublicze (= Kublicy) in accordance  with Boniecki; she was great-granddaughter of  

Stanislaw Duke Radziwill at Nieswiez / Nyasvizh  (b.1722) + Karolina nèe Pociej (b. 1732)  

and daughter of Jozef Piottuch - Kublicki of the Ostoja coat of arms (Oktawia born c. 1810, and Kublicy = Kublicze is situated in Uszacz region  = Ushachi, Usacy - that is west of Uszacz, the Witebsk / Vitsyebsk /  Vicebsk province, in district of Lepel / Lyepyel) Mentioned Konstantynowicz / Константинович that was Dominik born c. 1805, exceptionally well-off man, the second husband of Oktawia Piottuch - Kublicki because Jozef  Szumski was the first one. It was plenty of conversations among families of Zarakowski and Konstantynowicz even in the  middle of the twentieth century about wealth of Dominik Konstantynowicz / Константинович.

A note at margin on the Radzivill family from Belarus:

Stanislaw Duke Radziwill at Nieswiez / Nyasvizh married to Karolina nee Pociej / Carolina Potsey / Potsiivna, b. 1732, died 1776. Her parents Aleksander Pociej b. 1698 died 1770 and mother Theresa Yasenitski born 1695 and died 1743. Stanislaw Duke Radziwill at Nieswiez born 8 May 1722 died 22 April 1787, son of Mikolaj Faustyn, and brother of Albrecht, Udalryk Krzysztof and Jerzy.
Duke Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwill b. 21 May 1688, son of Dominik Mikolaj b. 1643, who was brother of Michal Kazimierz Radziwill born 1625! Dominik Mikolaj b. 1643 was son of Aleksander Ludwik who was born 4 August 1594 and grandson of Mikolaj Krzysztof 'Sierotka'.

Marcin Mikolaj Karol Radziwill was son of Jan Mikolaj Radziwill and Dorota Henryka nee Przebendowski; above named Jan Mikolaj Radziwill b. 1681, d. 1729 in Czernawczyce, was son of Dominik Mikolaj and brother of Michal Antoni and Mikolaj Faustyn. Above Marcin Mikolaj Karol Radziwill married twice: Aleksandra Belchacki and Marta Trembicki; his children: Antonia Radziwill, Jozef Mikolaj, Antoni Mikolaj Radziwill, Michal Hieronim, Dominik and Jakub. Above Michal Hieronim Radziwill b. 1744, died 1831, his sons: Ludwik Mikolaj Radziwill and Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwill. Next generation: Lew / Leo (Leon) Lyudvigovich Radziwill b. 1808, d. 1884, descended from the nobility of Minsk Province, was born Feb. 27, 1808, the son of above Prince Ludwik Mikolaj / Ludwig Nicholas Radziwill, nephew of the governor of the Grand Duchy of Poznan Prince Henry Anthony Radziwill. Above named Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwill 1775 - 1833, his children: Wilhelm Pawel, Ferdynand Fryderyk, Boguslaw Fryderyk, Wladyslaw, Eliza Fryderyka and Wanda Augusta Wilhelmina. Note on above Lew / Leo Radziwill 1808 - 1884, adjutant of Emperor Nicholas I, General of Cavalry, served for the Guards Grodno Hussars. He took part in the suppression of the Polish uprising 1830. On June 25, 1832 Lieutenant Prince Radziwill was appointed aide-de-camp to His Majesty the Emperor, and the following year, on December 6, with the difference in the service, was promoted to Lieutenant-Captain and sent to Moscow, where he was during the reign of Nicholas I. In 1833, Radziwill was fighting with bandit gang in the Minsk province.

The Czapski family from Stankow / Stankovo at the Minsk government leased Miezonka from the Radziwill family before Konstantynowicz - 1842. The landowner of this country seat (Stankovo - the dominion Stan'kovo near by Minsk) was a count Americ Zakhary Gutten-Chapsky from an ancient German-Polish-Belarussian noble clan. Above Hutten-Czapski Emerick / count Americ Zakhary Gutten-Chapsky / Nicholas Emerick Zakharyash Hutten-Czapski born on 18 November 1828 in Stankovo, now Belarus; his wife: Elіzaveta Karolіna Hanna von Meendorf b. 1833; his brothers: Karol Ignacy Hutten Czapski and Adam Jozef; his parents: Hutten-Czapski Karol b. 1777 and Fabianna Obuchowicz b. 1794; his daughter: Zofia Czapska-Hutten married Plater-Zyberk b. 1857; her son: Henryk Plater-Zyberk b. 1899.
Hutten-Czapski Carol / Karol b. 1777 (his brother and sister: Stanislaw and Maria); his parents: Franciszek Stanisław Czapski-Hutten b. 1727, d. 1802, Veronica Radziwill b. 1754, she was sister of Mikolaj Radziwill born in 1746; parents of above Veronika: father Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł 'Rybenko' b. 13 Juni 1702 who was the son of Karol Stanislaw Radziwill; mother Anna Ludwika (Luiza) Mycielska b. on 24 Oktober 1729. Above Karol Stanislaw Radziwill born on 27 November 1669; his father Michal Kazimierz Radziwill b. on 26 Oktober 1625 and his grandfather Aleksander Ludwig Radziwill b. 1594.

Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill was brother of Jan Jerzy, Zygmunt Karol, Albrecht Wladyslaw, and father of Dominik Mikolaj and Michal Kazimierz whos great-grandson was Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill, b. 1759 (his granddaughter was Stefania nee Radziwill).
Daughter of
Karolina nee Pociej: in 1751 birth of Franciszka Theophile nee Radziwill married Soltan Stanislaw and her daughter
Karolina nee Soltan born ca 1780 with husband from ca 1800 / 1802 Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki from Kublicze with the Ostoja coat of arms, who was born ca 1780 (the different person - Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki from Wilkomierz, ca 1730, his grandfather and father from Rzeczyca in Inflanty / Rezekne) and her children: Emilia Piottuch-Kublicki ca 1803, Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki ca 1804, Anna, Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki, Walentyna and
Oktawia nee Piottuch-Kublicki from Kublicze born ca 1810. Oktawia nee Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1810 and married Jozef Szumski born ca 1800 and after married second time Dominik Konstantynowicz b. ca 1805.

   These spouses were related with: dukes Radziwill (one of richest person of Poland and Lithuania in eighteenth century, Stanislaw duke Radziwill was an immediate descendant of Aleksander Ludwik duke Radziwill - born  1594 - with "Trumpets" coat of arms and his wife Tekla nèe Wollowicz; also the descendant of  Mikolaj Krzysztof duke Radziwill  called  the "Black" born 1515 in Nieswiez  -  most influential man in Grand Principality of Lithuania in 16th cent. and an uncle of Barbara Radziwill), dukes Oginski, Szumski, Piottuch  (- Kublicki), Smokowski, Soltan, Pociej and Benislawski

Note about the Piottuch - Kublicki family: 

 Ferdynand Piottuch - Kublicki, who was an activist of 1863 in the East Belarus, was friend of Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski from the Vicebsk region and also Walerjan Weryho / Valerian Veryho (he was owner of the Stajki estate - South of Vicebsk, close to the Dymanowo station, where Russian police on 22nd April 1863 attempted to arrest him). Above Ferdynand  Piottuch - Kublicki was neighbour of Wasilewski and relation of Staniewicz; he and duke Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski / Weryho stayed in Vicebsk in 1862 and in Stajki 1863Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski was familiar to: Moniuszko, Odyniec, Syrokomla and with Aleksander Chodecki in Mohylew (Mahileu or Mogiliow) in 1859.
Lady Augusta Soltan, b. around 1750 was married to Eliasz / Elijah Kublicki Piottuch from Kublicze, and was living in Livonia. The next generation: 

1. Elizabeth Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicze, b. approximately 1790 married Benedict Wawrzecki, Marshal of Braslav and second husband Krutz

2. Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; child: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843 (mother Josepha Benislawska), her child 

Soltan Octavia, b. in Prezma / Pryzma / Presman 1830, died on August 15, 1871 in Kazan (or Razan ?), she was married in 1849 to Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan / Hieronim S. V. Soltan born 1824, died in 1900, landowner, member of the January Uprising.
Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia; son of Stanislaus Soltan (collaborator of the Constitution of 3 May, imprisoned in Smolensk in the 1794-1796, the President of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in 1812
, d. Mitawa 1836) and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka, a high school in Mitawa in 1835-1842 Courland, his parents after confiscating the 'Zdzieciol' estate (in the Slonim area and mentioned by Mr. Tadeusz Mickiewicz) moved house on the Livonia area, he was the insurgent in 1863, exiled to Ufa, interned in Riga. Study at the University of St. Petersburg in 1843-1844, married in 1849, with a relative of his, Oktawia nee Soltan, daughter of Joseph and Valentina, and settled in the estate of his wife, Pryzma in Polish Livonia. In 1858 - 1859 he traveled abroad, where he conferred with Adam and Witold Czartoryski and Count Zamoyski on the current state of Lithuania and Belarus. He was against armed Insurrection. When the uprising broken out, Soltan, unable to stop it, joined to the Insurrection in the Livonia province and after Soltan was arrested in Vitebsk on June 5th, 1863. He was exiled to Ufa on August 18, 1863, and remained there until 1866. Then he was interned in Riga 1872 - 1875, was allowed to return in 1875 to assets of his wife in Polish Livonia, where he died in September 1900 in Prezma / Presman near to Malta in Inflanty / Lettgallen / Livonia, the Rēzeknes Rajons - 18 km south west from Rezekne acc. to The von der Borch family from Prele / Preili/ Priji near to Dyneburg and from Wyping in the Rzezyce / Rezekne district was owner of the Prezma estate before 1714. Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan moved in 1891 to Riga, where he many years honorably served as President of the Charitable Society

Now we back to the Piottuch Kublicki family:
Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; children: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843; 

Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki, 

Octavia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Szumski and second time to Dominik Konstantynowicz

Anna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Benisławski

Emilia Kublicka m. Vincent Smokowski

Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki m. Ida Oginska.
Some details:
Oktawia Soltan, born 1830, died on 15.8.1871 in Kazan, married to (1849) Władyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, b. 1824, d. 1900. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki married Ida Oginski. Karol Piottuch-Kublicki, b. ca 1850 m. Zofia Eysymont, b. ca 1840 - her parents: Oktawiusz and Helena Soltan. Stanislaw Soltan, born on 27.8.1756, d. 1836 in Mitawa, m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802, her father Stanislaw, mother Karolina Pociej from Zdzieciol. Second time married ca 1820 to Konstancja Toplicki-Tupalski Korsak.
Parents of above named Ida Oginski: Michal Kleofas Oginski 1765-1833 and Maria Neri 1778-1851. Grandparents of Ida Oginski: Andrzej Ignacy Oginski 1739-1787 and Paula Szembek. Husband of Ida Oginski: Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki. Son of Ida Oginski: Karol Piottuch-Kublicki born ca 1850.
Franciszka Teofila Radziwill died 1802 m. Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756 d. 1836, his father Станіслав Солтан Stanislaw Soltan born 1698 d. 1758.

Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, d. Mitawa 1836, General, the President of the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1812. He married two times: 

Franciszka Teofila / Francis Theophilus Radziwill died 1802, her father Stanislaw Radziwill and mother Pociej Carolina, she brought to the family Soltan an estate Zdzięcioł / Zdzieciol. Second time to: 

Konstancja Toplicka - Tupalska voto Korsak in 1820 that is Constance Tupalska Toplicka - Korsak, her father Anthony. Daughters among others: Soltan Carolina b. about 1780 + Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki married ca 1800; Anna Soltan, b. ca 1780 + Anthony Wankowicz b. ca 1760 - children Valerie Wankowicz, about 1800 + Constantine Tyzenhauz, Wanda Wankowicz, about 1800 + Benedict Tyszkiewicz, Clementine Wankowicz m. Mostowski.
And the next person:
Franz-Felix Kublitsky Piottukh / Franz Feliksovich Kublitsky-Piottukh / Franciszek Piottuch-Kublicki, Russian Lieutenant General; 1860 - 1920, a relative of the poet Alexander Alexandrovich Blok/ Bloc b. in St. Petersburg; Blok's mother - the daughter of the rector of St. Petersburg University, shortly after the birth of Alexander, left her husband, lawyer in Warsaw and in 1889 married a second time to the officer of the Guards F. F. Kublitski Piottuch, Catholic, in service entered September 1, 1876. In 1918-1920 he lived with his wife in St. Petersburg.
Acc. to '':
Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, died in 1836 Mitawa, general, wifes: Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802 from Stanislaw Radziwill and Karolina Pociej, and second wife since 1820 was Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska Korsak from Antoni.
His children below: Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780 married Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki.
Stanislaw Soltan, 1822 - died 1897 in Anninsk, from Brzostowica Murowana in the Hrodna goverment, with wifes: Maria Dunin-Jundzill b. 1827 and Albertyna Dunin-Jundzill, b. 1837 (brothers and sisters of above Stanislaw Soltan: Helena Soltan b. 1790 m. to Franciszek Soltan b. 1780,
Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan, born 1792 in Warsaw,
and Anna Soltan, b. ca 1780 ? / 1790 m. to Antoni Wankowicz b. ca 1760).
Children of Stanislaw Soltan b. 1822: Bogdan Wiktor Soltan 1861 - 1912 married to Maria Franciszka Soltan b. 1863 (his brothers and sisters: Emilia Soltan Korsak, b. 1847 d. 1908, Stanislaw Soltan, 1848 - 1850, Helena Soltan 1849 - 1852, Adam Soltan 1851 - 1902 Brzostownica Murowana, Wiktor Wladyslaw Rudolf Pereswit-Soltan, 1853 - d. 1905 Warsaw, owner of Kraszuty)
and his daughter - Maria Emilia Soltan b. 1889 Aninsk and died 1963 m. Zdzislaw Henryk Grocholski - her daughter Maria Grocholska b. 1911 Pietniczany and died in 1940 Otrebusy.

Note about the Benislawski family: 

     The Benislawskis from Polack / Polatsk / Polock, Vicebsk / Vitsyebsk / Witebsk, Lucyn / Ludza and Rzeczyce / Rzeczyca / Rezekne districts (here also in the thirties of the  20th  cent.). The bishop of Mogilev (Mohylew, Mahileu or Mogiliow), Jan Benislawski  who was in Rome 1783, consecrated new  R.C. church in Aglona, in SE  Latgale, 25 km SE of Preili and 40 km NE of  Daugavpils, in 1800.  The Kastyr estate  i.e. Kastire  was situated in this parish: 42,5 km NE of  Daugavpils (Dunaburg,  Dyneburg), and belonged to the noble Dunaburg marshal Jozef  Brzezinski and next Zaba  family. 

Comment on the Bonch - Bruevichs  

The Bruevich ancestry comes from the Orthodox gentry of the Mogilev province

Its founder, nobleman Vladimir Bruevich, was born March 4, 1561 and received from the king Sigismund August a letter on the ground in the village of Samotevichi / Самотевичи in the ex-Polish Mstislavl province, located on the outskirts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, before 1917 Samotevichi located in the Klimovitskaya County of the Mogilev province. At the present time in the Kostyukovitche district, of the Mogilev region in Belarus. Over the next two centuries the Bruevichs were priests in the Unitarian Church in Samotevichi and of the surrounding villages: Belaya Dubrava, Kostukovichi, Osov, Studenets ( and others, or engaged in agriculture. A descendant of Vladimir Bruevich in the 5th generation, priest Ivan Bonch-Bruevich (d. 1668) had six sons: Gregory / Jerzy, Paul / Pavel, Casimir / Kazimierz, Nicephorus / Nikifor, and others who became the founders of the major branches of the family. In 1772, this part of Belarus was conquered by the Russian Empire.
Descendants of
Gregory / Jerzy / Grigori Bonch-Bruevich, rector of the church in Samotevichi:
Pavel Fedorovich 
Bonch-Bruevich (1758-1818), collegiate councilor, an official of the Ministry of Justice, and his son, Michal Pavlovich Bruevich / Michael P. Bonch-Bruevich (1798-after 1870), state councilor, a prominent official of the Russian administration in the Kingdom of Poland.
A family of 
Paul Bonch-Bruevich / Pavel Bruevich remained unknown.
In the Kazimir Bonch-Bruevich branch known: Vasily Mikhailovich Bonch-Bruevich (1801-1865state counselor, a teacher of mathematics of the Polotsk Cadet Corps, Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich son of Dmitry Bruevich (1870 - 1956), lieutenant-general, ( the national founder of aerial geodesy, and Vladimir Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich (1873-1955), a prominent Soviet and party leader. Vasiliy Fedorovich Bruevich (1840-1914), Councillor, an official of the Ministry of State, philanthropist. Great-grandson of Casimir Bonch-Bruevich, a priest Andrey Bonch-Bruevich (1773-1831),
of the Mogilev province, had a son, Ivan Andreevich Bonch-Bruevich / Jan Brujewicz son of Andrzej Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms (b. 1822), collegiate assesor and the first of the Orel line of the Bruevichs: Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich (1888-1940), professor, corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences; Aleksei Mikhailovich Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1916), Professor.
A descendant of Nikifor Brujewicz / Nicephorus Bonch-Bruevich moved to the Chernihiv province, of which Nikolai Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1808), member of the Academy of Fine Arts, was living in Poltava.
All five branches by the beginning of XX century were included in the nobility books of Novograd-Seversky governorship, Mogilev, Chernigov, Orel and Saratov provinces and the Kingdom of Poland, used the Boncha coat of arms, except for the younger branch, who wrote Bruevich, and had the Sas arms. Representatives of these branches were in the territory of Klimovichi, Chernigov, Mogilev and Rogachev counties and Surazh county: Ivan Ivanovich Bruevich (b. 1860), the actual state councilor, lawyer and Nikolai Grigorevich Bruevich (1896-1987), Lieutenant General and aviation engineeringMember of the Academy of Sciences.
Ivan Andreevich Bonch-Bruevich (born 04 January 1822), of the Kharkiv office, he owned a small village Yablonovets, of the Orel province in ca 1873, wife Apollinariya Petrovna.
Peter Ivanovich Bonch-Bruevich (born 12 October 1858, Ryazan), owner of the Uzkoe village, he graduated from the classical gymnasium in OrelMinistry of Finance. Was married in the city of Orel, in 1883.
Nikolai Bonch-Bruevich (1861-1909) was married twice.
Alexander Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1862), graduated of the Sumy School. He was member of the provincial government of Orel in 1891; after 1917, the building manager in St. Petersburg / Leningrad. His wife Natalia Matsneva (b. 1867), the daughter of a collegiate councilor Michael Ipollitovich Matsnev and his wife, Varvara Pavlovna.
Andrey Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1863, died 1905), owned the village YablonovetsWife: Elizabeth Nikolaevna Paradovskithe daughter of General.
Alexander Bonch-Bruevich, Lieutenant Infantry of the Dorogobuzh Regiment.
Ipollit Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich / Hipolit Brujewicz son of Alexandr from the Kiev governorship, 1894; he graduated from the General Bakhtin Cadet Corps in

The foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia was Michail (2nd) Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich b. 1888 in Orjol - d. 1940; son of   Aleksander (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich who stayed in Kiev since 1896), electrician and engineer after completion of the "Nikolai -  Ingenieurschule" in Petersburg 1914; he served in the Russian army as a professional officer, expert of electron lamps and radiolocation1915 - 1919 made a study of radio valves and organized the first production of one as chief of high - frequency's section in the Central  laboratory of War  Department in middle of 1917 (the first  broadcast valves  and valve sets appeared in Russian Air Force in 1917); director of the radio  valves laboratory in 1918 - 1920 and author of the broadcasting station's project in Moskow of 1922; his son Aleksej Bonch - Bruevich (b. 1916)  was the Soviet expert of electron tubes, too.

His relatives - actual originators of the November coup d'etat in 1917:

Two brothers - younger Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz = Bonch-Bruevich  Brujewicz Wladymir - Bonch Bruevich - Boncz Brujewicz

(1873 - 1955, son of Dmitry Bonch-Bruevich; photo: W. Boncz - Brujewicz in Moscow, October  1918. 

Children of Dmitrij Brujewicz: Michail / Michal Boncz Brujewicz and his wife Eudokia Dobrowolski daughter of Porfir / Porfirion Dobrowolski. She was born 1870, d. 1943. Michail b. 24 Febr. 1870 in Moscow, died 1956 in Moscow, too. Second son of Dmitrij - Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz, b. 1873 in Moscow, d. 1955 in Moscow. Wife Wiera Wieliczkina, in Geneve, Switzerland. Wiera was born 1868. His second wife Anna Tinkier vel Tynker daughter of Semen / Zenon Tynker. Anna Tinker was the first wife of Solomon Czernomordik son of Isajew / Izak. 

Children of Michail Brujewicz: Tamara b. 1896, Konstantin with wife Sofia Winogradow; Konstantin Boncz-Brujewicz born 4 Febr. 1898, in St Petersburg; Georgij Boncz Brujewicz son of Michail Brujewicz, born 1900, died 1923. Alexandr son of Michail, died 1981. 

Child of Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz: Elena b. 1904 and died 1985 in Moscow, husband Leopold Awerbach son of Leonid Awerbach

Dmitrij that is Dymitr Brujewicz with the Boncza coat of arms, was son of Afanazy who was born 1798 in Kulgajewka, the Klimowicze area (Dmitry Bonch-Bruevich was born in Prusino, but rather in Kuligaevka, which now is merged with Prusino in a village; now these villages - Kuligaevka / Kulgajewka and Prusino - divides only river; Kuligaevka belonged the Bonch-Bruevich family and two brothers Michail and Vladimir came here in the summer and played with local children; Dmitry Afanasievich Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms, lived here in his home, and here he died; he was buried in the local cemetery on the outskirts of the village but an ancient cemetery has not been preserved like the tomb of Bonch-Bruevich)

Dymitr was born 26 October 1840, died after 1904. The first wife of Atanazy / Afanazy (b. 1798) was Irina Osipowna Liepieszynskaja vel Irena Lepeszynski died 1839 in Prusinowo, the Klimowicze county, the Mohylew government, daughter of Jozef Lepeszynski (Prusinskaja Buda 6 km east of Kasciukovicy / Прусинская Буда but Prusino / Прусино that is Prusinowo 2 km east of Kostiukovichi in the Костюковичский район and south of Klimovichi). 

Afanazy Brujewicz son of Andrzej, born 1798 in the Klimowicze area, his second wife Olga Reszkowicz born 1814 or 1818, daughter of Pavel Reszkowicz; first wife Irena Lepeszynski was daughter of Jozef. Andrzej Brujewicz the 'second', b. 1768 and son of Kirill Brujewicz, d. 12 July 1819 in Kulgajewka, the Klimovichi county, the Mohylew by Dniepr government; Andrzej was owner of Kulgajewka village, but all villagers were taken by Ignacy Ciechanowiecki and removed on new places. The first wife unknown, 2nd wife 1799 Fiedosja Kuzminicz who d. 1830 - 1st married with Filipp Platkowski son of Jan Platkowski; Andzej has got 2 sons: Afanasij / Afanazy / Atanazy and Fiodor. Kirill Brujewicz son of Andrzej the 'first' Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms, b. 1735, d. circa 1804 / 1805, with wife Anna Sawinicz (Kirill Brujewicz was owner of part of Samotiejevichi in Krzyczew area / Krichev / Кричев that is Самотевичи south - west of Kostiukovichi and south of Krzyczzew, now the Moghilev oblast but Kostiukovichi belonged to Vladimir Tichonowiecki and his family 1799 to 1917; Kirill was owner also Kulgajevka / Kulgaevka in Klimovichi county, a house in Kostiukovichi 1783, inf. on him 1805 in the Klimovichi court). 

Kazimierz son of Jan vel Ivan Brujewicz was died 1705 and was father of Andrzej the first. Jan was son of Fedor. Fedor was son of Jan the first).

Above named Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there when Zinoviev claimed that Lenin had discussed the question of the take-over in the Tauridian Palace on the 3rd (16th) of July 1917. This was incorrect, since Lenin was in Bonch-Bruyevich's villa in Finland then, and returned only on the 4th (17th) of July 1917, acc. to: Mikhail Heller and Alexander Nekrich, 'Utopia in Power', London 1986, p. 30. Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here: (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. Next he was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and Grigorij - his son Mikolaj b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force).

Curiously enough: 

new military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) and this body consisted the 2nd Division of the General Quartermaster in December 1917, which was the central organ of intelligence and counterintelligence services of the armed forces of Russia. So by the end of 1918, Soviet military intelligence in full was as the legal successor of the pre-revolutionary military intelligence. GUGSH headed General V. V. Marushevsky (Polish?) who refused to cooperate with the new government. 

Then Quartermaster-General Nikolai Mikhailovich Potapov was new chief of the military intelligence (in 1915-1917, Potapov was the Main Director of the General Staff at the office of General Quartermaster. However, according to some reports, he - from July 1917 - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). 

Colonel Yudin was the bolshevik Commissar and Peter F. Ryabikov, after the coup, was had remained in the office because the Bolsheviks did not touch the military intelligence, as opposed to counter-military intelligence, which they immediately dispersed, as it was involved in the campaign of charges the Bolsheviks was spying for Germany in the summer of 1917. Crisis of foreign intelligence commenced with the end of December 1917: colonel Andrey Stanislavsky (Polish?) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and in March 1918 the Soviet government established the Supreme Military Council for the organization of the armed forces of Red Army with a military leader, former tsarist general M. D. Bonch-Bruevich and two political commissars Shutko and P. Proshyan. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. Potapov. In June, 1918 the Supreme Military Council was reorganized and included: a military leader Bonch - Bruevich, chief of staff and staff occupied by former officers, the deputy of the military leader appointed a former Major General of General Staff Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo, an assistant Chief of Operations of the Supreme Military Council was Colonel Alexander Kovalevsky (Polish? April - May 1918). Kovalevsky, soon will move to the South, where he headed the mobilization management of the North Caucasus Military District; here he with General Nosovich (Polish?) were arrested by Stalin, but after Nosovich was fleeing to the 'white', Kovalevsky was again arrested and shoted.

The family of Aleksander II Brujewicz or Bonc - Bruievicius of the Boncza arms lived in Zbyszyn or Sbychin near to Tschetschewitschi since 1876 / 1880, 39 km SE away from Miezonka and the big estate had 5548 hectares, he lived next door Gresmer or Greszner family (according to a map edited by A. Brantner of "K.u.k. militar - geographisches Institut" in Wien 1896) and Mr Witold  Bulhak home (the Bulhak noble house of  the Syrokomla arms, verified in Minsk A.D. 1802, possessed also in the government of  Minsk: Matewitschi  = Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy 14 km SW of Miezonka, and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze); villages Woncza / Vontcha,  Borki and Rogi - which Florian Czarnyszewicz described in a book "Nadberezyncy" i.e. Berezyna's Riverside Inhabitants - were situated close by the Zbyszyn estate: 3 and 7 km; besides a certain Aleksander (IV ?) Brujewicz purchased village Mistow and neighbourhood in the Congress Poland on 25 January 1861 but I haven't yet any firm evidences if it's the same Aleksander (2nd) Brujewicz who settled himself in  the Zbyszyn  property - I  am searching information.

They derived from Michal I Brujewicz who was born 1762 and stayed in the Minsk  province and all  following   generations (all his sons: Aleksander I, Mikolaj I, Bazyli, Wiktor, Piotr, Pawel, Fiodor) served in Russian army at a later date;  the Brujewicz  family  was in   Mahileu   A.D. 1718 and in Krycau  A.D. 1745, Sladzin or Sladziniec  in Mahileu region in 1761

Brujewicz of the Boncza coat of arms (or Boncz - Brujewicz, possessed Bohdanowka 1st in the Mscislau  district since 1870 - 10,5 km  Nord of Jurkowschtschina i.e. Jurkowszczyzna - and also Poplatyno in the district  since  1870;  Petrulin in the region of Cerykau; Muryn -  Bor  or Bor near to Holynski's Michiejevitschi / Michiejewiczi,  i.e. 12  km  NW of Klimavicy since 1870; and Sieliszcze 18 km E-S-E of Cavusy  or  Czausy  - since 1876)

We stayed in 

St Petersburg and Moscow

"Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co." 

abbreviated as 


Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho was a key figure in the development of the Russian  air force; well-bred in

Georgia  /  საქართველო  /   Sakartvelo  

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich born 13 / 25 October 1832 in Peterhof, Field Marshal and on December 6, 1862 was appointed governor in the Caucasus and commander the Caucasian Army, with all rights chief of the army to July 23, 1881. Initiator of the compilation of the 'Caucasian Collection', published in Tiflis in 1876-1912. In marriage he had six sons and one daughter, among others Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France: Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals. In 1892 he commanded the destroyer 'Revel', in 1895, was a senior officer of a battleship and in 1899, on the battleship 'Admiral Apraksin', then transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, where he commanded the battleship 'Rostislav'. With the beginning of the 1st World War, in fact, led the fleet of Russia. In 1915, Admiral, with the December 1916 field inspector - general of military aircraft; after February 1917 was in the Crimea, and in 1919 went into exile. Since 1903 an honorary member of the Nikolaev Naval Academy, was also the chairman of the Eng. Technical Society. In exile, was the honorary chairman of the Union of Russian military pilots and he was the patron of the National Organization for Russian scouts. He was in France in 1909 and next established the Volunteer Aerial Association under his presidency (All Russian Aero Club) and set up the first military aviation school in Sebastopol in 1909 or 1910 - finally formed at Sevastopol (Sebastopol) for the winter 1912 and in Gatchina for the summer 1912; near to Russian military intelligence. The Duke, Freemason, Vice-Admiral was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian  Military Air Fleet  in 1914 or 1915  and  he  became Inspector of Aviation; aide-de-camp to Nicholas II, an old friend of the Tsar and  married to  his sister Xenia.


At the beginning Louis Franzevich Dyuflon founded technical office in the 2nd half of the 19th century in Moscow. L. Duflon / Dyuflon and Apollon Konstantynowicz acted in the St. Petersburg branch of the 'Breguet' Company

(A. Konstantynowicz / Apollon Konstantinovich / Constantinovich for the Breguet Moscow branch).
At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye (L'Abbaye is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne). It was founded by

Abraham-Louis Breguet in Paris in 1775.

Abraham-Louis Breguet or Bréguet b. 10 January 1747 and died on 17 September 1823, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Originally Prussian Abraham Louis Breguet began his career as a watchmaker but also a physicist.

His son Louis-Antoine Breguet. His ancestry was French but his family were Protestants so they fled to Switzerland after Edict of Nantes in 1685. He met

Abraham-Louis Perrelet and Xavier Gide.

In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris. Circa 1807 Breguet brought in his son, Louis-Antoine (born 1776) as a business partner, and from this point the firm became known as Breguet et Fils. He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker,

John Arnold.
Abraham-Louis Breguet died in 1823 and it was carried on by Louis-Antoine to 1833 (he died in 1858), and after the business continued under Abraham-Louis' grandson
Louis François Clément Breguet born on 22 Dec. 1804

in Paris.
Louis Francois Clement Breguet work in the early days of

telegraphy, educated in Switzerland. Louis François Clément Breguet

was a French physicist, "1835 and 1840 he standardized the company product line of watches, ... and diversified into scientific instruments, electrical devices, recording instruments, an electric thermometer, telegraph instruments and electrically synchronized clocks

(Masson, Antoine Philibert and Louis Breguet in 1841 ed. 'Memoire sur l'induction', Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris, 4 (3), p. 129-152; Masson describes the toothed wheels that functioned as an interrupter).


Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph to replace the optical telegraph system ... and a later step-by-step telegraph system in 1847 ... manufactured the rotating mirror Fizeau-Foucault apparatus ... and 'spark coil'

(archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff)

is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses ... were widely used in

x-ray machines, spark-gap radio transmitters, arc lighting and quack medical electrotherapy devices from the 1880s to the 1920s ... lighting Geissler tubes ... Tesla coils...".

Alphonse Foy informed Morse that his system would not be accepted in France. He also requested Louis Francois Breguet (b. 1804), grandson of Abraham Louis Breguet to produce an electrical telegraph with needles in France. The resulting Breguet - Foy telegraph used two needles. It was first tried in 1842. In 1842 tests were made with optical telegraph at night. In 1845 test of electrical telegraph was made along the railway route, the Breguet two - needle telegraph, too.

As a result the Breguet equipment was installed in 1845 on the Paris-Rouen route. Breguet replaced his telegraph also called the French telegraph, which was standard equipment on French railways and L. Breguet in 1851 had in Paris a fourth floor added to his building for this work.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter);
Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).
Note: Winnie Buller b. in Bacton, Norfolk, receives pilot's license from Breguet School at Douia, France.

In Russia, St Petersburg - Moscow electrical telegraph line was established as the first; in 1853 a line to Kronstadt, 1854 to Warsaw. The Russian state telegraph network of 11000 km was constructed by Siemens - Carl Siemens - in the period 1853 - 1855. 1863 to Tbilisi in Georgia upon the initiative of Grigola Orbeliani, d. 1883. 1860 to Sweden from Russia.

"...The first electromagnetic telegraph created a Russian scientist Paul L. Schilling in 1832. ... Paul Schilling also developed the original code in which each letter of the alphabet corresponded to a specific combination of symbols that might appear with black and white circles on the telegraph ... the electromagnetic telegraph was built in Germany - Carl Gauss and Wilhelm Weber (1833), in the UK - Cooke and Wheatstone (1837), and the U.S. patented electromagnetic telegraph S. Morse in 1837. ... In Russia, the P. L. Schilling continued B. Jacobi, built in 1839 writer telegraph...".
Paul L. Schilling / Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling / Schilling von Kannstadt / Schilling von Cannstatt b. 1786 in Tallinn and died 1837 in St. Petersburg, diplomat, electrical engineer and inventor, the Baltic German origin, who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.

Sir Charles Wheatstone b. 1802, an English scientist and inventor: the stereoscope Playfair cipher for an encryption technique (" was used by the militaries of several nations through at least World War I, and is known to have been used during World War II by British intelligence services. It was initially resistant to cryptanalysis...", acc. to Marks, Leo, Between Silk and Cyanide. New York 1998), Wheatstone bridge, telegraph; in 1835 he lectured on the system of Baron Schilling, and the five-needle telegraph was similar to that of Schilling; the Breguet telegraph was similar in many ways to the Wheatstone model. It was simply built and adhered to basic engineering principles.

In 1917, after Russian revolution, cryptographers took the counterrevolution side. Soviet Government used both tsar and revolutionary ciphers. In 1921, a special department was founded by the government, for exploitation of ciphers. Andrei Andreevich Markov gave a classification of ciphers which do not propagate distortions. Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond investigated the complexity of the discrete logarithm problem. Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903‑1987), graduated of the Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1925, acc. to Valentin A. Nosov.
By 1860 large codes were in common use for diplomatic communications, and cipher systems had become a rarity for this application. The invention of telegraph and radio pushed forward the development of cryptographic protection of telecommunications, acc. to
The British scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone b. 1802, developed the Playfair Code, a table system that was easy to use.
Friedrich W. Kasiski developed a cryptanalysis method in 1863. In 1883, the French teacher and writer Auguste Kerckhoffs set forth six basic requirements of cryptography. He formulated procedures for long-term diplomatic codes. In 1917, the Americans formed the cryptographic organization MI-8, with Herbert Osborne Yardley as the director. The ADFGVX system was put into service by the Germans near the end of World War One. This was a cipher which performed a substitution, fractionation and then transposition of the letter fractions. It was broken by the French cryptanalyst, Lieutenant Georges Painvin.

Acc. to:, "Ernst Fetterlein was in the Tzarist Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1896, and solved German, Austrian and British codes. He was eventually made chief cryptographer. ... 1917 he fled to Britain, and was recruited to Room 40 in June 1918 to work on Austrian, Bolshevik, and Georgian codes. The Russians used an overly complicated version of the Vigenere Cipher... The French Army employed Georges Painvin, and Etienne Bazeries..., on German ciphers...".

Acc. to I. I. Rengarten we read on a number of important additional information about the activities of Russian radio intelligence service in fall of 1914. Thus, in early October 1914 at the headquarters of the fleet were found approaches to disclosure of existing German ciphers, and in the second half of November 1914, fully decrypted code 'gamma - alpha', introduced on October 7, 1914, that led to a successful reading of the German fleet ciphers, and were read so well many previously adopted radiograms. The Baltic Fleet initiated the establishment of a special coastal radio station that would resolve problems of intelligence signals, with support and guidance of the Naval General Staff. In February 1915, the Minister of Marine decided to organize the Southern District of the Baltic Sea stations, with three officers (chief radio, 2 assistants) and 50 privates. In the spring of 1915 this station was organized on the southern coast of the Gulf near Cape Shpitgamn. Order of the Commander of the fleet number 308 of March 19, 1915, appointed as chief, Lieutenant P. A. Kolokoltsov. Later, in July 1915, P. A. Kolokoltsov replaced V. P. Przhilentsky / Przylencki, who served in the office until 1917; during February - April 1915 on the radio were appointed Lieutenant D. P. Izmalkov, V. I. Markov, O. O. Proffit and I. M. Yamchenko. According to experts in the field of radio intelligence, the radio station has successfully solved all the tasks assigned to it. It should be noted that in the decryption Bureau, with naval experts also participated representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In July 1915, were appointed Y. Pavlovich / Павлович and Б. Орлов / B. Orlov. And in early 1916, when appeared the first serious problems with deciphering of the German radio messages, caused by the introduction of new ciphers and a new signal book, here was specially sent one of the leading cryptologist E. Fetterleyn, with co-operation of the British radio intelligence service, sharing the most confidential information on signals intelligence and cryptanalysis. A documents suggest about such contacts with specialists of the French decryption service, by the beginning of the campaign in 1915; introduced on March 8, 1915 the new German code gamma - alpha was discovered two days later, a work headed by the radiotelegraphic officer I. I. Rengarten.
Ernst Constantin Fetterlein was born in St Petersburg in 1873 d. 1944, was a Russian cryptographer. The son of Karl Fedorovich Fetterlein, a German-language tutor, and Olga Fetterlein, née Meier. "She was almost certainly Jewish and so Ernst can certainly be counted as of Jewish origin". Above named Karl was a German-language instructor at the Saint Petersburg Military-Judicial Institute and director at the Imperial Public Library ca 1900.

Carl F. Fetterleyn or Karl Fedorovich Fetterlein born 1828 in Riga and died on 16.06.1902 in Gapsal / Haapsalu / Hapsala / Haapsal, Estonia (check Pushkin and von Gernet and Dunkel Baltic German families); was librarian; son of Prussian actor, until 1858 he studied at Tartu University, arriving to St. Petersburg, 1859 began teach at the 1st military Gymnasium / 1st Cadet Corps, to 1878.

The Pavlovsky Military School, since 1880. The friend of Schilder and M. Korf (for collecting materials about the life and reign of Nicholas I), also S. N. Urusov and I. D. Delianov. Actively participated in the work of F. and N. K. Schilder on collecting materials on the reign of Alexander I. He was closest assistant of M. A. Korf; the friend of Vladimir Stasov.
By L. A. Shilov for the National Library of Russia, 2011-2013. Ernst Constantin Fetterlein in 1896 joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and became the chief cryptologist. Ernst was a cryptanalyst under Tsar Nicholas in his 'Black Cabinet' and reached the equivalent rank of admiral. During World War I, he was known as Ernst Popov; he solved German, Austrian and British codes. In 1917, Ernst Constantin Fetterlein fled to Western Europe with his wife on board a Swedish ship. He contacted the British and French intelligence services and on 9 March 1918 a letter to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Rear-Admiral Reginald Hall, the British naval attache in Helsingfors / Helsinki, from Captain W. H. Cromie in Petrograd, described Fetterlein as 'a cipher clerk in the Russian Foreign Office for twenty-five years' who came 'highly recommended'. Fetterlein began work for the British intelligence in June 1918; he was recruited to Room 40 to work on Georgian, Austrian and Bolshevik codes. After the end of World War I, he worked for the Government Code and Cypher School - worked on Soviet Communist traffic; his brother, P. K. Fetterlein, also worked for the Government Code and Cypher School.
See: Victor Madeira, 2004; Ralph Erskine, 2004; Stephen Budiansky, 2000; Michael Smith; Thomas R. Hammant; David Kahn and Budiansky, 2000.
Acc. to: A. V. Sinel'nikov, 'Codes and Russian revolutionaries': By the beginning of the World War I Russia had the strongest in the world decryption service, and some of its employees as a result of all the troubles were after October 1917 in the Entente countries. But we know that in the early 1920s, the Russian section of the British decryption service taken Ernest Fetterleyn, since 1897 leading cryptanalyst for the Committee of tsarist Foreign Ministry, in reading a diplomatic correspondence of hostile states. His superior was V. Sabanin.

A note on the Gernet family from Estland / Estonia:

Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder b. 1796 died 1862, her father Peter Woldemar Rehbinder b. 1757 d. 1823; her husband Alexander August von Gernet b. 1786 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia and died on October 5, 1865 in Lehhola. Lehola is a settlement in Keila Parish, Harju County in northwestern Estonia, 15 km south-west of Harku, and 18 km west of Saku. His father Carl Gustav von Gernet b. 1747 died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia.

Brothers of above Aleksander Gernet: Georg Gustav von Gernet 1780 - 1846, Wilhelm Adolf von Gernet 1792 - 1867, Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 who died on November 8, 1857 in Lauenhof, Podrala, Valdamaa / Valgamaa County, Estland / Estonia.

Son of above Karl Johann Gernet: Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 died April 20, 1912 in Hapsal / Haapsalu, Estonia. His brother: Magnus Friedrich von Gernet 1824 died October 22, 1909 in Reval / Tallinn, Estonia - and his son:
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet was born 1864 and died in 1944.

Sergey Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет / Sergei Gernet:

a midshipman in the 1st Baltic Naval Depot. Sergei Pavlovich Gernet born 1859 and d. 1918; his father: Paul Bernhard Friedrich Gernet b. 1819 d. 1860. His son: Eugene S. Gernet b. in Kronstadt on October 31, 1882 d. on August 8, 1943 in Spartacus village, Pavlodar area, Kazakhstan. The captain of the 2nd rank in 1917. During the Russian-Japanese War, in the defense of Port Arthur 1904, during the First World War he served in the Black Sea 1916. Then he served in the Soviet Navy. In 1918 he commanded the squadron in Novorossiisk. Arrested in 1938, he died in exile.
Above Carl's / Karl's children: Frederick Gernet b. 1738 d. 1789, Christian Gernet b. 1740 d. 1819, Carl Gustaf Gernet b. 1747 d. 1812.
And some details of above named Sergei Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет born 1859 died 1918, a top member of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company from St Petersburg and Moscow and about his family:

His father Paul Berngard / Пауль Бернгард Фридрихов Гернет / v. Gernet Paul Bernhard b. 1819 d. 1860.

Son of Sergei was born on 31 October 1882 in Kronsztadt / Кронштадт, Evgenii / Евгений died 1943. His grandfather: Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857.
And great-grandfather Christian Wilhelm Gernet b. 1740 d. 1819, and his father Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791.

On Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791 (Карл Готлиб Иоахимов Гернет son of Ioachim Georgiev von Gernet / Иоахим Георгиев Гернет b. 1648 d. 1710 and was grandson of Георгий Гернет / Georgij von Gernet);

Karl Gotlib sons: Fridrich / Фридрих Гернет / Eberhard Friedrich von Gernet died 1789, was born on November 26, 1738 in Lehhlola / Lehhola / Lehola in Estonia and died on July 29, 1789 in Ohtel / Ohtu, Estonia (Ohtel / Ohtu - only 3 km south - east of Lehola, near to Keila, and ca 15 / 13 km to Uksnurme);
next son born 1740 Christian Wilhelm / Христиан Вильгельм Гернет died ca 1819, born in Lehhola, Estonia - his sons: 1. Hans Moritz von Gernet born 1775 died 1860 (his son Adam Oskar von Gernet 1834 in Reval - 1908 in Reval - and his son: Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet born 1867 Sallenstad - d. ?) and 2. Otto Heinrich von Gernet (1780 Reval - 1848) and 3. Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857;
and next son born in 1747 Karl Gustaw von Gernet / Карл Густав Гернет
(Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa. Note: Jula Dunkel b. 1840, from Ridala Parish, Lääne County, Estonia - her father Kustas Dunkel b. 1814 from Haeska, 7 km east of Kiideva (Gernet) and south-east of Haapsalu, about 23 km west of Vaikna)
died 1812 and his son:
1776 Karl Iogann Gernet / Гернет died 1857 and his son: 1824 Fridrich Magnus / Фридрих Магнус Гернет died 1909; and his son: b. 07 August 1878 Adam Richard Ernst / Адам Рихард Эрнст Гернет died 1944;

about above Adam R. E. Gernet: Cushima 1905, 1910 Nikolaevskaya Morskaya Akademia, 1913 captain 2nd class, 1939 in Germany;
the brother of Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700: Wilhelm Henrich / Вильгельм Генрих Гернет born 1703 died 1772 - his son:

1741 Hristophor / Христофор Вильгельмов Гернет died 1794 - sons of Hristophor:

1782 Reinholdt / Рейнгольд Христофоров Гернет d. 1832 and 1791 Ferdinand / Фердинанд Христофоров died 1852; 1795 Hristophor Hristophorovich / Христофор Христофорович Гернет died 1865 - and his son: 1835 Aleksandr / Александр Христофорович Гернет d. 1893 - and his children: Natalia / Наталья Александровна and Vladymir / Владимир Александрович Гернет b. 1870 d. 1929 - his wife and daughter: Elena Alekseevna Zerebko-Rotmistrenko / Елена Алексеевна b. 1864 d. 1937, daughter b. 1899 in Odessa, Nina Vladymirovna Gernet b. 1899 d. 1982 - about Nina: her son Erik Michailovich Rausch-Gernet / Эрик Рауш - Гернет, her husbands: Michail Sale / Михаил Салье b. 1899 and from 1923 married to Michail Rausch-Traubenberg / Рауш фон Траубенберг b. 1904.

Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892, was a Swedish businessman and inventor of encryption machines. Born of Swedish parents in Azerbaijan; father Karl Wilhelm Hagelin worked for Ludvig and Emanuel / Emmanuel Nobel in Baku (Karl Hagelin was closest advisor for Emmanuel, because Wilhelm Hagelin, his father, had been employed by Ludvig Nobel as a manager of the St. Petersburg factory; 1899, Karl Hagelin was called back to St. Petersburg, like Emmanuel's closest technical advisor), and next was an investor in the Arvid Gerhard Damm's company - Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, established to sell rotor machines, acc. to Wikipedia.
See: Smith, Francis O. J., The Secret Corresponding Vocabulary..., ed. in Portland; Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System..., ed. in 1948; Damm Arvid G., Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, ed. 1922; Boris C. W. Hagelin became first a director and later the owner of the Cryptograph Company, next the Cryptographe Technik and then the Crypto A. G. in the 1960s.
Crypto AG is a Swiss company specialising in communications and information security. With headquarters in Steinhausen ... Crypto AG was established in Bern by Russian-born Swede, Boris Hagelin. Originally called AB Cryptoteknik and founded by Arvid Gerhard Damm in Stockholm in 1920, the firm manufactured the C-36 mechanical cryptograph machine that Damm had patented.
After Damm's death ... Cryptoteknik came under the control of Boris Hagelin, an early investor (1921, Boris Hagelin developed his first cipher machine whilst working for crypto-company Damm in Sweden; 1935 he produced a fully mechanical machine under his own brand name A. B. Ingeniorsfirman Teknik in Sweden).
It was the first of a long line of mechanical cipher machines. Shortly before WWII, he developed the M-209 for the American Army. After the war the company moved to Switzerland where they traded as Hagelin Cryptos. Acc. to:, and during the War essentially operated in the United States ... In the early 1950s, it was transferred from Stockholm to Zug (close to Luzern / Lucerna) ... and was incorporated in Switzerland in 1952. Crypto AG has a sister company, InfoGuard AG (InfoGuard AG, a member of 'The Crypto Group', has specialised in providing comprehensive information security for more than 130 countries), acc. to:
Boris Hagelin had created the 'Hagelin-machine', a encryption device similar to the German 'Enigma' (Charles Babbage, b. 1791, an English polymath, had recommendations from James Ivory and John Playfair, achieved notable results in cryptography, 1850s Babbage broke Vigenere's autokey cipher; Friedrich Kasiski, a Prussian infantry officer, made the same discovery some years later. The Enigma was an electro-mechanical rotor cypher machine used for both encryption and decryption, from the early 1920s on. Enigma was developed by Arthur Scherbius dating back to 1919. Enigma-A was offered for sale in 1923. The Swedish textile engineer Arvid Gerhard Damm, used his experience gained with Jacquard weaving machines for construction of an automatic ciphering machine and applied for a patent in 1919 for his rotory system.

But Rintu Nath, 'Dream 2047', June 2013, vol. 15, No 9, A chronicle of cryptography:
In 1918, the German inventor Arthur Scherbius and his close friend Richard Ritter developed a cryptographic machine called Enigma. Scherbius patented his cipher machine in 1918. Enigma was contained in a compact box measuring only 13,5 - 11 - 6 inches. Encryption using Enigma was based on polyalphabetic substitution method. Security of the encrypted message was based on the secret key.

1921, Boris Hagelin bringing support from the Swedish Nobel family, "...improved the cryptograph and in 1925 succeeded in getting the Swedish Army to use his Swedish product, the new prototype B-21, instead of the German Enigma". 1927 Hagelin became the owner of Aktiebologat Cryptograph. "...The B-21 had a lamp field similar to that in Enigma. In a new compact version, the C-35, the lamp field was replaced by a printer, which produced the ciphered text at a speed of three letters per second. To improve the operating comfort, the C-35 was connected to an electric typewriter, which the U.S. company Remington had just introduced. The C-35, as small as a telephone, became very successful. More than 5000 units were sold...". Hagelin in Switzerland, where in 1948 he founded Crypto AG in Zug, during the Cold War produced a ciphering unit, the TC-52, used for the red telephone line between the White House and Moscow).

The Hagelin machine was used on the side of the Allies in World War II. These included the Vatican, as well the governments of Iraq, Iran, and Libya. ... Acc. to: J. Orlin Grabbe - copyright in 1997 under J. Orlin Grabbe at web page: By Wayne Madsen, Covert Action Quarterly 63, 30 Jan 1999: "...For decades, the US has routinely intercepted and deciphered top secret encrypted messages of 120 countries. These nations had bought the world's most sophisticated and supposedly secure commercial encryption technology from Crypto AG, a Swiss company ... All the while, because of a secret agreement between the National Security Agency (NSA) and Crypto AG, they might as well have been hand delivering the message to Washington. ... The cover shielding the NSA-Crypto AG relationship was torn in March 1992...".
A. G. Damm edited the first a brochure in April 1917, he was the founder of the Company in 1916 (or 1915 by Boris Hagelin), with Wahlberg as the A. B. Cryptograph. See: General Cartier, Francois, Secrecy in Radiotelegraphy.

Estonians were also active on radio-intelligence before the Second World War. Olev Oun was a phenomenal decipherer, "...and had managed to break the latest code of the Red Army during the Polish campaign in September 1939. Unfortunately, no materials are available to support or argue the words of that high-ranking Finnish intelligence officer ... German military attache in Tallinn, Colonel Horst Rsing, evaluated the Estonian radio-intelligence against the Soviet Union as more successful than the Finnish one ... Andres Kalmus was a highly competent technical expert in radio intelligence, while Olev Oun was a talented Estonian cryptanalyst".
Arne Carl-August Beurling, b. 1905, was a Swedish mathematician and professor of mathematics at Uppsala University. "...In the summer of 1940 he single-handedly deciphered and reverse-engineered an early version of the Siemens and Halske T52 also known as the Geheimfernschreiber (secret teletypewriter) used by Nazi Germany in World War II for sending ciphered messages ... Beurling's great - grandfather was Per Henric Beurling b. 1758 / 1763, died in 1806, who founded a high quality clock factory in Stockholm in 1783". See: Lars Ulfving, The Geheimschreiber Secret. Arne Beurling and the success of Swedish signals intelligence, edited by Bo Hugemark, Probus Förlag, Stockholm 1992.
"...Swedish intelligence services in the modern sense of the word had indeed been already established in the beginning of this century. The armed forces intelligence service had increased in 1905, during the Union crises, and in the First World War. The General Staff and Naval Staff of that time both had their own signals intelligence and cryptographic units. ... The first successful attempts to break foreign cipher traffic were made in spring 1933, when they succeeded in breaking the cipher then used by the OGPU (later the KGB). These breaks into foreign military ciphers were probably the first to be made in Sweden after the First World War".

Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892 in Adzhikent, the Elizavetpol province, now Azerbaijan, was Swedish entrepreneur, inventor of encryption devices. Developer electromechanical encryption units, (rotary machines) of Arvid Damm and mechanical cipher machines.

Founder of the Swiss company Crypto AG / Crypto A. G., which specializes in information and telecommunications security.
Above named the Elizavetpol Province / Yelizavetpol quberniya, and above Ganja / Gənce, 1804 to 1918 was called Yelizavetpol, 1935 renamed Kirovabads.
His father, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin worked as a manager in an oil company in Baku Nobel. 1899, Carl Hagelin was appointed director and moved with his family to St. Petersburg. 1915, Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin began his career in Vasteras in the Swedish electrical company ASEA, supplier of equipment for the Nobels.

Being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1. Boris Hagelin in 1922 was appointed to represent their interests in the company. 1925 when Damme moved to Paris to collaborate with the telegraph companies (Breguet-Brown), Boris Hagelin headed the firm.
After the death of Arvid Damm in 1927 and the death of Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 died in 1932 - a nephew of Alfred Nobel, control of the company passed to Hagelin. In 1934, the French General Staff began to develop a pocket Hagelin cipher machine.

Acc. to: under copyright by The Centre for Business History in Stockholm and, we read:

"...Karl Wilhelm also known as Karl Vasilievitj Hagelin was born in St. Petersburg in 1860. His parents Wilhelm Hagelin (1828-1901) and Anna Lovisa Eriksdotter (1818–1870) ... In 1861, the family moved to the Volga where his father worked for a period as a second engineer on passenger boats and towboats. ... In autumn 1870, he started at the Givochini boarding school in Nizhny Novgorod ... In 1875, thanks to a recommendation from family friend A. I. Sandström, he was accepted into the design workshop at the shipbuilding factory belonging to D. P. Shipov in Kostroma. He received his first real assignment working on the designs for a motorboat, ... and two smaller steamers ... he was employed as a mechanic at the Kaukaz & Mercury shipping company in Astrakhan, where he worked on preparing boats ... he met two Swedes, N. Qvarnström and master mechanic Westvall, with whose recommendation he was able to secure employment as a mechanic in the instrument workshop at the Nobel paraffin factory in Baku. Hagelin’s first working day at Robert Nobel's factory was on 4 April 1879. ... During his initial period in Baku (1879-1883), Wilhelm ... assisted chemist E. Tell ... When engineer Alfred Törnqvist returned from his trip to the USA and started setting up a new paraffin factory, Hagelin was given a job as a draughtsman. ... he decided to apply to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In order to pass the entrance exams, he took private lessons from engineer A. B. Lambert in mathematics, physics and chemistry. After two years in Sweden, he wrote to Branobel's managing director, J.G. Crusell, explaining his desire to return to Russia and take up his position again. ... Ludvig Nobel invited Hagelin to St. Petersburg. Wilhelm was given a post in the technical laboratory where he experimented with chemical processes for production of light oil fractions. ... In 1891, he was first promoted to technical director and then office manager in Baku. ... In 1900, he was recalled to St. Petersburg to replace M. J. Belyamin as the company's chairman of the board ... In 1906, he was appointed Swedish consul general in St. Petersburg (1906-1911). ... In spring 1917, Hagelin travelled to Baku, continuing onboard the K.W. Hagelin motorboat to Astrakhan ... Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... The remaining directors M. Belyamin, G. Nobel and A. Belonozhkin tried at numerous meetings to solve the burning issue of how the company's trading rights and authority could be protected. Hagelin's last attempt to enter Russia via Constantinople failed and on 3 July 1920 he was forced to return to Stockholm. ...

he, together with Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time).

In 1923, Karl Wilhelm Hagelin was elected as an honorary member of the Swedish Society of Engineers...".

Acc. to: Boris Hagelin, The Story of the Hagelin-Cryptos, Zug 1981.

Boris Hagelin was born in 1892, in Adschikent, a small summer resort. His father was a Swede, who had been born in St Petersburg in 1860. He was manager of the Nobel Company's oil fields in Baku. He had joined the company in 1879, director in 1899. Boris was living in St Petersburg 1899 to 1904. His first job, the supervision of the construction of an electric power station on one of the Nobel oil fields in Baku. Nobels had ordered the equipment from ASEA in Vastraos.
"...Emanuel Nobel was very generous towards me and financed the establishing of a small engineering office in Stockholm. During my stay in the USA I had acquired some inventions, which I developed which made me financially independent. The decisive turning point in my life came, however, when Emanuel Nobel entrusted me with the supervision of a small company which he had begun to finance in 1921 - the A.B. Cryptograph. This company was founded in 1915 with the objective to develop and manufacture ciphering machines invented by the Swedish engineer A. G. Damm. In 1925 I assumed the management of the company as well as the development of saleable products. This was a fascinating task although I did not have any knowledge of cryptography. Mr. A. G. Damm died in 1927. In 1932 the A. B. Cryptograph was liquidated and replaced by the A.B. Cryptoteknik. A.B. Cryptoteknik manufactured only mechanical and electro mechanical ciphering machines. After World War II the need for ciphered telegraph transmission became obvious. In order to be able to work without the interference of the Swedish Government - ciphering machines were at that time considered war material - I decided to move to Zug, Switzerland. I first collaborated with the Swiss inventor Dr. E. Gretener, but later established a small independent laboratory. CRYPTO AG was in corporated on May 13, 1952, and had at first just one employee. My Swedish activities were transferred to CRYPTO AG, and since the name 'Hagelin Cryptos' had already become well known before i World War II the enterprise grew so fast that in 1966 a new manufacturing and administration building was built in Zug - Steinhausen".
Damm also constructed purely mechanical machine which printed both the plaintext and the ciphertext. Four of these machines were sold to Japan. Finally Damm invented a system with rotors, i.e., alphabet permutating wheels. The best-known machine using rotors was the German ENIGMA.
Damm aimed to interest the large telegraph companies in his machine. After 1921, Damm's interests in cipher machines were concentrated in the field of radio telegraphy: Marconi, Telefunken, TSF and Western Union.

Piotr Wodziński, a year ago (2011, Merkuryusz), after reading the 'three very interesting books' published an article 'Not only Enigma', wrote Mariasz in March 2012 at
"These books are: Chapman, 'Japan in Poland's Secret Neighbourhood War', Ken Kotani, 'Japanese Intelligence in World War II', McCay, Bengt Beckman, 'Swedish Signal Intelligence'.
The thing applies to the pre-war and wartime cooperation of the Japanese, Polish, Finnish, Estonian and Swedish intelligence. Directed against the Soviets. In this cooperation, information obtained from radio intelligence played a key role".
See: - "...The secret protocol of the Ribbentrop - Molotov Pact and the Soviet preparations for the invasion were not - for the Polish secret services - any secret. Could not be. A specialized publications of Japan report that the imperial SIGNIT broken in June 1939, the 4-digit code of the Soviet army, 4 digit code of border guard and 3-digit code of Air Force. Soviets changed their Army codes after the Battle of Nomonhan ... as the Battle of Chalchyngol, after September 16 , 1939, implemented the new five-digit code OK40, which, however, already in September 1939 was broken by the Estonian secret services. ... the Polish radio-intelligence was a part of a very effective anti-Soviet network - exchange information on a mass scale with the services of the Japanese, Estonian, Finnish and Swedish ... What's more, our radio-intelligence was regarded as the best part of this network. This surely, we were learning Japanese ... (after September 1939 two of our cryptographers has been employed by the Japanese services and worked during the war in Tokyo). When the Swedes turned out about technical assistance to the Estonians, they directed their to our secret services, pointing that they are the most professional...".
See :

Arvid Gerhard Damm d. 1927, was a Swedish engineer and inventor. He designed a number of cipher machines. Damm was originally a textile engineer, and worked as an engineering manager in a textile factory in Finland.

Edward Hugh Hebern b. 1869, was an early inventor of rotor machines, devices for encryption. Acc. to 'On the history of cryptography in Russia', by N. N. Tokareva, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics: P. L. Shilling, and V. I. Krivosh-Nemanich, were the first in cryptography and cryptanalysis in history of Russia.

Vladimir Ivanovich (Кривош-Неманич) Krivoch Niemanich / Nemanjic b. 1865, polyglot and cryptographer, thanks to the knowledge of many languages, was enrolled in the University of St. Petersburg in 1886, he studied at the Sorbonne, served as an interpreter for the Admiralty, was sent to Paris to study foreign experience in matters of censorship; until 1911 he worked in the Special Naval General Staff of the paperwork for the management agents; he became the first Russian cryptographer, learn more in France at that time; after the February Revolution in 1917 returned to St. Petersburg, makes notes for Lenin himself; Lenin ordered to enroll Krivoch Niemanich in the newly created People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, to translate (look for the Nieciejewski family from the Berezina parish); he was arrested on charges of bribery of nobles for missing abroad and spent six months in prison, but back to work as a translator for Military control - then known as intelligence and counterintelligence of Bolsheviks under the control of the former Tsarist General M. Bonch - Bruevich;
after the revolution, he collaborated with Soviet cryptographic service, was again arrested but next release and was working for a new counterintelligence; died 1942 in Ufa.

The main events in the history of the Russian telegraph:

W. Siemens established company 'Trading house of Siemens and Halske' in St. Petersburg for repair and construction empire Russian telegraphs, in 1853. 1870 the Russian army started building the military telegraph parks. 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878. L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA. 1904, Captain 2nd Rank A. A. Remmert appointed head of business wireless telegraphy in the Marine Department. The Telefunken, JSC Russian Electrotechnical plants 'Siemens and Halske' and A. S. Popov agreed on the establishment in St. Petersburg 'Branch for wireless telegraphy system'. 1905, Naval Department made a contract with JSC Russian electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske' for delivery to the Navy 24 stations of the 'Telefunken'. Open the radio station in Revel, 1913. 1915, L. E. Gabrilovich established in Petrograd, the Universal Russian company of radio - telegraph, radio - telephone and electric devices (VRKR). 1916, stopped activity of JSC Russian electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1917 April, 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', DEKA, now as 'акционерное общество Заводов электромеханических сооружений'.

Acc. to: T. V. Alekseev, ed. 2010:
In the first of these stages, which lasted until the beginning of the 1890s, created small workshops for repair and installation works, as well as the production of simple parts. The priority of this case belonged to the German entrepreneur V. Siemens who in 1853 founded in the Russian capital firm called 'Trading House of Siemens and Halske' were performed under a government orders a series of telegraph lines. The Russian government to conclude a long-term contract with the company for the construction of new telegraph communication lines, and the company itself became known as a company for 'building and repairing the Imperial Russian Telegraph'. At the beginning of 1868 in private house on the 1st line of Vasilievsky island in St. Petersburg opened a mechanical workshop, for co-production of the telegraphs. Mechanic N. K. Geisler in 1874 in his apartment opened small electromechanical workshop; here was repairing telegraph 'Belle Black' and also master L. H. Josef in 1884 start to produce a small - wire switches. The second stage of the formation of the electrical industry in St. Petersburg was due to the introduction of the new customs tariff in 1891. First in a series of these enterprises, was 'Siemens and Halske'; N. K. Geisler in the mid of 1890s sets of commercial communication with the American company 'Western Electric' building in 1895 - 1896 in St. Petersburg a Branch of the Western Electric - telephone and telegraph plant. In 1896, a new venture 'electro-mechanical plant of N. K. Geisler and Co'; it was already employs 100 workers after a contract from January 5, 1897 between Geisler and the American company. In the capital of the Russian Empire there was 'a large triple enterprises': Siemens and Halske, Geisler and L. M. Erickson, determined by the position on the market of wired and later radio communications.

In November 1892 established 'general partnership' of the Dyuflon and Constantinovich to 'use of electricity and mechanics to industry, to the railway, military, naval and aeronautical affairs and the private use'.

Its founders became a Swiss citizen and Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz, who acted as representatives of the interests of two French companies: Sotter, Harle and Co and (electrical machinery, dynamos, motors) 'E. Gabrielle and N. Angenolt' / 'Е. Габриель и Н. Ангенольт' (incandescent lamps). Production activities based in St. Petersburg workshop and imported from France.
At the end of 1895 on the island in St. Petersburg land has been purchased, on December 14, 1896 has opened a new plant, electromechanical plant of facilities. In 1897, for the purpose of capital expansion general partnership was converted into a limited partnership 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co'.
It should be noted that founded in 1899 'Telephone ... plant of K. Lorenz', proprietor was a German citizen O. V. Treplin. In 1900, the industrial crisis has pushed the idea of ​​corporatization and owners association like Dyuflon, Constantinovich and Co. In September 1901 the general meeting of shareholders of the new company, approved its name 'Joint Stock Company of Electromechanical installations', the former partnership of Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co, as well as the size of the authorized capital in the amount of 750 thousand rubles.

The cooperation 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company with security agencies, primarily by the Ministry of the Sea, in terms of delivery of products for radio-military industry began in 1912,

and in June of this year also as a result of fire damage of electromechanical Plant company N. N. Glebov and Co, located in St. Petersburg, had started contracts with the Maritime Office on delivery of dynamos for radio stations. Shareholders decided not to rebuild the plant and the stock company transfered orders to the 'Electromechanical installations' - Duflon and Konstantynowicz. In the company of Glebov head of the test station was electrical engineer V. P. Vologdin. He signed in April 1912 contract with the captain of the port of Kronstadt to make a machine for high frequency power. After a fire at the plant Glebov, Vologdin passes in the 'AO electro-mechanical installations', where he became chief of the technical office. Since then, the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz transformed into a supplier of the main generators of naval power stations that immediately affected the results of its production and financial activities. Besides, to expand the range of equipment for military radio, management begins with 1912 active search for foreign partners for the organization and production activities in this market. In July 1912 it acquired the right of representation of the French company 'Compagnie Generale Radiotelegraphique', CGR and offered military and maritime authorities a number of products of this company. On April 23, 1913 signed an agreement on cooperation with the French radio company 'Societe Francaise Radio-Electrique', SFR. 'AO Electromechanical structures' becomes 'the sole representative of this company to operate its wireless telegraphy apparatus produced in Russia', and in the same 1913 proceeds to own wireless telegraphy equipment workshops.
The Board of 'Electromechanical facilities', expand the range of equipment for military and naval authorities on the dynamo engines, dynamo - electric power and other equipment, in the spring of 1915 commissioned a new factory building. And in the summer of 1915 again petitioned to the mayor of Petrograd on the construction of two new buildings.

The father of Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling /
Schilling von Kannstadt / Schilling von Cannstatt
- Louis Joseph Ferdinand Schilling was a lieutenant or colonel in the Russian army. His sister married in 1780 by Christoph Count Benkendorf / Benckendorf / von Benckendorff. The grandfather, Karl Friedrich, Baron Schilling von Cannstatt.

Anna Juliane von Benckendorff (under copyright by, Freiin Schilling von Canstadt) b. ca 1746; her husband Christoph Ivanovich von Benckendorff b. 1749 and her sons: Alexander Konstantin Karl Wilhelm Christoph Christophorowich Graf von Benckendorff (b. 1781 / 1782 - died 1844, Russia's military commander, General of Cavalry, chief of police, Chief of III separation Office 1826 - 1844; brother of Constantine Benckendorff and Dorothea Lieven) and Konstantin Christophorowitsch Graf von Benckendorff b. 1785; and her granddaughter - Sophia von Benckendorff b. 1825; her father Karl Friedrich Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1697, and grandfather Ludwig Friedrich Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1654; her brother Ludwig Joseph Ferdinand Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1753, who has son Paul Ludwig Schilling von Canstadt b. 1786 - d. 1837 (Emperor Nicholas visited him to ask to see the telegraph experiments, he presented his telegraph in 1833 in Berlin; 1835, he again traveled to Western Europe).

In 1835, Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling introduced his needle telegraph. "...In Germany and Russia, where in 1837 he had suggested concrete telegraphic transmission lines, his ideas were largely ignored" but Tsar Nicholas I decreed on 19 May 1837 the construction of a 30 km stretch of electrically operated telegraph line from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo, which was not realized because Schillings death.

Note at margin:
Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt / Schilling von Canstadt: Julius Karl Otto Baron von Schilling b. 1831 in Orgena / Orina, Järva - Jaani - south-west of Rakvere, Järvamaa in Estonia; his wife Elsbeth von Benckendorff Lowenwolde born 1843 Varrangu - south-west of Rakvere, and her father was Gustav Hermann Christoph von Benckendorff b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald - south of Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Estland. Her grandfather Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff b. 1784 and great - grandfather Hermann Johann von Benckendorff b. 1751 from Wiborg (Viiburi, Выборг / Voborg, Viipuri, Viborg), Karjala-Soome / Karelia.

Georg Wolther Baron von Schilling b. 1834 in Orgena, Järva-Jaani, Estonia. The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald / Ярва-Яаани, Ярвамаа, Эстония). See: Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.
Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.
Major-General of the gendarmerie
(counterintelligence and being the successor in office of Benkendorf; General Dubelt / Dubbelt, Staff Commander of the Corps of Gendarmes 1835-1856)
Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region; he enjoyed high confidence and patronage of the king. Von Dubelt, Leonti Vasilyevich / Leonti Wassiljewitsch Dubelt (b. 1792 died 1862), born into a family of Vasily Ivanovich Dubbelt by his wife - Mary Grigorievna Shperter vel Medina Celli, Princess;
his brother Peter, Colonel.
Von Dubelt is the German noble family from Livonia since the beginning of the 18th century.
Ivan Dubbelt entered the Russian service. His sons, Vasily and Mikhail Dubbelt.
Above Leonti V. Dubbelt married Anna Nikolaevna Persian nee Mordvinov in 1818.
In marriage, had two sons:
Nicholas / Nikolai (1819-1874)
and Michail / Michael (1822-1900).
Michael Leontievich Dubbelt or Dubelt was Lieutenant-General (1897). Dubbelt / Dubelt Michael or Michail Leontievich who was born February 8, 1822 in Kiev, Russian cavalry Major General, he was commandant of the Tiflis Alexandropol / Aleksandrapol fortress 1887-1890. His first wife Nataly / Natalia Puszkin / Natalja Aleksandrovna Pushkin since 1853, born May 23 / 4 Jun 1836 in St. Petersburg, was the daughter of Alexander Pushkin, poet. This son - M. Dubelt in 1860, lost above named Kuvshinovo factory in gambler to hands of Peter Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1826 died 1880, the leader of the provincial nobility.

Prince Troubetzkoy in 1869 sold it to Michael Gavrilovich Kuvshinov; his father Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804 and his grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy born 1760: daughter of Alexander Gruzinsky - Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) with four children, including Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) who was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason.

Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel; father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal. Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805.
Nikolai Leontievich / Nicholas (1819-1874) was also Lieutenant-General (1864), commander 1852 - 1856 Belarusian Hussar Regiment.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich - Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski.
A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64.
His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi.
The Uzkoje  estate that was otherwise Uzkoje village, situated 15,5 km S-W-S of  Moscow core in  the suburbs of the capital i.e. 9 km from boundary of urban housing in 1917, and there are nowadays Litovskij bulvar Str. and Jasnogorskaja Str. near by Vitcevskij forest and also Tschertanovka river.

Boris Siemionovich Jacobi / Moritz Hermann von Jacobi b. 1801 died 1874, St. Petersburg, invented a number of instruments for measuring the electrical resistance - voltagometrom.
In 1895 Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrated the device, detector, which was designed to record radio waves generated by the storm front - first radio receiver suitable for the implementation of wireless telegraphy. In 1899, "Popov has designed an improved version of the receiver of electromagnetic waves, where the reception of signals - Morse code - was carried out on the headphones operator - radio operator".

Watch maker, William Brown was dad of Edward Brown, born abt 1819. He was a watch maker, too. Elizabeth Brown maybe was a wife.

On the Clerkenwell district in London:

Izydor Jakub Gudak / Isadore Jacob Gudak / Irving John Good / I. J. or Jack Good b. 1916, a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing; from a Polish-Jewish family in London. His father Mosheh Oyved / Morris Edward Good or Moshe Oved alias Edward Good b. in Poland in 1885 - 1958, was a watchmaker, artist, sculptor (also from Jacob Epstein and Ben Uri; friend of John Ringling), the owner of a jewelry shop (Cameo Corner in Museum Street near the British Museum; on cameos, antique watches and clocks; Jewish ritual objects), poet, Zionist and the founder of the Ben Uri Society / Ben Uri Gallery / Museum in London, a Yiddish writer, a dealer in antique jewellery. He learnt the trade of a watches ca 1900, but in 1902 or 1903 emigrated to England. Mother Sophia Polikoff. Mosheh Oved / Moshe Gudak in London set up an antique jewellery shop. Sophia Polikoff was born in Russia and came to London at age eight with her parents. Morris and Sophia met in London. The Cameo Corner was founded in 1908 in New Oxford Street (No 1, close to Kingsway Str., and ca 1700 meters to west-south-west of Clerkenwell in London, by the Theobalds Road to the west) by Moshe Oved and in 1939 moved to its permanent home in Museum Street, Bloomsbury (1200 to 1400 meters to the west of Clerkenwell). Cameo Corner was the principal centre for the sale of jewellery in London for the first half of the twentieth century.

In 1902, Vladimir Lenin moved the publication of the Iskra (Spark, issues 22 to 38) to London at 37a Clerkenwell Green. At that time Vladimir Lenin resided on Percy Circus, less than half a mile north of Clerkenwell Green. In 1903 the newspaper was moved to Geneva. Lenin and Stalin met in the Crown and Anchor pub (The Crown Tavern, 50 m east of Lenin 'Iskra') in 1903. But at this time people from 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company and around the Armand family were involved in 'left' activity:
Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling who elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918; Brilling i.e. Briling, b. 1876, Russian and Soviet expert of aeroengines after completion of the Moscow Polytechnic, twice under arrest due to distribution of Lenin's 'Iskra', 1907 doctor in field of engines.
At least of 10 December 1908 Inessa Armand wanted to attend the First All-Russian Women's Congress in St Petersburg with her sister-in-law, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Inessa was lover of Lenin since 1909 or 1910, but according to 'Correspondence of Lenin and ... organizations. 1903-1905 years', Volume 3, the first book, we know that Lenin sent a cliche of 'Iskra' / 'Sparks' at Dyuflon / the Duflon office address in Yekaterinburg (p. 332, here also name of Konstantynowicz!) in 1903.
"Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and Feminist" by R. C. Elwood, p.74 - Inessa was on her honeymoon with Lenin who showed up in Copenhagen without his wife Krupska. Inessa spent the time with her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich / Константинович, whom she apparently visited in Leipzig during the month of August 1910.

The last of the Breguets, "... looked around for someone suitable to make a partner and continue the Firm after his time. He knew a first-class mechanician in Clerkenwell named Edward Brown, who was induced to go to Paris to look after the factory. Eventually he became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm. Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired, ... 1920. Thus Monsieur Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm ... The general information I have gained by consulting certain books such as ... Mr. Hull, of the Firm of Messrs. Le Roy, in London, Mr. Henry Brown ... and his son, Mr. George Brown... Mr. Desoutter, of London, who has made a life- long study of Breguet's work...", acc. to THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES, ,BREGUET 1747 - 1823', BY SIR DAVID LIONEL SALOMONS.
The Brown family and others in Clerkenwell:
James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from Lenin 'Iskra'), Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of Lenin 'Iskra'). The Baume Brothers, Importers of Geneva Watches, at 9, Ashley street, Northampton square, Clerkenwell, and at Aux Bois, Canton of Berne, Switzerland. BROWN Sophia b. 1859 in Clerkenwell, London, parent James Brown.

Antoine-Louis Breguet drove the prestigious business into bankruptcy. "His son, Louis-Clement Breguet, eventually took over. He invented the first electric clocks but decided to leave and concentrate on electric telegraphs and telecommunications. The business was sold to the English watchmaker, Edward Brown".

In 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the company to
Edward Brown; he collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel,
and he met
Alexander Graham Bell
and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market.

He had one son

Antoine b. 1851 and he was grandfather of

Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.

The great-grandson of Louis François Clément Breguet:
Louis Antoine b. 1851 d. 1882, was the last of the Breguet family to run the business.

So he took on noted English watchmaker Edward Brown of Clerkenwell to look after the Paris factory. London-born Edward Brown became the factory manager, his partner - 1870 - and, after Breguet's death, the owner and head of the company. His sons Edward and Henry Brown headed the firm into the 20th century. By Michael Weare at under Brown and his descendants, Breguet remained a niche Parisian watchmaking boutique for the next century. Edward Brown died in 1895, and was succeeded by his

two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.

Thus Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm. The watching making firm continues to market itself under the name of 'Breguet'. The electrical instrument business trades first under the name of

'Breguet fabricant' and from 1881 - 'Maison Breguet'. The Brown family owned the Breguet watch brand for 100 years, five years longer than the Breguets. The complicated watches were built by the

Joux Valley's leading watchmakers

including the Victorin Piguet workshops.

1881 'Maison Breguet' that is Maison Breguet SA was the name given to the Breguet family business after it had sold off to Edward Brown in 1870 and reorganized by 1881. It manufactured electrical instruments, telegraphs, telephones, and industrial engines. It continued to operate in Paris until 1898 when its factories were moved to an industrial area in northern France, acc. to
Address: 1881 at 81, boulevard Montparnasse in Paris, next at rue Didot in Paris, and after 1898 in Douai.
Louis Charles Bréguet, 1880 - 1955, was a famous French aviator, airplane designer, and industrialist, engineer, pilot, acc. to Louis Charles Breguet, his great-grandfather Abraham Louis Breguet. In 1905, Louis, his brother Jacques and Charles Robert Richet began construction of a gyroplane - prototype helicopter. 1907 the prototype made its first vertical take-off the pilot to a height of 50 cm. In 1905, he received an engineering degree, and the brothers began working in the family business for the production of electric motors and dynamos machines. Louis Clement decided to switch to the telegraph and communications.

Antoine Louis Breguet, Ecole Polytechnique, specialist of an electric motors, led the Breguet House, rue Didot; died very young, when Louis was only two years. Louis Breguet, an engineer at the Douai plant of Breguet House, interested in flying machines, assisted by Professor Charles Richet, a friend of his father, and by his brother Jacques, born in 1882; he went to work at the electrical engineering firm of his father, chief engineer of the Breguet House; in 1909, he learned to fly himself, acc. to: In 1905 he was working gyroplane on a project.

Above named

Louis Charles Breguet b. 1880 in Paris died 1955,

was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers. In 1902, Louis married Nelly Girardet, the daughter of

painter Eugene Girardet.

In 1905, with his brother Jacques, and Charles Richet, he began work on a

gyroplane / helicopter. In 1912, Breguet constructed his first hydroplane.
Louis-Clement's grandsons,

Louis and Jacques Breguet

were France's aircraft pioneers, from the 1917 'Breguet 14' fighter-bomber helped turn the tide of war on the western front. Louis Breguet was one of the co-founders of Air France in 1933.
Engineer Louis Franzevich Dyuflon / L. Duflon, a Swiss 'Breguet' Company representative (he was very young, only aged 23), was Stefan Drzewiecki friend (the Polish family from the Volhynia government), and circa 1884 was searching of the structure of a dromoskop. Dyuflon sometimes was invited to have breakfast with Drzewiecki. Drzewiecki (Drzewiecki Stephane lived after in France: 5, rue Gustave-Zede, Paris) occupied luxury apartment in the house No 6 at Admiralty Seaside. In the evenings, the usual Drzewiecki guests were brothers
Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov
(Lyubov Orlova-Denisova married to Nikolai Trubetskoy, she b. 1828, d. 1860. Her brother Fedor / Fiodor born 1802 or 1806 with wife from the

Nikitin family.

 Sister of above Lyubov nee Orlova-Denisova married Trubetskoy: Nadiezda / Nadjezda / Nadine Orlov-Denisov married to

Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin,

he born ? and died before 1868, Major-General, ataman Orenburg Cossacks - his parents: father Andrew / Andrej Katenin 'youngest' b. 1768 and d. 1835, wife -
Irina Lermontov. His grandfather Fedor Katenin and his great-grandfather Ivan Nikitich Katenin d. 4 December 1723. Mother of above named
Michail Andreevich Katenin - Irina Lermontov / Lermontow b. 1771 d. 1818. His brother Alexander A. Katenin, b. 1800 Kluseevo or Polovtsov in 1803 with wife Barbara I. Vadkovsky from Jan Wadkowski family. Above Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin daughters: Mary or Maria
[Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski b. 7th August 1844, Governor of Vilno 1899 and Vice-Governor 1896 - 1899,

married in 1868 to Princess Maria Mikhailovna Katenin

- daughter of Colonel Mikhail Andreivitch Katenin, and Countess Nadejda Vasilievna, second daughter of General Count

Vasili Vasilievitch Orlov-Denissov.

He d. 1916, having two sons and four daughters: Prince Mikeli / Mikhail Nikolaievitch Gruzinski, b. 1886, a govt. official in Minsk in 1914, m. daughter of

Ivan Bzhozovskii / Jan Brzozowski;

Princess Mariami / Maria Nikolaievna, first wife of Andrei Alexeivitch Tregubov; Princess Nadina Nikolaievna / Nadejda Nikollaievna, married second time to

Lieutenant-General Alexei Mikhailovitch Kauffman, cdt. Grodno Hussars of the Guard, third son of General Mikhail Petrovitch Kauffmann, Engineer-General of Russia, d. at Warsaw, 30th October 1901;


Anastazia / Anastasia Nikolaievna Gruzinskaya,
1917 - she emigrated to Dvinsk / Daugavpils in Latvia,
where she participated in the Greek-Catholic movement
and Sofia d. 1908 married
Martynov. At margin: Martynov Dmitry M. born 1760 and his brother Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich b. 1774, d. 1839 or after 1840; a wife of above Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich: Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska daughter of ?, Polish - but we know only Michal Tarnowski b. 1782 d. 1831 and his parents Jan Jacek Tarnowski b. 1729 and Rozalia Czacka - she b. 1783, d. 1851; her children: Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich 1815 / 1816 - 1875 / 1876 who in 1841 killed Lermontov in a duel, his family related to Kolirovsky and Romeiko - Hurko (Polish); Michael Solomonovich 1814-60;

Ekaterina Martynova Solomonovna

married Rzewska (Polish) / Rzhevskij Michal; Dmitry Martynov Solomonovich b. 1824 and died 1909; Elizabeth; Natalia b. 1819; Julia married Gagarin, b. 1821; also Pawel and Peter Solomonovich Martynov - friends of Stefan Drzewiecki, Polish nobleman but about Pawel and Peter no any inf.; above named Sofia d. 1908 and married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov / Wiktor Martynow b. 1858 d. 1915 -

his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816

and his grandparents: Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783)
engineer Breguet (Louis Antoine Breguet that is Antoine Breguet b. 1851 - died 1882, was engineer and his son

Louis Charles Breguet
b. 1880, d. 1955, was aircraft manufacturer

and was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers who - in 1905, with his brother Jacques Breguet - began work on a

gyroplane, the forerunner of the helicopter,

with flexible wings - like Igor Sikorsky and prof. Bothezat; Jacques Bréguet that is probably Mr Breguet who was the

engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Stefan Drzewiecki;

Louis and Jacques Breguet, of the famous clock- and watch-making family, were interested in aviation from an early age and on 19 September 1907, they, in cooperation with Professor Charles Richet, created the first helicopter


botanist professor Poiret / Poireau / Poirot,

K. E. Makovsky (Konstantin Yegorovich - that is son of Георгий or Юрий - Makovsky, b. Moscow in 1839 and died in Petrograd / St Petersburg on 30 Sept. 1915, painter, 1891 had become a member of the newly formed

'St Petersburg Society of Artists'

and the pretender to the Serbian throne, prince Karageorgievich, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion (Arseny Karageorgievich b. 1859, d. 1938, who served until 1916 at the Russian military; the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia; was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich: Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather

Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804;

her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812

In 1892, Swiss citizen,

L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon built in St. Petersburg plant for the production of electrical equipment

and opened in St. Petersburg 'Electrical studio'. In the same year 1892 he concluded a cooperation agreement with Moscow businessman of the

Breguet Company branch

- A. Konstantinovich / Apollon (Apollo, Palemon, Apolon) Konstantynowicz /  Константинович son of Wasyl / Wasilij Константинович, the owner of the technical office

Together they take on more complex projects, and soon

the company taken the first military orders.

Since 1896 the enterprise was owned by trading house, after by co-operatives and in 1901 it was transformed into a corporation.


The third company in Russia in terms of the
electronic products supply. Created 8 June 1901 by converting the firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' (Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко., ДЕКА) based in 1892. Founded in 1893 as a factory of electrical installations by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz / Константинович'.
Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon / Дюфлон, his Swiss friend
Yu Dizeren

(Jean Dizerens or Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland; they were aristocrats who fled from Paris to Switzerland - Cully in Vaud, Lutry and Lousanne - during the Fr. Revolution, where they first settled in Lutry;

they were originally Italian noble family with last name diSerens or Diserens.
Also L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne.

The father of above Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon / Luis Edouard / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon / Lun Eduard Anton Duflon, who was born 1861, a Swiss citizen - was probably Francis Dyuflon / Frances Duflon / François Louis DUFLON b. approx. 1824 (1831 ?). His wife was Jeanne Louise Susanne CUÉNOUD born 1826; her next of kin from families: Mercanton, Jenny, Milliquet. Her parents: François-Louis CUÉNOUD and Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD (Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD b. 29.03.1792 in Grandvaux, the Vaud province in Suisse; died in 1864). Mother of Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD: Jeanne-Louise RICCARD was born approx. 1757. Father of above Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD: Jean Pierre Champrenaud. Father of above François-Louis CUÉNOUD: Jean David Cuenoud (Jean-David CUÉNOUD born 24.09.1774 in Grandvaux, Vaud province, Suisse and died on 13.02.1816 in Lutry, canton of Vaud, Suisse; maried to Jeanne Abetel on 14 August 1795 in Lausanne of Vaud province in Suisse).

Riex from Lutry 5 km distance only and east of Lausanne, 10 km.

The Duflon family nest in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland is to the west of Lausanne: Aubonne and Morges, where Duflon family was living in the 17th cent. - 18 km west of Lausanne.

The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
CHAMPRENAUD in 1748 also was living in Riex, Switzerland / Suisse. Riex close to Lavaux in Switzerland. CHAMPRENAUD in 1822 was living in Villette close to Lutry, too.

CUÉNOUD in 1774 in Grandvaux close to Lutry and Riex.

Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland in Cully in the Vaud province, Lutry and Lousanne.

Marie Elisabeth DUFLON b. 1690 in Riex, District de Lavaux and married in 1714 in the Canton de Vaud. The Duflon surname has ancienne origin: de Fluvio. Surname DEMONTET dit TAVERNEY in 1646 was in Corsier sur Vevey of District de Vevey in Canton de Vaud. The DEMONTET family was near by DUFLON in 17th century. Barbara or Varvara Demonet or maybe DEMONTET from Vaud province was daughter of Carl de Monet's that is DEMONTET or Charles Demonets / Monnette or Demonsi.

Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully. All on east of Lutry and east of Lausanne / Lozana. Vaud is the third largest of Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size. It located in the French-speaking western part of the country.

and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant.
Lots of houses No 7 and 8 at Pavlov Street (Lopukhinsky road or lane Lopukhinsky in 1887 has got a common name, Lopukhinsky Street) in St Petersburg in 1895 bought L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon / Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon and his companions Y. K. Dizeren / Yu Dizeren and (inf. about first names, father's name of Apollo(n) Константинович and middle names need to be check, on Yu = Y. K., L. F. = Louis Edward, A. = A. V. / A. W.) A. V. (A. W.) Konstantynowicz / A. Konstantynowicz for the electrical company (since 1922 the Petrograd State Machine-Building Plant 'Electric'; in 1923, the factory designed the first Soviet welding generator).

The site houses No 9 and 12 Pavlov Street got the Prince of Oldenburg.

The house No 14 in 1909 - 1910: factory building for 'The Russian Society of the wireless telegraph and telephone', in 1923 created Central Radio Laboratory - here was located the center of the main domestic radio industry (L. Mandelstam, N. Papaleksi, D. Rozhanskii, V. P. Vologdin).

A note dated September 21, 1895 from the Ministry guarantees that the plant 'will be to have a free hand for quick ... execution of its most difficult and painstaking work...'.
Domestic firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' (Константинович) which was a representative of the French 'Sautter and Harle', under a contract of December 4, been making 11 sets of electric winches for battleship's elevators and to additional elevator for 'Rurik', winches ordered directly to firm 'Sautter and Harle' (the 'Rurik'-I keel was laid in the Baltic Works in St. Petersburg, May 19, 1890).
Fuller was an order given in March 1905 to the company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' immediately by 24 portable electric fans of 300 m / hr. 'Navarin' / Наварин, based on the British Trafalgar-class battleship, was built in St. Petersburg, 1889 to 1896;
in September 1893, as planned 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' factory was appointed date of move of 'Navarino' to Kronstadt for completion of equipment and accessories.
To build a 'Громобой' / 'Stormbreaker' ship in the new dock of the Baltic plant started on June 14, 1897, and on December 7 of that year this new cruiser called 'Gromoboi' was enrolled in the fleet; guns delivered from the Obukhov plant, and a winches from 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz company'.

In December 1896 at Lopukhinsky Street in St Petersburg, now -
Copyright by Pavlov Street No 8, opened the first-born in St. Petersburg electrotechnical industry, the electromechanical plant facilities owned joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' (Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко., ДЕКА), a large role in which played the French capital. The 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' office was situated at Aptekarski Ostrov in St Petersburg, now Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University is also located on the island. The Lopukhinsky road or lane Lopukhinsky in 1887 has got a common name, Lopukhinsky Street, also found writing Lapuhinskaya; lots of houses No 7 and 8 in 1895 bought the L. F. Dyuflon and his companions Y. K. Dizeren and A. Konstantynowicz / Константинович for the electrical company.  Alexander Stepanovich Popov, pioneer in the invention of the radio was associated Google map of old Duflon and Konstantinovich plant in St Petersburg at Medikov Street. Copyright by with the island; on March 24, 1896, he demonstrated transmission of radio waves between different buildings in St Petersburg and he demonstrated ship-to-shore communication over a distance of 6 miles in 1898.
From the report of the Vologda city council member, F. N. Ovechkin, we know about question on the electric lighting in the city of Vologda in 1896 when the owners of the electromechanical plant of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', addressed to the Chief of the province a proposal to build in the city of Vologda electric lighting.
Nelly Bogorad in a newspaper 'The St. Petersburg Rush Hour' in 2002 was writing 'The Case Dyuflon will live': "In December last year the plant, 'Electric', the sources of which were enterprising Frenchman and a Pole, created in 1896 by joint-stock company 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', has got 105 years old. But the big date, ... at the company was not mentioned. ... It was the culmination of a period of confrontation of the two shareholder groups, each pursuing its own interests. ... Both groups of shareholders began buying shares in the factory ... in the course of privatization got a 60 % stake. ... Member of the Board of Directors of JSC 'Plant Electric' Andrey Stepanenko, representing a major shareholder, ... explained why he and his colleagues have undertaken to preserve the enterprise. ... As noted by Mr. Stepanenko, ... is not more than four years to modernize and reconstruct capital assets, depreciation is not less than 70 - 80 % ... and Mr. Stepanenko and his comrades are waiting for the expansion of welding equipment in the U.S., Germany, Sweden and Finland".

Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon, his friend Swiss Yu Dizeren and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant with name 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Dizeren and Co'. In 1901 it was transformed into a corporation.
Service of lighting in Irkutsk proposed 'Erikson' and the firm 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz', the Russian electric company 'Union' and General Electric Company and other contractors but on December 10, 1901 City Council received an offer from the Universal Company.
The new plant, received the name 'Plant of the electromechanical Structures', was opened 14 December 1896.

At the beginning of 1897 the company was renamed in partnership, and in 1901 the plant has been transformed into joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (DECA), with a capital of 750 thousand rubles.


The third company in Russia in terms of the
electronic products supply. Created 8 June 1901 by converting the firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' based in 1892. Founded in 1893 as a factory of electrical installations by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz'.
Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon, his friend Swiss Yu Dizeren and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant.
The new plant, received the name 'Plant of the electromechanical Structures', was opened 14 December 1896.

At the beginning of 1897 the company was renamed in partnership, and in 1901 the plant has been transformed into joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (DECA), with a capital of 750 thousand rubles.

DEKA founded in 1901 on 08 June, as the transformation of the company Duflon and Konstantinovich / Константинович, which was founded in 1892 by Luis Edouard son of Frances Duflon / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon son of Francis Dyuflon or Lun Eduard Anton  Duflon, born 1861, a Swiss citizen and Polish engineer - technologist Apollon W. Konstantinovich, the Russian citizen. In December 1895 they bought the land in Lopuchinski Park in St. Petersburg. This factory was opened December 14, 1896. At the beginning of 1897 the factory turned into the Association and soon the 'Deca' began to receive government contracts, in particular for electrical equipment for naval artillery.
Louis E. Dyuflon was graduated of Zurich Polytechnic and starting as an engineer at the factory of electrical products, he soon became the official representative of the French electrical company of Breguet / Brown in Russia, where he met with the engineer Apollo Konstantinovich / Константинович - a representative of the same company in Moscow. Edward Brown from London became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm; Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.

In 1901, the 'Deca' plant becomes a joint stock company DEKA. Capital 750 thousand rubles. In 1913 radio - agreement with French company SFR and it becomes a branch ot the SFR in Russia.

In the second half of 1901 Беклемишев, Михаил Николаевич / Beklemishev, Michael N. was sent to Paris for equipment to  Copyright by submarines with co-operation with Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company: a main engine - petrol four-cylinder engine of the Otto-Deyts 160 hp, it was enough fuel reserves to 30 hours. The motion of the water provided the electric motor of 70 hp and battery power capacity of 1900 Ah and were made ​​in Philadelphia, USA. Equipment ordered factory 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' from St. Petersburg. The submarine torpedo boat No 113 was built during the winter 1901 and summer 1902. However, the assembly of the battery to plant 'Dyuflon' delayed until late autumn, did not meet the contractual terms (accumulators and batteries were manufactured in 'Deka' plant after 1908); 1903 - it was finished making the submarine motor.

Above Беклемишев, Михаил Николаевич / Beklemishev, Michael N. was born on September 26, 1858 in the Alexinsky district of Tula province. 1879 graduated from the Technical College of the Navy Department, next taught at the School of Mine, graduated from the mechanical department of the Naval Academy. 1901 Горюнов Иван Семёнович / I. Goryunov, I. G. Bubnov and Beklemishev performed work on the development of mechanisms of weapons and electronics. Beklemishev was sent to the United States. In 1935 he was arrested by Soviets again and released. Gorjunov Ivan Semenovich b. 1869, scientist, naval military educator, designer of the mechanical part of the first Russian submarine 'Dolphin', Major-General. His son Nikolai Goryunov b. 1890, 1920-1927 the chief engineer of the ship's port of Sevastopol, was arrested in 1929 and executed in 1930.

Also tests of the Valentin Vologdin radio oscillator at the battleship 'Andrew' was successful; Marine Office was made an order for another twenty radio stations, which include a new power supply antennas. Order execution was entrusted to the plant by 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' for twenty ships. All of them are installed on warships of the Navy, have shown high efficiency.

1904 - 1907 
The beginning of a Duflon Company in Switzerland and France in 1904 (L. F. Dyuflon from 1908 resided in Switzerland). Within a few months in Russia and in
1901 / 1907 the beginning of the DEKA Joint Stock Society (Duflon,  Konstantynowicz & Company JSC). In this years a business started to operate in Aleksandrovsk / Zaporoze when DEKA JSC bought land in order to changeover of activity (see December 1915) in 1907 at address: Zaporozje, Motorostroitelej 15. On 15 November 1907 the City Council of Alexandrovsk allocated land for the construction of the brothers Moznaim / Moznaimov iron foundry and machine factory but this factory was bought by joint-stock company 'Deca' from Moznaimov in 1915 and reconstructed for the production of aircraft engines; today, the 'Motor Sich', one of the most famous in the global avia industry (the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company manufactured Salmson engines, Gnome, Ron - a production under license and by 1917 the production of the engines in all Russia reached 700 per month; about 250 were collected from the western parts; the Decka Company began to produce engines in 1913). Until December 1915 it made agricultural machinery and tools to perform different machining, cast iron and copper.

The "Credit Lyonnais" Bank in Geneva has got records, assessments and accounts for the Swiss country with reference number DEEF 30136  relating to "Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Company", that is  "Company of the Electromechanical Factories of Constructions" called DEKA of 1904 - 1916; researched in 1921.

The DEKA Company produced agricultural machineries and tools, various machines, a cast iron; the factory in 1907 - 1911 (iron foundry) cast copper pieces and iron equipment. Ukraine organized a Celebration Committee in 2007 on the occasion of the one hundred anniversary of the "Motor Sich" CompanyDEKA Joint-Stock Company.

The joint stock Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Polish and Lithuanian roots. Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константиновичfrom St Petersburg and Moscow was co-property of our Mscislau branch of the male-line descendants of Dominik Konstantynowicz and our old ancestry:

Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz / Константинович who b. ca 1862 - son of Wasilij Константинович / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1840. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.

Wasilij / Wasyl Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz, was general of the Russian Army,
and Leon Bakst (1866 - 1924) is our far kinsman: his relatives, families  TretyakovBarsak, Klyachko and Manfred. His grandfather Baxter, probably English (mother side), acc. to - Collection Constantinowitz. Leon Bakst always lived with his family in St. Petersburg. Leon Bakst had two sisters, Sophia and Rose, and brother Isaiah.
April 28 in 1866 Leon Bakst was born in Grodno. His grandfather was a tailor in Paris and ca 1876 came to Russia, to St Petersburg. In 1878 Leon Bakst won a drawing contest at school and after he decid to leave college. When his grandfather died, his parents divorced. Kanaev, his friend, found him a job with Albert Benois, Alexandre Benois, K. Somov, W. Vroubel, D. Filosofov and his cousin S. Diaghilev. Alexandre Benois has friend - Count Benkendorf; Count put him in touch with Gran Duke Vladimir; Duke was President of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. 1903 Leon Bakst married L. Gricenko, widow of a painter, the daughter of P. Tretyakov. 1914 thanks to Count D. Benkendorf's support, Leon Bakst was elected as a member of the Academy of Fine Arts.
Above Dmitry A. Benkendorf / Benkendorf, Dmitriy Alexandrovich / Mita, born 1845, died 1917 or 1919; in 1910 became chairman of Academy of Fine Arts. State Councillor; in 1882-94 Secretary of the Embassy in Berlin, and later a member of the Council of the Russian Bank for Foreign Trade, the 'Russian Society of Sea, River ... and warehouses', 1903 - the Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society; amateur painter, graphic artist. His brother, Alexander, 1848-1915, Lieutenant General. Note on the family of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845. Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917. His brother, Alexander Alexandrovich Benckendorf, 1848 - 1915, was lieutenant-general. We now check data on his father: 1. ? they were sons of Alexander Benckendorf (1819 - 1849), the Guard lieutenant. Portrait of Steuben. 2. or they were next of kin with the Nikolai Kropotkin: his brother Peter D. Kropotkin; from Peter / Pyotr Kropotkin, b. 1771 d. 1826 and Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770 d. 1850, were children: 1800 - Tatiana Kropotkin Musin-Pushkin, 1801 - Dmitry Petrovich Kropotkin, 1802 - Nicholas P. Kropotkin and 1805 - Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family! Children of above named Dmitrij / Dmitry Kropotkin: 1826 Peter D. Kropotkin, 1830 Nikolai Kropotkin next of kin with Benkendorf and 1832 Ivan D. Kropotkin.

We remember about Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died in 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz;
Wiktoria - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899/1900.

Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism, a historian, from princes of Smolensk province, his father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Krapotkin (1805 - 1871), Major General, owned estates in the three provinces; his mother, Catherine N. Sulima was a direct descendant of Cossacks Ataman - Ivan Sulima. Above Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, b. 1805 and his father Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771 and mother Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770.
Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771, has father Nikolai Alexeyevich Kropotkin b. 1742 d. 1795,
and grandfather Alexey Kropotkin.

We back to the Benckendorf or Benkendorf family:
Alexander Benkendorf (1800 - 1873) in 1826, retired with the rank of lieutenant of the Guards, settled in Vinogradov, in 1859 bought the oil mines on the Apsheron Peninsula near Baku, founded the oil company 'Benckendorf', in 1865 he was in Moscow; his children:
a. Maria Benckendorf b. 1833 d. 1887 - her husband Nikolai Kropotkin b. 1830 and his brothers Peter D. Kropotkin 1826, and Ivan D. Kropotkin 1832; and her child Dmitri Kropotkin, b. 1857 d. 1902.
b. Above Alexander Benkendorf born 1800 d. 1873 (probably father of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845 that is Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917 - you look on Bakst and Apollon Konstantynowicz). Father of Alexander: Ivan Benckendorf b. 1765 d. 1841, and grandfather: Johann Michael Ivan Benckendorf b. 1720 d. November 18, 1775, came from Johann Benckendorf b. April 26, 1659 d. June 17, 1727.
Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin b. 1805 died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family!

1924 Bakst meet Ida Rubinstein.

Nephew of Leon Bakst that is son of his sister Rose Samuilovna Rosenberg / Samuel Rosenberg was born in Germany (Zakhar L. Manfred worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, during the Civil War was a teacher in the Saratov province, then in the Pskov province; Rosa Samuilovna Rosenberg - a translator, sister of the artist Leon Bakst, died in 1918) and Zachary Manfred, was historian Albert Z. Manfred (1906-1976) who born in St Petersburg (acc. to Eugene Konstantynowicz / Константинович - son of Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET; this Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily). See: the Constantinowitz Museum in Meudon.
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early powered craft (in 1880 Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs).
Klyachko, Maria Markovna (1895 - 1994), married name Constantinowitz / Marie Constantinowitz (1895 - 1994), daughter of Léon Bakst’s sister, Sophia Klyachko / Sophie nee Bakst (1869 - 1944). All information about Léon Bakst’s relatives are culled from 'My recollections of Uncle Lyova', the memoirs of Maria Klyachko-Constantinowitz and Manuscripts department, Tretyakov Gallery, fund 111, items 2632, 2636, and from Nikolai Constantinowitz, Irina Albertovna Manfred, Maria Markovna Klyachko who married a musician – a cello player Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977). She met her future husband in Switzerland, when she was tending to the sick Bakst. Her two sons became architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz (Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz) and 'Collection of the Constantinowitz family' is in Paris (among correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild were letters of Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York). Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kанстантинович / Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and address: Orée du Bois Brulé, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon). Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player; he was receiving a treatment at the same resort as Bakst. And also we know about Carole Constantinowitz.
Pierre Constantinowitz, route de la Bourbonniere, Chailly en Gatinais and 13 rue des Pres Verdy, Sevres, France.
Copyright by

Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist, acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married
Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.

Who was Inessa Armand? "Date of birth: May 8th 1874, according to Eglish Wiki, and April 26th 1874 – to Russian. Her father, a singer, is described almost identically everywhere, but her mother, Nathalie Wild, is called simply 'a comedian' in English Wiki, a 'half-French, half-English Jewish actress' in Russian. Other Russian-language sources mention only that her parents were 'actors', another one informs us that, possibly, her parents were not officially married at the time of her birth...".

Now few details about life of Inessa Armand. Source:
Date of birth: May 8th 1874 or April 26th 1874. Her father, a singer, and her mother,
Nathalie Wild, a comedian or half-French, half-English Jewish actress. Inessa's mother, Natalie Wild, also came from a French family that had settled in Moscow, although her roots was from Franche-Comte of France. Her father was a language teacher, and the Wilds naturally came to know the Armands. Natalie back from Moscow to live with a French, Theodore Stephane, and Ines / Inessa had been born in Paris 1874, as the eldest of three girls, born four months before her parents were married. In Pushkino, the Wilds had friends.
In 1879 her father's contract with the Grand-Theatre in Lyons ended. The notices of his performances in such operas as The Thief of Baghdad, Rigoletto, and even Faust were often good. They returned to Paris, where he rejoined the Théâtre de la Gaietie, but the marriage with Natalie had become troubled, and they parted, leaving Natalie, pregnant. Natalie's mother and her sister, Sophie, visited Paris in 1879, probably to help Natalie. They took Inessa back with them to Moscow. Sophie was a tutor to various Moscow families, possibly at times to the Armands as a governess, and she and her mother educated Inessa at home. Inessa's father, by his death certificate, lived on, for six years - to 1885 - after she had left Paris in 1879. In 1889. doesn’t mention her sister, Inessa appeared in Russia again. Inessa had moved to Moscow with family and she moved directly into house of her future husband, Alexander Armand, because her aunt was employed there. In 1891, when Inessa was seventeen, her grandmother died, and mother Natalie brought her other two daughters to Russia to live in the Moscow apartment, probably near Kouznietsky-Most.
She and her sister played pianoforte; her aunt provided all her schooling and she received perfect education in Paris ? and Moscow. "Some say her aunt was forced to become a teacher to provide for her nieces", and she didn’t have a place for them to stay. Inessa and Renee just visited Armands and were acquainted with this family; next Inessa, also was a governess in Armand family.
Inessa had married when she was 19 in 1893 in Moscow. She married Alexander and her sister married into Armand family, with Boris or Nicolas. Inessa forced Alexander to marry her. Together with husband they opened a school for peasant children. She used her husband’s money for charity for prostitutes. She falls in love with his younger brother Vladimir, leaves Alexander. She never married Vladimir becasue she never formally divorced Alexander.
She became a member of a bolshevik organisation in 1904 or in 1903! In 1908 she jumped bail which her first husband Alexander paid for her, about 5000 rubles, and left Russia illegally. She joined Vladimir in Switzerland. She met Lenin in Paris or she met him in Brussels!
Inessa Armand was to become Lenin's lover, but without her marriage and husband, she might never have been to meet Lenin. The Armand family home was extraordinary. Originally four separate houses. Alexander's father, Eugene-Evgenii Evgenevich Armand lived with his two brothers, Emil and Adolf. Alexander's ancestor Paul was killed and Paul's son, Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes. Alexander's father, also named Eugene, was converting from the Roman Catholic faith to Russian Orthodoxy, and Alexander, like most of his brothers and sisters, was Orthodoxy.

At least of 10 December 1908 Inessa Armand wanted to attend the First All-Russian Women's Congress in St Petersburg with her sister-in-law, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Inessa was lover of Lenin since 1909 or 1910, but according to 'Correspondence of Lenin and ... organizations. 1903-1905 years', Volume 3, the first book, we know that Lenin sent a cliche of 'Iskra' / 'Sparks' at Dyuflon address in Yekaterinburg (p. 332, here also name of Konstantynowicz!) in 1903. "Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and Feminist" by R. C. Elwood, p.74 - Inessa was on her honeymoon with Lenin who showed up in Copenhagen without his wife Krupskaia. Inessa spent the time with her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich / Константинович, whom she apparently visited in Leipzig during the month of August 1910. Inessa and Anna would finish the summer by attending the Conference of Socialist Women in Copenhagen. Inessa very likely was accompanied by her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich, rather than by Lenin during the days of the 1910 congress. On Sunday 28 August 1910 after the Women's Conference had closed, Inessa and perhaps Anna Konstantinovich attended the opening ceremonies of the Eighth Congress of the Second International using two guest tickets obtained for Armand by Lenin in Copenhagen, according to P. P. Bulanov, Moscov 1925, 75. Dr. Edward Reilly from Australia when was visiting Marijampole, Lithuania, in Oct. 2003, had seen the grave of Lenin's (??) son, Guards Captain Andrej Armand, who fell in Oct. 1944 as the front Lenin, Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович and Inessa Armand in train from Switzerland, Germany, Sweden to Finland, April 1917. Copyright by pushed towards Prussia. 

When Lenin was writing to Inessa Armand to Moscow by 16 February 1920, asked her about any products which were sent to Konstantynowicz (according to 'Lenin in his life. ...' by Е. Н. Guslarov; address of Inessa: Nieglinnaja street, house 9, flat No 6; s. 226). 

Anna Konstantynowicz, Lenin Ulyanov and Inessa / Ines Armand in a sealed train, April 1917 The coup d'etat by Lenin in 1917 Lenin and his money

The Armand noble family

Paul Armand was born probably in 1770, acc. to unpublished memoirs of David L. Armand. Paul Armand with wife Angelica daughter of Charles (1765 in Alsatia - 1813 in Moscow) and with 14-year-old son, Jean (Jean / Ivan / Jean-Louis Armand born 1786 or 1798 - died 1855 in Moscowwent to Moscow in 1812, when Napoleon was in Moscow but this family has appeared in Russia at the end of the XVIII century, an escape from the terror of the French RevolutionWhen Napoleon had to withdraw, Paul had no choice to withdraw together with the French army (author Svetlana Alexandrovna Krylatov, a descendant of the family Kurtener, during a meeting of the descendants of the merchant families in the former Merchants Club in Malaya Dmitrovka in 1990). Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede from Estonia, Jozef Hacker / Joseph Hakker / Osip Hecke / Hekke.

The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg: Charles Collignon, engineer; Édouard Collignon - after graduating from the l'École polytechnique in 1849, in 1857 to 1862 he played an important role in the construction of railways from Saint Petersburg to Warsaw. Marie Barbe COLLIGNON (b. ca 1804 in Mercy-le-Haut, died 12 July 1883 in Tucquegnieux), married to Louis FLOSSE, born 10 April 1800, her father Joseph COLLIGNON b. 1774 in Mercy-le-Haut - his parents Nicolas COLLIGNON and Anne HURLAUX. François Collignon b. 1673, his father Hubert Collignon; Nicolas Collignon was son of above Francois; Nicolas Collignon b. 1723, his son Nicolas Collignon 2nd b. 1752, granddaughter Marie Barbe Collignon (b. 1786, d. 1831 and completely different person then above Marie b. ca 1804) - her husband François Navel.
Sabine father has name Evgen the 'first'.

Sophia was the daughter of Ivan from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker) about 1850. No data about this Swede (from Eesti / Estland / Estonia). From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second' Armand. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.

In the second half of the 19th century lived with the Armand family a governess, girls Inessa and Rene Stefan, both were married to two brothers Armand, Alexander and Nicholas. Inessa Fedorovna in 1903, leaving her husband, lived with his brother Volodya and after escaping from exile in 1909, Inessa Fedorovna went to Switzerland, where she was waiting for Vladimir / Volodya.  Alexander went to Belgium, graduated on engineer to manage a factory of his father. After collectivization in 1930 he appealed to Alechinsky farm and lived until 1943.

Maria Osipovna was a musician and student of Nicholas Rubinstein (Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein b. 1835 and was a Russian pianist, the younger brother of Anton Rubinstein; with Nikolai Pietrovich Trubetskoy / Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy born 1828 died 1900, was the founder of the Moscow Conservatory). Sophia, daughter of Joseph was graduated from high school. Amateurishly painted. She was  in love with the youngest of the cousins ​​- Emil, third son of Eugene / Evgeny and soon married about 1883. The Catholic Church blessed the couple. Alexandr son of Joseph, wanted to become a monk, but he went to the army, and eventually became a police officer. 

Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / 
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand
Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth; was married to a Polish woman, Catholic - Mary Frantsevna Pashkovskaya / Maria Paszkowski (Пашковские) daughter of Franciszek. She was born 1819 died 1901 and was highly educated, c. 1840 studied painting in France; she was a woman of strong and humble disposition. Maria had a tender heart. In contrast to the position of her husband, his wife was educated, and drew quite well, in France she drew the ruins of castles and really liked them; Evgeny built in a park such ruins.  

Need to be check - she was next of kin of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski with the Zadora coat of arms who was born 12 October 1778 in Brody - d. 11 March 1856 in Cracow, friend of general Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism. "Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east". On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms. Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire. The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization, but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland. Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state. Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Dominik Paszkowski
born 1783 in Brody, the Lwow province; his father Jan Paszkowski was born c. 1750 and has got the Zadora coat of arms; married c. 1770 / 1777 and Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski, general, was 
his first son.
His family:
colonel Jozef Paszkowski 1787 - 1858.

Franciszek Paszkowski
(Franciszek Jozef Wladyslaw Paszkowski) was born 1818 and died 1883, painter - who was studied painting in Rome 1839, acc. to J. Pachonski, and after was living in Cracow; here was member of the Science Cracow Association since 1848 - after 1873; his father Dominik Paszkowski was born 1783 in Brody and was brother of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski (b. 1778).
Jan, the grandfather of above named Franciszek - painter was living in Brody and was born circa 1750.
Father of Franciszek - Dominik Paszkowski (at a portrait) and brother (at a portrait) Jozef Edmund Paszkowski. The same Jozef Edmund Paszkowski b. 1817 and died 1861, poet and translator. Franciszek was a nephew of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski b. 1778 and the nephew of Wojciech Paszkowski, who was member of the independent authorities of Galicia in 1809; also he was the uncle of Franciszek Paszkowski, lawyer, b. 1853 died 1926.
Józef Franciszek Daniel Paszkowski
with coat of arms of Zadora was born 3 January 1817 in Warsaw and
died 1861 in Warsaw, too; son of Dominik Paszkowski (father was born 1783 in Brody); he was related with Stompf family, the Lasocki from Lasocin with coat of arms of Dolega,  Kulikowski, Niemojewski, Gzowski families, his son Leon Ignacy Józef Paszkowski was related with Niemojewski and Falkiewicz.
Addition: Michal Paszkowski colonel of militia, died after 1819.

Maria Paszkowska that is Paszkovski has got three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie that is Emil Armand / Aрманд (Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie about 1847). All the sons had taken the house close to Pushkino factory c. 1875. The elder son, Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor. His wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets had 12 children, all the sons were married and all the daughters married: it was told about 39 grandchildren Eugene and Barbara Karlovna (all 42 cousins). His wife, Barbara Karlovna  - a woman of extraordinary kindness and care, shelter under his wing all. The brothers received education in Moscow, in France and Germany, mainly in the textile business and dyeing of fabrics. 
Evgenii Armand and his wife Varvara Karlovna (Barbara daughter of Karl Demonet / Carl de Monet's that is Charles Demonets or DEMONTET from Vaud province / Monnette / Demonsi Monnet) Demonets also had a very large family. Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow and in 1869 next child Alexander. Elizabeth-Ines Fedorovna Stephane fitted in nicely with her new family: Anna and Alexander Armand were slightly older than she, while Vladimir born in 1875, Evgeniia b. 1876 and Boris born 1878 were somewhat younger. According to: 'French settlers in Moscow and some of the descendants: Collection', the author-composer V. Egorov, Fedosov, ed. Moscow, 2005, p. 200-210 and Copyright © Institution 'Museum of entrepreneurs, philanthropists and benefactors', powered by Vadim Tretyakov: Evgeny and his wife Barbara Karlovna nee Demonsi had 12 children: Anna (1866 - 1932), Mary (1868 - 1942), Alexander (1870 - 1943), Vera (1871 - 1942), Nicholas (1872 - 1936), Vladimir (1874 - 1875), Eugene (1876 ​​- 1920), Boris (1878 - 1920), Sophia (1881 - 1941), Sergei (1882 - 1945), Barbara (1882 - 1966), Vladimir (1885 - 1909). Vladimir Armand joined a Social Democratic propaganda group in Moscow and was arrested but his sister Anna Evgen'evna helped finance party organizations. They lived in Pushkino,  according to JoAnn Ruckman, 'Moscow Business Elite...', edit. 1984, p. 61 and by Egor Nazarenko - a great grandson of one of Evgenii Armand's brothers. They owned house in Moscow, but in summer lived in Finland
The Eugene family intermarried with the families: Demonsi-Shnaubert-Mathiesen-Bunkin-Tsitsin, Konstantynowicz / Константинович and Manfred, Kohl - Osipov, Pampel / Papmel - Mazing, Vdovin, Stepanov, Stephen, Wild, Karasev, Fedosov, Egorov, Zhurin, Pichnikovyh - Shaposhnikov - Zilina, Cardo - Sysoev, Fallen, Shapiro, Romas and others.

A details:

Schnaubert or Shnaubert Ivan A.,
Professor of Chemistry at Kharkov University, b. about 1781 in Giessen in Hesse region. He studied at the Chemical Institute in Erfurt, Jena in 1803. In 1804 he was invited to Kharkov University and was appointed professor of chemistry.
Boris Shnaubert b. 1852

in Moscow and died October 1917, a Russian engineer and architect, he served on the Moscow - Kazan Railway.
Kazan ca 1870 - 1890? Repeatedly executed orders from wealthy merchant family Абрикосовых / Abrikosov 1900 - 1904 in Moscow.
See Demonets
and Anastasia Gruzinskaya from Daugavpils.

Demontet / Demonsi / Demonets, Kazan ca 1835 - 1839.
Demonsi Carl, the son of a Frenchman,
a native of Moscow, he studied at the Kazan univ. 1837, was prof. at the Kharkov Univ., died in 1867.
Demonsi was in 1864 a Moscow merchant 1st guild and a shareholder of a plants in the Urals.

Barbara Karlovna Armand from the Demonsi family was wife of Evgeny Armand.

Her sons:
1. Aleksandr E. Armand 1870 - 1943, wife Ines Armand Stéphane - his daughters Inna, Varvara, and sons Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, Fiedor Aleksandrovich, 2. Vladimir E. Armand 1874 - 1875, 3. Nikolaj / Nicholas E. Armand and his wife Rene / Maria Feodorovna Stéphane Armand 1872 - 1936, his son a. Pavel Nikolajevich Armand 1902 - 1964, his daughter Rene Pavlovna, b. daughter Marija Nikolayevna, 4. Boris Boris E. Armand 1878 - 1920, 5. Sergej / Siergiej / Sergey E. Armand 1882 - 1945, 5. daughters: Zofia / Sofija, Anna Evgenievna, Viera, Evgenija, Varvara, Maria / Marija.

On the Mathiesen family:
Mathiesen from Ncstved is a town in a municipality of the same name, located on the island of Zealand in Denmark. The town is one hour away from Copenhagen.
Anna Henrikke Petronelle Mathiesen from Oslo, Norway. Jorgen Arthur Mathiesen 1901 was a Norwegian landowner. The Vvedensky cemetry, Moscow: Alexander Eduard Mathiesen, died October 1881.

Mazing - Korkus in Livonia, from Estonia:
Revel, Dorpat, Narva and Viru / Wierland - Varstu Parish in Voru County, and from Riga, St. Petersburg in Russia.
Motherland - the former Livonia, Estonia present. According to legend from the Swedish soldier who settled after 1630 in St. Mary Magdalene in Kayavere in Livonia.
Kaiavere - village south-west of Maarja-Magdaleena, east of Mullavere, east of Puurmani, north from Tartu / Dorpat.
Mazing / Masing Edward Wilhelm b. 1836 from St. Petersburg; Michael Masing b. 1836, Russian - Turkish war of 1877, general. From Dorpat Leonhard Masing and Ernst Masing; Otto Wilhelm Masing from Ida-Virumaa and his son Carl Gustav Theodor Masing; Carl Johannes Masing b. 1811 Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Eesti. From Piirsalu, Läänemaa east of Haapsalu, connected to Mari Masing and from Roela, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia - soth-east of Rakvere; and an area south of Viljandi - Valga county; also from Iisaku, Ida-Virumaa, Eesti. Heinkople Ado Masing b. ca 1833 d. 1896 in
Raikküla mois Lipa, Harjumaa;
from Märjamaa Parish, Rapla County in western Estonia, east of Haapsalu. Christoph Otto Wilhelm Masing; Peter Otto Christoph Masing b. 1811, from Riga; Carl Michael Reinhold Masing, general of artillery.

The Manzing / Mansing / Masing family from Revel are not Estonian, only Swedish descendants and come from Sweden.

On the Bunkin family and Shnaubert:

Carl Shnaubert, a doctor, at the beginning of the XIX century in Moscow. Constantine Bunkin, Eng., took part in the construction of the first Soviet helicopter.

On the Tsitsin family: Natalia Tsitsin art restorer, a granddaughter of the architect Boris Shnaubert (born in 1925) and Maria - died in 1915. Boris Shnaubert died in 1917. Her father Konstantin Bunkin, engineer.

On the Manfred family:
Albert Z. Manfred 1906 St. Petersburg, his father

Manfred L. Zachar / Zakhar / Zahar, worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, the French language was Manfred native one. He studied in St. Petersburg.

About Pampel / Papmel:

Papmel Alexander d. 1958, in France; Papmel E., a native of Finland.

Pampel Eduard 1884 - 1952, Germany, began his career in Russia: Lessner factory in St. Petersburg 1911, then entered the factory Becker in Revel; he worked at the aerodynamic laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute 1917, shipbuilding division Putilov factory. Plant Becker was in Revel that is Revel Shipyard BECKER & Co. / Joint Stock Company 'metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants Becker & Co.' in Reval / Tallinn. During the First World War, it had to be evacuated to Novorossiysk, where it is located on the site of a small factory Muller, Lampe & Co., after which he ever lost shipbuilding specialization. The factory made ​​machine-gun and artillery tower installation of armored trains.

Adolf and his wife, Alexandra, nee Lengold had three children: Andrew (1875 - 1884), Helen (1876 - 1958) and Margaret (1881 - 1882). They intermarried with the families of Repman, Gauthier, Doble, and others.
     Emil E. was married to Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke). They had six children: Leo (1880 - 1942), Natalie (1881 - ?), Mary (1883 -), Sophia (1885 - 1923?), Paul (1887 - 1892), Eugene (1890 -). They intermarried with the family Kindinger and others.

As a young man, Evgeny Armand was a clerk - official at a German factory in Vanteevke near by Bolshevo about 1845, i
n 1853 Evgeny bought dyeing factory in Pushkino, Moscow Province, from the French owner, Favard; in 1859, Evgeny build a second factory close to this one; c. 1865 Evgeny built a house and made it his residence. In addition there were houses in Moscow, four-story office in the Old Square, at the corner Varvarka, an apartment house in the German market, the trading house on Vozdvizhenka street near the Arbat Square. They were co-owners of the Firm 'E. Armand and his sons', and two textile factories in the Moscow suburb, owned houses in Moscow and estates in the suburbs, were members of the charitable community organizations.  

A brothers Brilling, Nicholas R. and Eugene R., big engineers of engines, operating in the Soviet era and even after World War II, Nikolai Romanovich was a famous theorist, honored worker of science, the brothers were married to two sisters Armand. There were another of the next of kin, Dr. Kohl and K. Fedosov and KonstantynowiczThe middle brother, Adolph E. was, in contrast to his elder brother. Three brothers lived lavishly, but these great bourgeois clan Armand began to decline but t
he 'Evgenii Armand and Sons' Company by 1912 had two thousand employees. However, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, all Armand continued to live in Pushkino and Nicholas Vladislavovich Ivinsky was here as governor.  

1909 - 1910 

Battleships 'Sevastopol', 'Petropavlovsk', 'Poltava' and 'Gangut' were laid in June 1909 in Petersburg and the construction of new battleships required the use of private businesses: 'Kulebaki association Prodamet', 'Metal',  'Putilov', Obukhov, 'G. A. Lessner' and of course for electrical equipment, plants 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.', 'Volta', 'Universal Company of Electricity', 'Geisler and Erickson'.
Acc. to: R. M. Melnikov, 'The battleship "Emperor Pavel I" 1906 - 1925', "... the beginning of all this work (with 'Emperor Pavel I') relates to 1906, when the plants have started to implement orders in mine arms, and until 1912 the ship is in a period of buildings and testing. During this time, were made all the principal mine works, equipped with facilities, installed devices, pumps, duct, radio, floodlights, alarm systems and all electrical installations. Since 1912, the ship enters into ... fleet ... Ship's electrical systems ... the ship in 1911 taken from plants: the Baltic, Volta, Geisler, 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' and from the Kronshtadt port. ... In 1911, on the march back from Kronstadt to Revel was acceptance ... electric steering device, manufactured by the 'Volta'. ... there are two portable electric water turbines made by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' tested in 1912 ... Two electric winches ... were installed at the ship and manufactured by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in 1911. ... shunt motor for polishing metal capacity of 1 kilowatt ... in 1911 made by the 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' and installed on a ship ... In 1912, from the plant of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', were two 90-cm projectors of Sotter with gilt metal parabolic reflectors. Spotlight placed on the anterior and posterior bridges on the rails, which can be rolled from side to side...".

The Ministry of the Navy ordered 32 of the fortress spotlight diameter of 210 cm of an Italian company 'Officine Galileo' for Revel at the beginning of 1914. When the war began contract was terminated, and the Castle Management Committee arranged a competition among Russian electrical engineering firms. 16 spotlights a diameter of 200 cm gave Russian branch of the Siemens - Schuckert factory in St Petersburg, and spotlights with smaller diameters (all 60) - The Company electromechanical structures (former 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz'). In the meantime, had to interrupt the test of Italian spotlight (The Officine Galileo / Galileo Workshop is an important Italian manufacturer of scientific instruments; at present - scientific instruments for satellites; located in Campi Bisenzio, in the province of Florence, 1862 by Giovanni Battista Donati, Angelo Vegni, and after Guglielmo Marconi; 1873, the production was extended to electric tools, lighting, optical instruments, periscopes, stereoscopic rangefinders) and set it on the Weems peninsula. The War Department has transferred to the fortress a spotlights to the north coast of the island Nargen and another on Surop peninsula near Marah.

Curiosity: on 28 August 1909 a robbery at a very mysterious circumstances, committed in the night of August 14 at the factory company 'L. Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' on Lopukhinsky Street. The plant was guarded by night watchmen, but from the office was stolen 5000 rubles. The money were intended for delivery to the workers. One key had got a porter, the other an accountant and no traces on the walls.
In 1910 reveals 'Aeronautic Division' of 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St. Petersburg to deliver a business aviation on an industrial basis.

1892 -  1910 

"In 1892, Swiss citizen, L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon (built in St. Petersburg plant for the production of electrical equipment and) opened in St. Petersburg 'Electrical studio'. In the same year 1892 L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon concluded a cooperation agreement with Moscow businessman A. Konstantinovich / Константинович / Apollon (Apollo) Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl / Wasilij Константинович, the owner of the technical office. Copyright by Encyclopedia of Russian Merchants, E-mail: © 2004 ОБЩЕСТВО КУПЦОВ И ПРОМЫШЛЕННИКОВ. Apollo / Apollon Konstantynowicz / Константинович with wife Anna Armand
Together they take on more complex projects, and soon the company was the first military orders. Only a few years, and its mechanisms and electrical devices are mounted on Russian shipyards, battleships and to coastal artillery batteries ... in 1896 Konstantynowicz and K. Dyuflon build a new plant and establish joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and company'. The firm 'Deca' in addition to the main office in St. Petersburg, which was headed by Dyuflon opens branch in Moscow (headed by Konstantynowicz / Константинович). Soon the production of 'Deca' is widely known, and representative of JSC appear in Kharkov and Yekaterinburg / Ekaterinburg, address: Main Avenue, the Izboldin house, ... industrial regions of Ukraine, Tavria, Volga and Ural. Business are growing along with demand for high quality equipment. It is planned to open offices in Kronstadt, Revel (now Tallinn), Nikolayev and Sevastopol. For the development of new products plant 'Deca' in St. Petersburg is equipped with latest imported equipment specially purchased in France, England and America, but do not stop and his own. Beginning of the twentieth century marked ... the conquest of the air disaster. There are first guided balloons - airships and fundamentally new type of technology - the airplane. While this is not transportation, but rather fun. Undertake the construction of single-aircraft enthusiasts. ... of 1910 reveals 'Aeronautic Division' in St. Petersburg to deliver a business aviation on an industrial basis. In 1912 JSC 'Deca' is participating in the tender for the construction of airships for the military departments of Russia. The airship was constructed in full conformity with technical specifications and tested in 1913. The experiment was considered successful and commercially viable, and in the same year was founded a specialized aviation workshop as a structural part of the company 'Deca' (shareholders are thinking about such promising areas as aeronautics and aviation and aircraft engines). When the First World War broke out, JSC 'Deca' has received a loan to expand aircraft production under the production of airplanes and engines, from domestic materials. But space, material and manpower resources to carry out new plans in the Russian capital was not enough, and we had to consider options for building a new plant in the province. Among them was a small town Aleksandrovsk in Ekaterinoslav province" (Copyright 2006 - 2011 by 'Science & Technology', No 10 (53), 2010). 

The 'Duflon and Konstantinovich' Company Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8:

Evgeny / Armand Evgenii / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, hereditary honorable citizen, counselor, chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons'; chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'; Maria Paszkowska / Paszkovski has got three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie / Emil Armand / Aрманд (Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie about 1847), Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor; his wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets / De Monets or DEMONTET had 12 children,

Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko
who represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg
1906 - 1914,

Louis F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland,

Alexander E. Armand /
Armand Alexandr, hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons'; a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company',

count Sergei von Gernet son of Pavel Gernet from Estland province, Von Gernet S. P., a nobleman, a retired captain and board member: the Company 'Bahmugskaya salt' / society 'Bahmutskiy salt', the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and the Company of metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants 'Becker and Co.',

Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo',

count Albert R. de Gern / Gernet ? / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company,

Masson Ph. Charles / CHARLE Masson son of Philiberte / Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert (name Masse by Russian language) was Vice - Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg (then L. L. Nobel succeed him) and a member of the Board of Nabpolts (Moscow).

His father probably:
Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert, born 1806 in Auxonne and died 1860 in Paris, is a French physicist; "...he was responsible for the invention of the induction coil (with Louis Breguet) that bears Ruhmkorff's name. He realized tests telegraph transmission in ... Caen (in 1831, after a year of teaching mathematics at Montpellier, he moved to Caen, where he taught physical sciences at the College Royal until 1839; unaware of the discoveries of Joseph Henry or William Jenkins, Masson in 1834 observed independently the self-induction of a voltaic circuit; he described his investigation of this phenomenon and, ... demonstrated the tetanic effect of a series of rapidly repeated self-induced currents; ... Masson constructed some of the earliest induction coils). His research and publications cover areas as diverse as photometry, induction, the movement of fluids ... Antoine MASSON is the descendant of a family of cloth merchants from Burgundy. His father, Pierre Antoine Masson Fourth (the name of his wife) had studied pharmacy ... and will move to Dijon when the young Antoine just 6 years. ...In 1839, he was appointed professor of physics at the ... Ecole Centrale de Paris. With Breguet, it carries an electric telegraph in 1838 and in 1841, the first inductor to study electrical discharges in rarefied gases (in 1841, together with Louis Breguet, he described a high-tension induction coil of the type Ruhmkorff subsequently perfected ... in 1836 successfully defended a doctoral thesis elaborating Ampere's work in electrodynamics, Masson had returned to Paris and from 1841 taught physics at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand and at the Ecole Centrale ... until his death in 1860). Thereafter, the coil will keep the name Ruhmkorff coil... Masson ... establish the theory of wind instruments ("...between 1844 and 1854 he conducted an intensive investigation of the spark produced by electrical discharges through various media; ... with L. Courtepee and J. C. Jamin, he also examined ... the absorption of radiant heat and light by different substances ... he investigated aspects of electrical telegraphy, acoustics, the elasticity of solid bodies, and the discharge of induction coils through partial vacuums, as well as related chemical and physical problems").
... biography of MASSON family.
In 1830, Victor, cousin of Anthony, goes to PARIS ... publish several technical books and ... Victor Masson became the founder of Editions Masson...".

Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel),
 Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.

Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger b. 1801 and Andriette Ahlsell: Robert Nobel b. 1829, Alfred Nobel b. 1833 - the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes, Emil Oskar Nobel and Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831 - is buried in the Smolensky Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel: Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 d. 1932 (Branobel's second president and being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1), Carl Nobel b. 1862;
and descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel: Esther Wilhelmina Olsen-Nobel, Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel b. 1874 (Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company), Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist b. 1879, Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff b. 1881, Rolf Nobel, Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel and last Gustaf Oscar Ludvig.

Zhurnollo L. A. (Dziurnollo?), engineer and commerce adviser, factory director and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', a board member of the Society of Tver city railway,

Mr Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Drzewiecki.

And others top members of the 'Duflon...':
Azbelev Peter Pavlovich, b. Febr. the 27, 1868 in Vologda, a retired major-general of the Russian fleet, P. P. Azbelev also was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon,  Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt',
Fedor Illarionovich Stupak - in 1898 he was appointed to the plant manager and in 1911 to the position of chief engineer of the plant 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St Petersburg (to 1916),
Valentin Petrovich Vologdin, 1881 - 1953, Valentin Petrovich was working as technical director of 'Duflon...',
Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling, elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either  Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918.

Source: 'amburger' domain:
Sergius Gernet Pavlovič, b. 12.12.1859 / 24.12.1859 in Narva, Russia; education: a Seeschool, from 15 September 1875, Guard Marin Fleet from 05 January 1879; a training from 28 January 1884, merchant navy 20 October 1886, reserve 02 December 1890 as Kptn. 2 class, occupation: 'Gov. Duflon and Konstantinovič and Co.' 1912; ownership, owner of 'Tudor' Factory in Petersburg 1897; 30 August 1880 'micman', from 01/01/1885 Lieutenant, from 02/12/1890 Cptn 2 Class,

Louis Duflon Francov. born in Villeneuve, died 1930; wife Duflon, Marie Josephine. Top member of the Duflon and Konstantinovič Comp., from Swiss, Vaud district; mathematicians and ownership of the 'Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co. Mechan. Workshop', Saint Petersburg from 1893, owner of factory 08/06/1901 (Rauber, industry).

Edward Duflon / Eduard, from Swiss; owner of Duflon, Konstantinovič & Company Mechan. Workshop 1895 in Saint Petersburg. Acc. to 'amburger' we have two different figures with last name Duflon.

Emil Ramseyer Iv., born 1863 and died 1925; from Swiss, Bern, occupation: 'Gov. Peter. Loan (Učetnyj i Ssudnyj Bank) Bank' in 1917; Chrm. of the 'Atlas Petrograd'; top member of the 'Deka' that is Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co.; top member of "Volta" and Oil N. Hartmann.

The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel, close to border on France, and area north of Lausanne and Neuchatel: La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. It is located few kilometres south of the French border. Its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watch making industry. It is the most important centre of the watch making industry in the area known as the Watch Valley. Completely destroyed by a fire in 1794; from St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.

Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne; Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon and Duflon J.-F., landlord in Bouligneux in France west of Geneve. François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (Lavaux) and Villeneuve was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. He attended the College of Vevey, where he was a professor; 1876 Lausanne, 1906 d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km.

Acc. to A. SAUTER, 'RELIEUR...', ed. NEUCHATEL and Geneve, 1899: Valais, ...societe evalaisanne des Sciences naturelles, Vice-President: M. Emile Burnat, a Nant-sur-Vevey, M. Wilczek from Lausanne and M. F. Duflon from Villeneuve.

Acc. to: The Electrician, October 16, 1885:
"...Copper and bronzes prepared under such conditions are much used for aerial telegraph and telephone lines... A Wheatstone bridge, a differential galvanometer, a battery of four cups, and a contact key complete the apparatus. ... And made upon a great number a specimens, were made in part by the writer at the workshop at Angouleme with the assistance of Messrs. X. Muller and J. Stahl, engineers of the establishment, and partly by M. Duflon, electrical engineer in the measuring room of M. Sciami, director of the Maison Breguet. These latter experiments were those made upon the bars themselves. ... Their conductivities compared with silver and pure copper are given in the ... table: silver...".

Emmanuel Nobel / Immanuel the younger b. 1801 died 1872, the inventor of underwater mines. In 1842 - 1859 he lived in St. Petersburg, where he founded a mechanical plant. Robert E. Nobel (1829 - 1896) was born in Sweden but his mother came to St. Petersburg and since 1850 he has worked at the factory of his father, after worked for many years in companies that founded together with his brothers: Alfred Bernhard Nobel b. 1833, founder of the Nobel Prizes - in Russia became acquainted with the works of Zinin and V. F. Petrushevskii / Pietruszewski in chemical engineering nitroglycerin. Ludvig Nobel b. 1831 died 1888, member of the Russian Technical Society, in St. Petersburg acted for 'Ludwig Nobel' / 'Russian diesel', in 1876 he founded with brothers Robert and Alfred and with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku. He moved with his mother Andriette and brothers Robert and Alfred to St Petersburg in 1842 where his father Immanuel had set up a factory. He bought his own smaller factory that he called the 'Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel'. There, he made cannons, gun carriages, underwater mines and artillery missiles, machine tools, hydraulic presses. Together with Russian Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother, he built up a model factory in Izhevsk in the Urals. Ludvig and his son Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, visited Baku in 1876. In 1879, the 'Naftaproduktionsaktiebolaget Bröderna Nobel', shortened to Branobel, was formed in St. Petersburg.

Above Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831, was an engineer, m. 1st. time in 1858 to Mina Ahlsell and 2nd time in 1871. Ludvig ran the company with his sons Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl. His first and illegitimate child, Hjalmar Crusell, was head of a laboratory and the closest person in St Petersburg.
Most of the people in the managerial staff were Swedes, but was also a man from Norway, Hans Olsen who came to Kronstadt to work in 1880 and met Ludvig Nobel's sons, Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl, in the Russian capital.

Second person Michael Belyamin, born in 1831 worked with Ludvig Nobel as an engineer with management responsibilities. In 1880 he was elected as a member of the Supervisory Board of the company to 1899. His son, Michael Belyamin jr, was a mining engineer and lived in St. Petersburg until 1919. Above named Peter Bilderling, born in 1844 was from a Courlandish noble family, was promoted to the rank of major general. He was one of the members of the Branobel administration from 1885 and one of the members of the Supervisory Board of the company until he died. Ludvig’s first child was born out of wedlock in 1856. His name was Hjalmar Crusell. Ludvig married his cousin Wilhelmina Mina Ahlsell who died in 1869. Together they had the children Emanuel, born in 1859, Carl in 1862 and Anna in 1866. Ludvig later married Edla Colin and they had seven children: Mina born in 1873, Ludvig in 1874 that is Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel (1874 - 1935) was married 1901 to Mary Minnie Johnson b. 1876, Ingrid in 1879, Marta in 1881, Rolf in 1882, Emil in 1885 and Gosta in 1886. Above Emmanuel Nobel Jr. b. 1859 in 1888 - 1917 headed the company 'Ludwig Nobel' and other enterprises and he played an important role in business organizations in Russia. In early 1918, went to Sweden.

Ludwig Nobel and then his son Emmanuel, who skillfully managed the 'Branobel' till 1920, when Bolshevik Red Army invaded in Baku and nationalized the oil industry, considered Baku (Villa Petrolea) as their second home.

All above data according to by Under copyright with statement: 'Use of Content from this Website. The Centre for Business History in Stockholm (CBHS) provides the content on this website. The CBHS invites visitors to use its online content for personal, educational and other non-commercial purposes. By using the Branobel History Website, you accept and agree to abide by the following terms...'. Above Major General Peter A. von Bilderling co-operated with Alfred Nobel, Robert Nobel, I. J. Zabelsky / Zabielski, Baron Alexandre von Bilderling, Fritz Blumberg, Michel Beliamin, A. S. Sundgren and Benno Wunderlich. Baron Peter von Bilderling born in St. Petersburg in 1844 - died at Zapolie in 1900 close to Luga, was an engineer and engineering officer of the Russian Imperial Army. He is the brother of Baron Alexander von Bilderling, the general who participated in the Russo-Japanese War. From a noble family originally German - Baltic but Orthodox, his father Alexander Grigoryevich Otto Hermann von Bilderling was lieutenant general in Engineering Corps. His grandfather George Sigismund von Bilterlings in Mitau in Courland / Jelgava in Latvia. His mother was descended from a family of Polish nobility untitled, the Doliwo - Dobrowolski / Dobrowolski with coat of arms Doliwa. Died September 25, 1900 at his home in Zapolie near Luga, where he is buried, a major in 1861 after the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy with 1st class, the Guard of the Grand Duke Nicolas, He served at the Caucasus. He was married twice 1. Sofia Vladimirovna Westman and 2nd to Natalia Alexandrovna Barantzov. His descendants migrated to Cannes and Nice. In 1872 he signed an agreement with Ludvig Nobel providing machine tools. His sons Vladimir and Peter Alexander or George and Peter, daughter Baroness Natalia Petrovna Bilderling. Well-known electrical engineer Mikhail Dolivo - Dobrovolsky Osipovich was his cousin: Michal Doliwa Dobrowolski / Michael Osipovich / Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo Dobrovolsky b. 1861 / 1862, Gatchina, Russian electrical engineer of Polish descent, in a large noble family.
Michael was the oldest child.
Grandfather Florian b. 1776 came from Poland to St. Petersburg. Michal Doliwa Dobrowolski completed the Riga Polytechnic Institute, Darmstadt Higher Technical School, where opened electrical laboratory with special attention to the electrochemistry, the preparation of aluminum. Dolivo - Dobrovolsky invited to join the firm AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft), where in 1909 he was appointed director and served in that capacity until his death, made the induction motor, a rotor with windings in the form of a squirrel cage, 1889 was built
(after Nikola Tesla -
Acc. to: Nikola Tesla b. 1856, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, the designer of the modern alternating current electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering, 1884 worked for Thomas Edison. His patented induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, he is known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York, the invention of radio communication, for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission - and G. Ferraris)
three-phase induction motor capacity of about 100 watts and generators; built the electrical system for the transmission of three-phase of 8500 V, the three-phase transformer, small hydro power plant with three-phase synchronous generator. Acted in St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, which opened in 1899, after 1914 moved to Switzerland. In 1918, he again went to Berlin.
And few different details: Michal Doliwo-Dobrowolski, the main engineer of Berlin company AEG, for the development of a three-phase system. Invented the three-phase squirrel cage motor. Born January 2, 1862 / December 21, 1861 in Gatchina, near to St. Petersburg. Son of Joseph Dobrowolski, grandson of Florian Dobrowolski. Great-grandson of Joseph Doliwo-Dobrovolsky born about 1750 in the Mscislaw province of Poland.

DOLIWA coat of arms to the Doliwo-Dobrowolski family in the 1st half of the 19 century from Russian hands. This family lived in the Borisov district, village Малое Стахово / Maloye Stahovo, Bielaja Luza in Zodinsk / Zodino area / Жодино, Zodino / Shodino in the Minsk government; Doliwa-Dobrowolski also in Berezyna in 1864; at the beginning of the 20th century in Sienno in Vicebsk / Witebsk area - village Kokovtsino / Kokowczino / Коковчино and Papino 18 km of Bogushevsk / Богушевск. Добровольски / Dobrowolski in Chausy / Tshausy / Czausy district, the Mohilev government, Proskowia Dobrowolski daughter of Zachary Dobrowolski m. Prokopovich, born 1913 with brother Aleksander Dobrowolski or Aleksiej b. 1916.

Zachar Dobrowolski coat of arms Doliwa, lived in village Novosielki, 2 km west of Golovientsitsy (Головенчицкая волость), 14 km west-south Chausy / Czausy, south-east of Mogilev and village Smolki / Smolka / Смолка 13 km west of Novosielki.

See on the Brujewicz family!
Children of Dmitrij Brujewicz: Michail / Michal Boncz Brujewicz and his wife Eudokia Dobrowolski daughter of Porfir / Porfirion Dobrowolski. She was born 1870, d. 1943. Michail Boncz Brujewicz b. 24 Febr. 1870 in Moscow, died 1956 in Moscow, too. Second son of Dmitrij: Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz, b. 1873 in Moscow, d. 1955 in Moscow. Wife Wiera Wieliczkina, married in Geneve, Switzerland. Wiera was born 1868. His second wife Anna Tinkier vel Tynker daughter of Semen / Zenon Tynker. Anna Tinker was the first wife of Solomon Czernomordik son of Isajew / Izak.

Above named Michael's Dobrowolski mother Olga is a daughter of Mikhail Jewrejn. Between 1862 to 1872 Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski lived in Gatchina. 1872 to 1878 Odessa. 1878 - 1880 Department of Chemistry, Riga Polytechnical Institute, where he teaches in German, but were many Poles. 1881 to 1883 in St. Petersburg, Odessa, Novorossiysk. He has been worked at the Widder plant in St. Petersburg. 1883 Hesse in Germany. Here to 1884. Again in 1887 in Odessa. 1887 - 1903 worked for Emil Rathenau - AEG.
1903 - 1907 Lausanne.
1907 Berlin: electric motors, electric power consumption meter. According to the professors Krolikowski Lech and Zbigniew Woyndrowski, he came from a noble family Doliwa Dobrowolski, of the Mscislaw province, from the region of Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1772 in Russia, as the governorate Mogilev. Florian Dobrowolski born 1776 died in 1852, the son of Joseph Dobrowolski coat Doliwa, born about 1750; Florian's wife Maria Szaltuch, a daughter of Fyodor Szaltuch.

Florian Dobrowolski served in the Russian Army. 1822 - 1824 lives in Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1799 verified nobility in Mogilev. It is then an inspector of the military field post, as well as the police chief in Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1812 - 1814 the Napoleonic Wars, 1814 siege of Paris. Florian had 9 children. The youngest son is Joseph Dobrowolski. Joseph has the son Michael Doliwo-Dobrowolski. Joseph was born in August 1824 in St. Petersburg. 1854 to 1855 the Crimean War, he served in the Russian Army in the rank of colonel. Director of the Institute for Orphans in Gatchina near Petersburg. Married to Olga Jewrejn, daughter of Mikhail Jewrejn.

In 1918

Abram Ioffe

[b. 1880, son of Fedor; completion of the St. Petersburg Technological Institute in 1902] became a  head of Physics and Technology division in State Institute of Roentgenology and  Radiologythe i.e. Physico - Technical Institute where a group of young physicists worked:

B. P. Konstantynowicz,

I. V. Kurczatow = Kurchatov,

Lev Landau [son of David, born 1908 in Baku; his father was an engineer who worked in the Baku oil industry; since 1927 he continued research at the Leningrad Physico - Technical Institute],

P. L. Kapitsa [Piotr = Pyotr Kapica was born July 08/June 26, 1894 in Kronstadt; he was son of Leon or Leonid Kapica - a military engineer, lieutenant general in the Russian engineers corps, Pole with the Kapica i.e. Jastrzebiec diverse coat of arms, see:

  - and

Olga Stebnicki who was daughter of Hieronim Stebnicki, Pole with the Przestrzal coat of arms, see:

  The grandson of Piotr Kapica senior; received his preparatory education in Kronstadt and next educated at the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute, "he graduated in 1918 with a degree in electrical engineering" (or 1919) on

Electromechanics Department;

he remained there as a lecturer until 1921; he went to England and there he worked with Ernest Rutherford; in 1934, Kapica went to Soviet Union] and others [quantum electronics, electromagnetic waves] - see

The foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia was Michail (2nd) Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich b. 1888 in Orjol - d. 1940; son of   Aleksander (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich who stayed in Kiev since 1896), electrician and engineer after completion of the "Nikolai -  Ingenieurschule" in Petersburg 1914; he served in the Russian army as a professional officer, expert of electron lamps and radiolocation1915 - 1919 made a study of radio valves and organized the first production of one as chief of high - frequency's section in the Central  laboratory of War  Department in middle of 1917 (the first  broadcast valves  and valve sets appeared in Russian Air Force in 1917); director of the radio  valves laboratory in 1918 - 1920 and author of the broadcasting station's project in Moskow of 1922; his son Aleksej Bonch - Bruevich (b. 1916) was the Soviet expert of electron tubes, too.

The Physico - Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Sergei Pietrovich Kapitsa

b. February 14, 1928 in Cambridge, Soviet and Russian physicist, the son of the Nobel Prize Kapitza /

П. Л. Капица, grandson of A. N. Krylov / А. Н. Крылов, the Russian mathematician and shipbuilder, and the great-nephew of the famous French biochemist Henry Victor / Victor Henri, Krylov - on his mother side, Anna Alekseevna. The great-grandson of a geographer И. И. Стебницки / I. I. Stebnicki that is Ierome Stebnicki / Hieronim Stebnicki, the elder brother of А. П. Капицa / A. P. Kapitsa.

  Father - Peter Leonidovich Kapitsa - the famous physicist and Nobel Prize winner, mother - Anna A. Krylov, the daughter of Alexei Krylov, Russian ship builder, an expert in the field of mechanics, mathematics. Above named Krylov, Alexey / Крылов, Алексей Николаевич / Alexei Krylov b. in August 1863, 1878 he entered the Naval Academy, he graduated with honors in 1884, worked in the Hydrographic Office of P. Kolong, study of the magnetic deviation, in 1887 Krylov moved to (since 1892 the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in St Petersburg; before 1892 Duflon acted in the Breguet Company in Petersburg owned by the Brown family from London) the Franco - Russian plant, and then continued his studies at the shipbuilding department of the Nicholas Naval Academy. 1890 he remained at the Academy. According to the memoirs of Krylov, since 1887, his specialty was ship-building, the application of mathematics to various issues of maritime affairs and expanded the theory of William Froude, 1896 he was elected a member of the British Society of Naval Architects, proposed the gyroscopic damping roll. His daughter Anna, became the wife of Kapitza. Since 1900, Krylov cooperates with Stepan Osipovich Makarov, Admiral and scientist and shipbuilder.

Acc. to an Academician A. N. Krylov / Kriloff, 'My memories' on Stepan Karlovic Drzewiecki:
It was a talented engineer and inventor, with whom Krylov was friendly to April 1938.
He knew Drzewiecki in November 1878, at age 15, being at the Naval College (Admiral Gregory I. Butakov died in the summer of 1882, as a teacher of the fleet, with an architect I. G. Bubnov and Captain 2nd rank M. N. Beklemishev, cooperated on the project of submarine 'Dolphi').
Krylov met Drzewiecki many times in the technical society. In January 1886 was organized the first Electrical Exhibition. At this exhibition participated main hydrographic office, with the last sample of a compass 'de Kolong' and also participated a Parisian firm 'Breguet', with two instruments invented by the French Navy admiral Fournier: among others dromoskop. I. A. Shestakov and Main Hydrographic office was instructed to investigate these devices (I. P. de Kolong, Lieutenant N. M. Yakovlev and Krylov who met Drzewiecki). This work was later published in 'Sea collection'.

Krylov soon teamed up with the Petersburg department of the company 'Breguet', on dromoskop. Krylov then met with the engineer Dyuflon, a representative of 'Breguet', Swiss, friend of Drzewiecki.

Drzewiecki occupied a luxury apartment of the house No 6 Admiralty Street. In the evenings, guests of Drzewiecki were brothers
Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov, Dyuflon and botanist Professor Poirot, K. E. Makovsky and the Serbian Prince Karageorgievich,
who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion, mainly for scientific or technical topics, flying airplanes on a theory of Drzewiecki (in April 1884 he published it and the chief inspector Rear Admiral Loschinsky invited Krylov to resolve this issue). Drzewiecki acc. to his friend from Moscow, Goujon (remembering on the later system of J. Roy / Rey) and Dyuflon / Duflon, was noble, of an ancient clan of Poles, who owned large estates in the Volyn province, land in Odessa, orchard houses in Warsaw, etc. Drzewiecki had an extensive knowledge of the St. Petersburg nobility. His parents were living in Paris, where he was educated at home, at the Lycee St. Barbe, and the Central Engineering College. Among his companions was Eifel (aerodynamic research).
In 1873, Drzewiecki was at Vienna World Exhibition. When Drzewiecki moved to St. Petersburg, he turned to the famous Brouwer, at the Pulkovo Observatory and to the War Minister P. S. Rakovsky (construction of 50 boats, with the payment of 100.000 rubles for Drzewiecki). Drzewiecki, received one hundred thousand, and went to Italy.

Summer 1886 Drzewiecki went to Turkestan, to General Annenkov (the Trans-Caspian railway from Krasnovodsk to Samarkand with a huge bridge across the Amu Darya in Chardzhui).
The following summer, he went to Egypt, to Aswan. 1887 he calls Krylov to show a sketch of a submarine and gone to Grand Duke General Admiral Alexei Alexandrovich with this project to develop a submarine.
In 1888 Krylov was enrolled at the Shipbuilding Division of the Naval Academy, graduated it in 1890. At this time, Drzewiecki went to Paris. 1892 met with Krylov, on the development of the submarine, and together come to Paris. The Marine Technical Committee (boat steam engines, internal combustion engines, and then diesels) cooperated with Drzewiecki because he had an extensive knowledge of French naval engineers and brought Krylov into this world. In 1897 Drzewiecki invented a special type of destroyer for the Naval Ministry, and again asked Krylov to work with him in Paris. The project was adopted by the Technical Committee. In 1892 was the Dreyfus affair and Drzewiecki was not at home, back to St. Petersburg. Around 1905 Drzewiecki developed an original theory of propellers. 1909 to 1914 every time Krylov visited Drzewiecki in Paris, last time met with him 1925 to 1927, when Krylov was abroad for 'Neftesindikat' and 'Soviet oil'. Drzewiecki died in April 1938.

Jerome Stebnicki / Hieronim Stebnicki born on 12 December 1832 in the province of Volyn, Polish engineer, cartographer and infantry general of the Russian Empire. He graduated in 1852, serve in the General Staff, since 1860 worked at the Caucasus and the Caspian region, left a description of triangulation Caucasus mountains, 1866 the head of the Military Division on the topographic of General Staff of the Russian Empire, 1867 head of the Caucasus Department, grandfather of Peter Kapitza. He made the first detailed maps of the Caucasus, after Joseph Chodzko, acc. to

  The Physico - Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one of the largest research institutes in Russia, founded by Abram Fedorovich Ioffe in September 29, 1918. Located in St. Petersburg. Director of the Radium Institute was В. И. Вернадский / V. I. Vernadskij, his deputy - V. G. Hlopin. Director of the Institute 1957 - 1967 - Б. П. Константинов / Konstantinov B. P. acc. to Russian sources, but a US research show name Konstantinovich B. P. - acc. to:
Research Database, Bibliographies & Essays, Resources, HSS Publications, Committee on Education. "An interesting attempt to compare Soviet and Western research in high-energy physics is John Irvine and Ben R. Martin, 'Basic Research in the East and West: A Comparison of the Scientific Performance of High-Energy Physics Accelerators,' Social Studies of Science, 1985, 5(2): 293-341". History of Science Society: 440 Geddes Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA, 574.631.1194, 574.631.1533 Fax,
After him in 1967-1987 was Tuczkiewicz / Tuchkevich.

Acc. to: we read "...Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (for short, Ioffe Institute) is one of Russia's largest research centers specialized in physics...". This Wikipedia page intentionally omits Konstantynowicz aka Konstantinov name in the list of scientists of the Institute. And "...Abram Ioffe was born in the Ukraine in 1880. After graduating from St. Petersburg Technological Institute in 1902, Ioffe went to Munich, Germany, where he worked under Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of X-rays. Ioffe earned his doctorate in physics in 1905. In 1906, Ioffe returned to St. Petersburg where he worked in the Polytechnical Institute. ... Several times he demonstrated his loyalty to Russia by turning down offers of academic positions in Munich and later, in Berkeley, California. He briefly left Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution in 1918, but he soon returned and helped build up the Physico-Technical Institute. He traveled to Western Europe in 1921, collecting books, journals, and equipment for the institute. He served as director of the Physico-Technical Institute from 1923 to 1953. ... Igor V. Kurchatov, who was later put in charge of the project to build the Soviet atomic bomb, studied at Ioffe's institute during the 1930s, and Ioffe recommended Kurchatov for the position to head the nuclear project". Acc. to and Carlisle, Rodney P. 'Ioffe, Abram Fedorovich.' - Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001.

Above Владимир Вернадский / Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky b. 1863, St. Petersburg and died on January 6, 1945 in Moscow. His father, Ivan, according to family legend, was a descendant of Cossacks. Before moving to St. Petersburg, he was Professor of Economics in Kiev. In St. Petersburg, he served as a privy councilor. His mother, Anna Petrovna nee Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich, was a Polish noblewoman. Vladimir Vernadsky was a cousin of the Russian writer Vladimir Korolenko. Above named Konstantinov, Boris Pavlovich or Borys Konstantinovich / Borys Konstantynowicz son of Pawel Konstantynowicz, b. 1910 in St. Petersburg. Soviet physicist and Vice - President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Father Paul Fedoseevich Konstantinov / or Pavel Konstantinovich b. 1874, 1888 went to St. Petersburg, mother - Agrippina Petrovna Konstantinov b. 1876 nee Smirnov, gave birth to eight sons and four daughters; Boris in 1916 was sent to a private elementary school, where he studied until the end of 1917; In early 1918 the family moved to the home of parents in the village. In 1919 his father died. In the winter 1920 - 1921 he lived and studied in St. Petersburg. Autumn of 1924 the family moved to Leningrad. At this time, at the Physico-Technical Institute worked older brother of Boris -

Alexander Pavlovich Konstantinov (1895 - 1945, repressioned, was posthumously rehabilitated) or maybe Aleksander Konstantynowicz, who became one of the largest radio technicians, radiophysicist and create a variety of radio-electronic equipment (with Bonch - Bruevich) and contributed to the development of television - suggested a way to narrow band television signals, has developed a mosaic photocathodes for the television camera tubes of the 1930s television transmission. He was a member of the laboratory of L. S. Theremin / Л. С. Термен: an alarm systems of banks and museums. A. Konstantinov was an electrician in this protective system - 1909. In 1924 he created the radio-electronic equipment to determine the difference in longitude of Greenwich and Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, in 1928 to 1930 with his brother has developed radio - protective signaling processes of government vaults. They invented electric seismographs have been used successfully for mineral exploration.
He studied at the Physics and Mechanics of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute 1926 - 1929 and was expelled from this Polytechnic after fourth years for
the non-proletarian origin,
but was able to continue working in science through the application of Ioffe. He worked as a laboratory assistant, senior laboratory assistant at the Physical - Technical Institute, 1935 - 1937 in the department of electro - acoustics of the Leningrad Institute, (in 1937 Konstantinov Aleksandr Pavlovich was wrongly arrested and died in the dungeons of the NKVD) but 1937 - 1940 he headed a laboratory of the Research Institute of the music industry and acoustics for the needs of defense - but we need check this data.

His brother Boris Pavlovich Konstantinovich or Konstantinov was born in St. Petersburg in 1910, acc. to his autobiography, written an excellent literary language. In 1924 Konstantinov moved to Leningrad, because at the State Physical - Technical Institute of the X-ray worked his older brother, Alexander P. Konstantinov. Since 1927 he started working at the laboratory of D. A. Rozhanski as a physicist and was student of Physics and Mechanics Faculty of the Polytechnic Institute.

A few details on Boris Konstantinov / Konstantinovich:
Konstantinov Boris Pavlovich or Konstantinovich B. P. born on 23 June / 6 July 1910 in St. Petersburg and died July 1969. In 1927-35 and since 1940 has worked in the Physical - Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1957-67 director, in 1937-40 at the Research Institute of the music industry (like his brother?!). "In the 90's of last century, was opened part of the work on the nuclear problem, and as a result over the past half ten years, there are many books and publications devoted to the development of research on the nuclear problem in the USSR and Russia... There was a series of films about the secret physicists ... I. V. Kurchatov, Y. B. Chariton, Ya. Zel'dovich, A. D. Sakharov, I. E. Tamm, V. L. Ginzburg and others in the work on the atomic problem, but the role of B. P. Konstantinov reflected very sparingly. This is despite the fact that over the carried out his work, he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, was elected to the Academy and became director Physico - Technical Institute, vice - president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is named after him the Institute of Nuclear Physics Gatchina and the largest chemical plant in Kirov...".
"...B. P. Konstantinov is one of the founders of the school of nuclear physicists. In 1945, the Physics and Mechanics Department opened the country's first training in the Department of Nuclear Physics (Department of Technical Physics). The first head of the department was A. F. Ioffe, but after 2 years it was headed by B. P. Konstantinov, who since 1945 has combined his academic work at PTI with teaching at the LPI...".
"The Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) is one of four nuclear physics centers within the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' / NRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. PNPI bears the name of Academician B. P. Konstantinov ... Director of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, vice president of the Academy of Sciences...".

At the beginning in accordance with the Decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR in 1942 which was composed of the Commissariat of Communications was formed Military restorative management for all military telephones and telegraphs and broadcasting units, radio and postal enterprises on the territory liberated from the German. B. P. Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz Borys / Konstantinov was working for this management (at the Petersburg Nuclear Institut as Head of Laboratory 1943 - 1957, for the Federal Agency for Special Construction / Spetsstroy Russia). 1951 established the Office building number 565 as a part of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR - successor of the General Directorate of Special Construction. In 1953 in Leningrad was organized management for the construction of the air defense system. "Federal Agency for Special Construction (Spetsstroy Russia) - the federal executive body for the promotion of national defense and security organization works in the field of special construction, road building and communication engineering by military units and road-building military units of the Federal Agency for Special Construction".

References, acc. to 'Russian & Soviet Science and Technology' by Loren R. Graham, History of Science Society Newsletter, Volume 18 No. 4 (Supplement 1989):
"...An interesting article on the growth of scientific personnel in the USSR, portraying the Soviet overtaking of the United States in the number of research workers, is Louvan Nolting and Murray Feshbach's, 'R and D Employment in the USSR', 'Science', 01 Feb. 1980, 207:493-503. Nolting has also published a series of reports (Foreign Economic Reports, Department of Commerce) on the structure and organization of Soviet science and technology. A recent and valuable analysis of the political role of Soviet science by Stephen Fortescue is 'The Communist Party and Soviet Science' (London: Macmillan, 1987). ... Peter Kneen's 'Soviet Scientists and the State' (Albany: SUNY Press, 1984). Works written by emigres who previously worked in the Soviet science establishment provide special insights; these include Mark Azbel, Refusenik: 'Trapped in the Soviet Union' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981); Mark Popovsky, 'Manipulated Science' (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979); and Vladimir Kresin, 'Soviet Science in Practice: An Insider's View,' in 'The Soviet Union Today', edited by James Cracraft (Chicago: 'Bulletin of Atomic Scientists', 1983). Three works treating Soviet industrial research from economic and political standpoints are Joseph Berliner, The Innovation Decision in Soviet Industry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1976); Erik Hoffmann and Robbin Laird, Technocratic Socialism: 'The Soviet Union in the Advanced Industrial Era' (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1985); and Raymond Hutchings, 'Soviet Science: Technology and Design Interaction and Convergence' (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1976). A topic of particular interest to American scholars who may wish to do research in the Soviet Union, no matter what the field, is the history of scholarly exchanges between the United States and the USSR. The most thoughtful analysis of the subject is by Linda Lubrano, 'National and International Politics in USA-USSR Scientific Cooperation,' Social Studies of Science 1981, 11:451-480. Also see Review of USA-USSR Interacademy Exchanges and Relations, Report of the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C., 1977); and Yale Richmond, U.S. - Soviet Cultural Ex - changes 1958-1986: Who Wins? (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987). ... Loren Graham, Program on Science, Technology and Society, Room E51-128, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139. Russian-language films on the history of Russian and Soviet science can be purchased from Alexandre K. Surikov, President, All-Union Corporation 'Sovinfilm,' 20 Skatertny Per., Moscow 121069, USSR". This above data © 1989 by the History of Science Society, All rights reserved.

Acc. to and Carlisle, Rodney P. 'Ioffe, Abram Fedorovich.' - Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001.

Piotr Leonidovich Kapitsa - physicist, a researcher at low temperature physics.

Abram Fedorovich Joffe - physicist, moved to Munich, where he took a internship with Wilhelm Rontgen, he returned to St. Petersburg, was involved in nuclear physics and in the development of lasers.
Adam Gernet born on 7 August 1878 in Kiwidepah, Roethel, Laanermaa (Haapsalu), Estonia. An Adam von Gernet was involved in the study of magnetism; an infantry regiment in Dunaburg, escape across the German lines in March 1918, by John Hiden.



 Only five of airships had been built in Russia before 1914 and we exactly constructed (the fifth in order) to Russian Army in the plant of DEKA an airship named "Kobchik" type "Blimp" by S. A. Nemchenko as early as 1912 (with two engines 45 hp, and length 48 m; speed 50 km/h according to "Taschenbuch der Luftflotten", 1st Issue 1914, Vol. 1 "Airships" by F. Rasch and W. Hormel, published in Germany, worked out by Thomas Heinz; the picture from:

Airship i.e. an "aircraft  that consists of a cigar-shaped gas bag, or envelope, filled with a lighter-than-air gas to provide lift, a propulsion system, a  steering mechanism, and a gondola accommodating passengers, crew, and cargo. (...) NON-RIGID airships, now commonly  known as blimps, are the most common type in use. The non-rigid airship has no frame and the envelope holds its shape due to  the pressurized lifting gas inside." The DEKA company owned an infrastructure for airships i.e. a  hangar, workshops and warehouses in St Petersburg before the First world war. War,  revolution and civil war interrupted further development until 1920, when the Soviets built their first small blimp. 

June, 1912: Vote of 150 aeroplanes (140 to be built at home); November, 1912: Military trials results: 1. Sikorsky in a "Sikorsky";  2. HABER in a "M. Farman"; 3. Boutmy (BUTMI) in a "Nieuport".  December, 1912: Aeronautical school re-organised; 15 pupils  per school at a time - course made seven months. A one month course in aeroplanes, aerial motors, etc. Of the pupils, 10 to be  selected for aeroplanes. New flying school established at Tashkent  in TURKESTAN. Only in Army Aviation in March, 1913: new schools established at Moscow, Odessa and OMSK. At the end of 1913: the number of actual military pilots was 72. There was a  special volunteer corps of about 36 private aviators; total to 108 in Russia. In Navy Aviation: July, 1912 - Lieut. ANDREADI, did a  flight from Sevastopol to Petersburg.

About above S. A. Nemchenko.
In the spring of 1906 the Wright brothers offered to the Russian Minister of War a flying machine created by them. Russian military department did not respond to the letter, however, in 1908 sent to France, where the Wright brothers opened Aircraft Company 'Ariel', two officers of the Training Aeronautic Park: - N. I. Uteshev and S. A. Nemchenko. Russian officers have studied the American airplane and have made test flights as passengers and wrote a negative review. According to them, the airplane Flyer-III for military purposes was no good. Should pay attention to the achievements of other designers, especially the French. On August 24, 1908 a Petersburg newspaper 'New time' informed on the Chief Engineer's Office organized in autumn 1909 international competition of airplanes with award of 50 thousand rubles but a place of the aerodrome was also not selected.

In 1912 JSC 'Deca' is participating in the tender for the construction of airships for the military departments of Russia. The airship was constructed in full conformity with technical specifications and tested in 1913. The experiment was considered successful and commercially viable, and in the same year was founded a specialized aviation workshop as a structural part of the company 'Deca'.


1912 -  1913 
In April 1913 DECA has entered into a cooperation agreement with the French radio company 'Societe francaise Radio-Electrique' (SFR) and became a branch of it in Russia.

'Radiolectric French Company' was one of the first radiotelegraphic companies, founded by Émile Girardeau in 1910

and it supported the production of the Radiola - radio receivers. 'Dyuflon and Konstantinowicz' has entered into a cooperation with 'Sautter, Harle and Co.' from Paris and also with a factory 'Gabriel and Anzeno' (Paul Lemonnier engineer, bacame a partner in the business of Sautter, at 26 Avenue Suffren in Paris 1867. Beginning in the 1860s Sautter started the study of the use of electricity. In 1869, Henri Harle who had married into the Dolfuss family, started as an engineer. In 1890 Henri Harle became a full partner in the firm, which was now known as Sautter Harle.

The company 'Societe Sautter, Harle et Cie' was founded in 1825 in Paris as a mechanical engineering company. 1907 began production of automobiles as the 'Sautter Harle'. 1908 the company was renamed in 'Harle et Cie'. 1912 ended production of cars. Three companies have manufactured lights on the coasts in France: F. Barbier et Fenestre, Sautter-Harle / Sautter et Lemonier and Lepaute, by ''. "In order to eliminate the jerks in release, Augustin Fresnel modified the blade regulator around 1826 with the aid of the clockmaker Lepaute, by incorporating a ball regulator". Acc. to: '', "The Gymnote was one of the world's first all-electric submarines. Launched on 24 September 1888 ... by Gustave Zede ... and Arthur Krebs, who completed the project. For the Gymnote, Arthur Krebs developed the electric engine .... The motor proved so problematic that it was replaced with a smaller but more powerful Sautter-Harle motor". In Tallinn the construction of the rear lighthouse was planned already in 1832. The new lighthouse acquired a Fresnel device purchased from Sautter Harle & Co in Paris.

In late 1915, the company name was changed to the 'Anciens Etablissements Sautter-Harle'. The Company produced electrical equipment: searchlight / floodlight, generators, compressors and diesel engines. The Sautter Harlé at present has name the Alsthom Company

They were working for Sautter - Harle / SAUTTER HARLE, founded in 1852:
Eugene Dejonc,
Émile Girardeau, born 1882, a French engineer, founder of the General Society of wireless telegraphy; 1910 he founded the radio - electric French Society SFR, in the field of radio - electricity and military telegraphy; 1915 he was assigned to education, in radio - electricity, flying officers.
Camille Charles Augustin Claudeville, b. 1868, adviser naval armament for Europe and South America, and co-operated with SAUTTER HARLE, founded in 1852, making lenticular lights, electric motors, turbo-generators and projectors.
Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER. After the death of Mary, Jean REY married another descendant of SAUTTER born VAN MUYDEN. Jean REY was the uncle of another Jean Rey b. 1902-1983, Belgian (member of the EEC Commission from 1958 to 1967 and President of the Commission from 1967 to 1970), acc. to: Christian LEVI ALVARES. Jean-Alexandre REY, the School of Mines as a foreign student 1883; 1885 he obtained French nationality as a descendant of French parents refugees in Switzerland because of religion; he received the degree 1 ranked 1886; led factories Sautter - Harle and for thirty years directing the technical work of the house Sautter - Harle (turbo - machinery); 1904 studied steam turbines; 1906 gas turbines; at thirty - five he was chief engineer of the Sautter - Harle Company; finally president of the trade association of electrical engineering, President of the French Society of Electricians - 1921. In 1901 he build an internal combustion engine generators for submarines. From 1888, he became interested in steam turbines and turbo - electric machines.

You remember that Louis François Clément Breguet / Louis Francois Clement Breguet was born on 22 December 1804 in Paris, work in the early days of telegraphy, educated in Switzerland; in 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the Breguet company to Edward Brown; collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels, Professor Thomas Engel and Alexander Graham Bell; he had one son Antoine b. 1851.

The Swiss Canton of Vaud was the area where the French-speaking family settled (Diserens or Dizeren). Among other things, it were the villages and towns: CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully. All on east of Lutry and east of Lausanne / Lozano. Moreover, a settlements such as Corsier sur Vevey, L'Abbaye and Grandvaux. L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family (Antoine b. 1851) came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne; the Duflon family gone from Lutry of 1852 and Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 was living Louis Duflon; Duflon J.-F. was a landlord in Bouligneux in France west of Geneve. François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (Lavaux) and Villeneuve, was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. He attended the College of Vevey, where he was a professor; 1876 Lausanne, 1906 d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km.

Michail Dobrowolski lived 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne.

In the spring of 1914 L. Bakst moved to Montreux in Switzerland. Sophia Klyachko came to stay with her brother and taking along all family.

Clarens is part of Montreux in Suisse, where the Duflon family was living. Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, wife of Apollon Konstantynowicz from Moscow, was here with her son, Evgenii Konstantinovich, probably since spring of 1914. She acted with Lenin (on 5 September 1914 Lenin moved to neutral Switzerland, residing first at Bern, then at Zürich; on 31 March 1917 "Fritz Platten obtained permission from the German Foreign Minister through his ambassador in Switzerland, Baron Gisbert von Romberg, for Lenin and other Russian exiles to travel through Germany to Russia in a sealed one-carriage train"; from Zurich, Gottmadingen, Singen, Frankfurt and Berlin to Sassnitz, Trelleborg, in Sweden to Stockholm, at the Finland Station in Petrograd) and Inessa Armand, her friend. Anna Konstantynowicz back to Petersburg (Piotrogrod) with Lenin, Krupska and Inessa Armand in April 1917.

Sophia Klyachko met in Montreux (Clarens?) Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz from Moscow. 1914 all relocated to Geneve to Diaghilev; the company after (1914 / 1915 to 1920) moved to Lausanne, but Bakst removed to Paris, soon. The Klyachko family in spring of 1920 came to Paris; in Meudon is now a museum of Bakst.

The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel, close to border on France, and from St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, and Tavannes north of Neuchatel.

Adolphe Jean Édouard WIDMER, CEO of the Society of Electrical Constructions Breguet - Sautter - Harle, married in 1930 to Jacqueline HARLÉ Lucy b. 1905, parents Frederick Augustus 'Henri' HARLÉ 1875-1961 and Jeanny Alice Lily KAMPMANN b. 1881.

Note at margin:
Jean Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter who was founder of the LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co.
Ambroise Samuel Joseph Rodolphe REY / Rodolphe REY, born 1866 in GENEVE, Suisse acc. to:, his parents: William REY 1821 - 1888 Professeur and Clothilde BOUVIER 1828 - 1911; Rodolphe REY married in 1892 in GENEVE to Françoise Jeanne Gabrielle BOUVIER b. 1866 from Ami Auguste Oscar BOUVIER and Louise Julie Marguerite MONOD b. 1832; siblings: Barthélémy REY, banquier b. 1858, m. 1888 in PARIS to Lucie MATTER; Jean REY, Ingénieur des Mines b. 1861, m. 1893 PARIS to Marie SAUTTER 1870 - 1895 and married in 1897 in LAUSANNE to Emma VAN MUYDEN b. 1870.
Father of above Jean Rey: William REY, Professeur b. 1821 in GENEVE, d. 1888 in CLARENS in Suisse, married 1856 in CÉLIGNY to Clothilde BOUVIER.
CLARENS - east from Lausanne, close to Montreux, Blonay and Vevey and 15 km east of Cully, 20 km east of Lutry. Clarens is a village in the canton of Vaud, in Switzerland. 1888 family Rey lived here and also: Igor Stravinsky 1878, Tchaikovsky, Paul Kruger, anarchist Élisée Reclus, the Duflon family and Nabokov.
Élisée Reclus b. 1830, known as Jacques Élisée Reclus, was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist; in January 1872 banishment from France. After a short visit to Italy, Reclus settled at Clarens, Switzerland, where he resumed his literary labours. In 1882, Reclus initiated the Anti-Marriage Movement / International Association, of which "Reclus and Peter Kropotkin were the two chief organizers. Kropotkin was arrested and condemned to five years' imprisonment, but Reclus escaped punishment as he remained in Switzerland. In 1894, Reclus was appointed chair of comparative geography at the University of Brussels", acc. to Wikipedia.
CÉLIGNY - on way from Geneve to Lausanne.
More inf. see: Christian LEVI ALVARES (Quatre siecles d'ascendance protestante: les 512 quartiers de Micheline Bruneton, ed. Jerusalem: AHVA, 1981).

Electric lighting has come into use in Russia in 1880s. In the end, the concession for the construction of the first power plant in Ufa and Ufa province was signed in 1896 by a specialist of the companies: 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' from St. Petersburg and the 'Sautter, Harle and Co.' from Paris, engineer Nikolai Vladimirovich Konshin / Владимирович Коншин. Construction of the city's first power plant taken about two years, on 01 February 1898 it gave a light. The city council had to pay for it to the owner 275 thousand rubles. In July 1918 to October 1918 Konshin went through terrible ordeals, he was among the 98 hostages of Ufa. He was alive in the early 1920s.
His father probably Konshin Vladimir Nikolaevich born ?, member of the Board of the South - Eastern Railway Society and the Rybinsk Railway. Above Konshin Nikolai V. born ?, was working for the Prince of Oldenburg for the exploration of manganese around Trebizond 1887 - 1888, a member of the South Ussuri Expedition 1888 - 1890 and for the exploration of coal in the Semipalatinsk region 1890, in the Urals from 1891, built at his own expense the first power plant in Ufa 1898.

The Minsk City Council on June 28, 1894 decided on the introduction of electric lighting and the Town Council concluded an agreement with the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company. According to the agreement a power station and the city's network lighting should be equipped with a steam boiler of Fiiner Gamper / Hamper from Sosnowiec, Westinghouse steam engine system, dynamos of the Baltic electric plant in Riga, lightbulbs of the Gabriel and Anzheno / Angeno Comp. from Paris, and electric bulbs of Harle factory.

On January 12, 1895 in Minsk, the first city power station started. In 1899 the plant was named 'Elvod', Minsk became the fourth city after Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev, where began to use electrical networks.

On the Pärnu history and power stations and electrical networks in Estonia:
One hundred years ago in Parnu earned powerhouse. "The first power that earned in 1907, on the right bank of the Pärnu River , has not survived. Its capacity was inadequate and just four years later had to build a new power plant. This building still stands today...". "It is particularly interesting that once held two submarine cable across the river Pärnu, as the network of street lighting was on one side, and the power plant - on the other".
1915, the commandant of the city Rodzyanko gave the order to blow up a number of industries and power station, too. In Estonia, the use of electricity began in 1882 at the Manufactory of Kreenholm, but the first public power - 108 or 100 kW and 220 V - launched November 2, 1907 in Pärnu. The first industrial power plant was built at the Kunda cement factory in 1893.

Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961 in Germany, graduated from Wismar Polytechnical School as certified engineer, 1913 lived in LEHOLA.
Designed and built Estonian first electric power plant to Aru bog, on rented land from Kunda manor and the first high-voltage line 15 kV between different areas, which on 18 Oct. 1918 brought electricity to Rakvere. 1919 - 1939 was living in Tallinn. 1939 emigrated to Germany.

Kunda in Kirchspiel Maholm, Viru-Nigula Parish in Virumaa County, at present the Kunda Municipality in Lääne-Virumaa County. Viru-Nigula Parish - 25 km east-north of Rakvere, 13 km south-east of Kunda. "At the end of 1860s the owner of Kunda Manor John Girard de Soucanton became interested in the possibility of producing cement. Since 1893 steam engines were used for mining raw material, and a hydroelectric power station was completed at the same time (the first in all Estonia)". Gustav John Edmund Baron Girard de Soucanton, from Selgs b. 1863 in Kunda. His wife Sophie Eleonore (Ellinor) Girard de Soucanton (von Rosenbach). His grandfather from Reval, Johann Carl Baron Girard de Soucanton b. 1785. The Girard family was originally from the French countryside Languedoc - Roussillon.

Bliebernicht Johann Eduard began producing beer in 1869. He was bought in Pärnu a mechanical plant. In 1910 introduced the first electric motors.

1899 founded in Tallinn, electric motors and generators manufacturing factory 'Volta'. The first power plant was built in factories, for example in Narva, Kunda cement factory, a train factory in Tallinn, Pärnu in 1907. Followed by Tartu, Viljandi, Valga and Voru city. In 1907 the first public power station was opened in Estonia and Pärnu was the first city in the whole of Russia, where the streets had light bulbs. The generator operated the steam engine and the electric went to city street lighting. The Pärnu plant was ready in 1907; because it would have been cheaper to use coal to heat the plant, in 1910 this plant has been rebuilt and expanded.

In Viljandi in 1900 'Viljandi Telephone Company' started; A. Rosenberg houses had got electric light in 1902 from a power station commissioned by Volta factory. In 1910 the 'Inthal & Co.' power station to get electric lights downtown businesses, the first permanent cinema and residential houses in Viljandi. 1912 the city constructed a new power plant.

On the Hacker or Hakker family from Estonia:
Hacker / Hakker / Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961; his son Gert Hacker / Hangelaid; his brother Hugo Wilhelm Eduard Hacker b. 1884; his father Wilhelm Hacker b. 1852, grandfather (Szymon) Siim Hacker b. 1817. About above named Gottfried Hacker or Hakker: engineer, Wismar Polytechnic 1909 - 1913, Lehola / Leola 1913, Kunda 1918.
Gottfried Hacker or Hakker was living in Harjumaa, Lehola / Leola in 1913.
About above Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).

here was born in 1740 Christian Wilhelm / Христиан Вильгельм Гернет died ca 1819, born in Lehhola / Lehola as above, Estonia - and his sons:
1. Hans Moritz von Gernet born 1775 died 1860 (his son Adam Oskar von Gernet 1834 in Reval - 1908 in Reval - and his son: Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet born 1867 Sallenstad - d. ?) and 2. Otto Heinrich von Gernet (1780 Reval - 1848) and 3. Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857; and next son born in 1747 Karl Gustaw von Gernet / Карл Густав Гернет (Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa.
Sophia nee Armand was the daughter of Ivan Armand from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede from Estonia - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker among others from Lehola) about 1850. No data about this Swede but this family gone from Estland / Eesti / Estonia. From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second'. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan Armand and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hekke / Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker from Estonia, but roots from Sweden or Sverige?!) about 1850. The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg.

In 1912 released the first high-frequency machine for wireless telegraphy and telephony by Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company.

When the First World War broke out, JSC 'Deca' has received a loan to expand aircraft production under the production of airplanes and engines, from domestic materials. But space, material and manpower resources to carry out new plans in the Russian capital was not enough, and we had to consider options for building a new plant in the province. Among them was a small town Aleksandrovsk in Ekaterinoslav province (Copyright 2006 - 2011 by 'Science & Technology', No 10 (53), 2010).
The third company in Russia in terms of the electronic products supply. 

We manufactured an electrical accessory and magnetos for aero engines in the  beginning of  the First world war. A SwissFrench share (since 1904) of DEKA Joint Stock Society with brand name  "Duflon in  St  Petersburg manufactured electric accessory for naval fleet of Russian army, but also  for other defensive enterprises. The Russian - Japanese war in 1904 - 05 and the First world war were  with the best years, according to  and shareholders had taken up the advantage of  this prosperity. Total employees rose over 3 times only in "Duflon" proper in heyday 1914 - 1916, and  the production - 6 times. The factory manufactured radio sets and broadcasting stations (see about the  Boncz  Brujewicz  family), engines for automobiles and for planes. The "Duflon" had opened a branch in  Aleksandrovsk  / Zaporozhye that later on manufactured the "Zaporozhets" cars in "Zaporozhskiy  Avtomobilnyi Zavod" (Auto Works of Zaporozhye in Ukraine)!


DEKA JSC in December 1915 bought buildings and equipment in a town   Aleksandrovsk  in order to changeover of activity. 

During the First World War the firm DECA was one of the best electrical companies in the country, was equipped with American equipment and have trained engineers, technicians and production staff. For 1914 - 1917 value of the new equipment has increased from 473 thousand to 2.5 million rubles; in 1897 one ruble = 0.774 grams gold. 

The monthly production volume in July 1914 to December 1916 increased by 6 times.

On 24 October 1917 value belonging to the plant property, plant and equipment was estimated at 5.5 million rubles

To 1917 plant was a wide-venture and had 6 major divisions: the ship and shore-based tower systems, searchlight, aviation, mechanical, magneto and telegraph technology, in which there were 17 workshops (a searchlight or spotlight is an apparatus that combines a bright light source with some form of curved reflector or other optics to project a powerful beam of light ... By 1907 it was using to assist attacks against torpedo boats, enemy ships at greater distances, were also used by battleships and were installed on many coastal artillery batteries). 

DECA paid good dividends on the market in 1913: 500-ruble share of the Company was assessed at the St. Petersburg Stock Exchange at 850 rubles

The capital of 750 thousand rubles as 1500 registered shares by 500 rubles, only in 1903 had given net profit totaled 62.1 thousand rubles. In 1913, fixed capital - 1.5 mln rubles, that is 1500 shares at 500 rubles and 7500 shares at 100 rubles; balance - 4.181.995 rubles; dividend - 12 % per share for 500 rubles and 3 rubles 12 kopeek per share for 100 rubles.

From June 1901 to October 1917 Joint-stock company 'Deca' has received about 3.5 million rubles net profit.

In June 1918 the company was nationalized. 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in Petersburg - the number of workers in 1900 - 1910 year: 170 and in 1911 - 1917: 250 or in January 1905 - 179 workers; in January 1914 - 240; 1917 - more than 820. The factory produced an electro-mechanical equipment for the Navy of Russia.
Around the same time, i.e. in the summer of 1915, Joint Stock Company 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (or 'Deca') offered an airplane with a bullet with 'a four-sided feathers'. The bullet was cast from solid lead alloy, the stabilizer was made of tin. Bullets 'with feathers sided' with the other models under the guidance of Professor Zhukovsky were purged in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Imperial Moscow Technical School and received the highest rating-known scientist. The bullet 'Deka' or 'DK' has the best aerodynamic performance. In the end, that since the end of 1915 the company 'Syromyatnikov, Ovchinnikov, Shatsky & Co.' and JSC 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' became the main suppliers of such weapons for the Russian Army, launching a large-scale enterprises in their production. Bullets, 'DK' have been designed so well that no change had existed prior to the 20s of the 20th cent., survived war and civil war. The tests took place in this time showed complete failure of an engineer V. V. Dybovsky / W. Dybowski design of bullets and a bullets from foundry of E. E. Novitsky / E. Nowicki.

Copyright by and 'НиТ' / 'Nauka i Technika', 8 (75), 2012 by Мороз С. Г. / Moroz S. G.

"...Our magazine printed articles about the world's first heavy bomber 'Ilya Muromets'. ... more recently the editors received archival documents that shown new light on some of the events of World War I on the unique heavy airplane of Sikorsky and enterprises of JSC 'Motor Sich', which was called in those days 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co. / Дюфлон, Константинович...', or abbreviated DECA. These materials have been provided courtesy of the Museum of the plant 'Motor Sich'... Such opportunities have factory 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.'. By the time the plant passed the reorganization and was named 'Company of electromechanical structures', but the old mark of DECA continued to be used, as has been widely known for about twenty years. Its managing director Peter P. Azbelev signed on September 9, 1915 contract with the military-technical management, taking the following commitments:
'1. Reference samples ... and the exact basis of general conditions and the annexed lists, and specifications that will be subsequently given to the Company by the Chief Military-technical management, manufacture and deliver ... a) one hundred types of Benz motors 150 HP at 16,200 rubles for the motor, and b) one hundred sets of spare parts for 1,570 rubles per set, and c) twenty additional kits to them / 12 / 15.250 per set, and d) twenty five engines like Mercedes 100-150 HP at 11,340 rubles for the engine, and e) twenty five complete sets of spare parts in 1500 per set, and e) five additional sets to them 14,000 rubles per set, and the total amount of two million four hundred and seventy three thousand (2.473.000) rubles.
2) Testing of engines produced by the supplier according to the rules that will be given to the public by the Office.
3) The company shall manufacture the aforesaid engines and spare parts for Russian factories and present at the factories for inspection and examination of the selection committee: motors of 150 HP, the first five engines and five sets of spare parts and an extra set of spare parts after ten months of the issuance to the Company of the sample, while the remaining 150 HP engines and sets of spare parts for them ... in the next delivery for the first eight months (and) the last month of 11 motors and 14 sets of spare parts. Engines Mercedes by the 100-105 HP - the first one motor, a spare parts kit and one extra set of spare parts in ten months from the date the sample ...
4) On receipt of engines and spare parts supplier undertakes at its own expense sealing and delivering them to the central warehouse near by the aeronautical school, or at one of the railway stations in Petrograd as directed by the Engineering Department, as well as to send them - if you need - to (at no extra cost to the Treasury) - on the proposals of the military department - a place as directed by the Engineering Department...'. Copyright by and журнал НиТ: №8(75), 2012 г.

The contract was signed from the War Department by the head of the Technical Department, Major General GVTU Bolotov.
Company Dyuflon and Konstantinovich possessed relatively large and well-equipped production facilities, in addition having major plants in St. Petersburg and Moscow, and several more branches in major provincial centers of the Russian Empire, but they were loaded with military production, and had no opportunity to place another order ... requiring the development of two new products. In search of the site for the new production ..., called attention to the company of brothers Moznaim in Alexandrovsk in Ukraine (now a city of Zaporozhye). His owners could not find the military orders... Case the brothers were not going well ... and soon the plant changed owner. On the organization a motor branch of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in Alexandrovsk and the modernization of the company told the 'S & T' / 'Nauka i Technika' number of January 2011 ... We remind the reader only two dates in the history of the company in December 1915 signed a bill of sale, and in April 1916, had already been built new production buildings with modern - purchased in the U.S. and delivered through Archangel and Vladivostok - equipment. Next were built and other buildings, as well as construction, the specifics of which was related to the future profile of the company. ... began testing station, a large building with a spacious stand, necessary utilities, electric lighting and ventilation. Following the expansion of the plant is the largest enterprise in Russia ... and one of the best equipment ...
The first five-row six-cylinder engines, 'DECA' M-100 with parts and an additional set had to pass by the end of August 1916. It was very difficult: the German construction 'did not fit' with either adopted our technology ... or with the ... Russian and American machines. It was necessary to understand the materials used by German designer and pick up a replacement of domestic production ... the effort to 'adapt' engine 'Mercedes' to our manufacturing taken engineer Vorobyov, and the development of more powerful 'Benz' ... engineer Kireev. ... but the first step has been taken - and in August 1916 the motor 'DECA' M-100 was presented to the control tests. Major General Pniewski reported in St. Petersburg: '...the first engine made entirely of Russian materials, was set in motion and gave satisfactory results'. The plant began to implement the agreement in full. So, the issue of engines was started.
And although by the time the Office of Air Force managed to establish some order to force manufacturers to make this airplane, according to their calculation, the production of the aircraft has failed. And in the following events in 1917, ... you can not find the information in the documents on what engines from Alexandrovsk were to installed to particular variety of aircraft "Ilya Muromets". ... In addition, the well-known book of V. B. Shavrov 'History of aircraft design in the USSR until 1938', states that the motor 'deka' (in the book it is called the M-101) was installed on the aircraft, 'Lebed XI'.
In 1917 began the turbulent events ... All year management and staff of the Alexandrov factory DEKA did everything possible to continue production of engines and save the company ... but 'Company' could no longer exist (after November 1917) in the same form and on December 24, 1917 the company was terminated / adjourned. Although less than a month, the Soviet government decree that plant was nationalized (January 1918), the Company under the circumstances was unable to work...".

1916 -  1917   

The Deka built up the military manufactory of aeroengines in a town
(i.e. in Zaporozh'e either Zaporoze or Zaporizhzhya / Zaporozhye) in 1916. The Stavka (Supreme High Command of the Russian Military)  and  Russian military intelligence was interested in such experimental production with advanced  technology in actuality and this headquarters laid down actual line of research into the Deka mechanical  powers for  aircraft, e.g.  general P. W. Pniewski ordered to enforce norms of special steel for aeroengines in  Petrograd at the end  of 1916.  Copyright by Техника - молодёжи 2007-10, страница 31
   The "Main war - technical board" under
W. A. Semkowski concluded a big contract with joint stock  company of electrical firms (i.e. particular, separate businesses from Duflon / Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.  abbreviated as  DEKA) from Petrograd on 01 February 1916 in order to construct in the plant of DEKA two experimental aircrafts of professor
Gheorghe Botezat 
by 01 or 20 October 1917 (with aeroengine "Renault" and  with a gyroscope  - wheel which, when spinning fast, keeps steady the object in which it is fixed - the first automatic pilot) but  the professor  has been gone abroad earlier.
stock society DEKA received twice considerable government  subsidies on research & development in 1916 but the magnetos to aero engines produced here continuously in co-operation with the Petrograd  Polytechnic Institute (magneto i.e. electric apparatus for producing sparks in the ignition system of an internal combustion  engine). Copyright by Роман Гусаров Roman Gusarow and Жаннa Храмченко Zanna Chramczenko And it was soon built the section of aero engines in Zaporozhye = Zaporizhzhya under the general chief N. R. Brilling; an area of the factory had got 39 millions m² according to "History of building airplanes  in the  USSR" by B. V. Shavrov of 1985. In 1915, 'Deca' bought the plant of Moznaimov brothers and rebuild it under the issue of internal combustion engines and in particular - aviation; the first contract with the Government for an engine type '100' and 20 engines type Benz - Mercedes. The Mersedes (i.e. Mercedes) aero engines manufactured here in the  second half of  1916 and expected 10 - 15 engines monthly (e.g. the Mercedes - type 100 hp from DEKA factory and  "Deka M-100" in Zaporozh'e as early as 28 September 1916, at a later date DEKA 166/168/170 hp and it were produced here  ten aero engines   DEKA 129 hp with six cylinders monthly in the end of 1916, and DEKA M-170 hp in 1917; extra the "Benz"  and "Mercedes"   aero engines manufactured here also in 1917; the DEKA Company learned production of the piston engines  since September 1916: M-6, M-11, M-22, M-85, M-86, M-87, M-88, Ash-87FN, Ash-62JR
, often superior  and better than foreign engines
   Major General
Pniewski said in parliament about the DEKA company in  November 1916: "This is the first aeroengine as a whole from the Russian materials of experimental line of 5 pieces by 100 hp". The day of complete success - DEKA M-100, the first Russian six-cylinder water cooled engine constructed on 15 / 28 September 1916. This date can be regarded as the birthday of Russian domestic air industry; before 1916 Russia only imported aircraft engines.

So incompetent paralleled researches into the Mercedes engines conducted Anthony Fokker in Germany who was from  Holland and Heinrich Focke b. 1890. About details and photos of the MERCEDES aviation engines or on the  Mercedes-Daimler Motorengesellschaft from Stuttgart-Unterturkheim, see: "Jane's fighting Aircraft of World War I", by John  W. R. Taylor, England 1919 and London 1990 ("Studio Editions").  

The War Department wants to procure large quantities an airplane's bullets and even in 1917 our Joint-stock company 'Deka' was commissioned 400 thousand 'bullets, to shoot from airplanes' but the plant in July passed this order the army.

At present in 2007 "LSR Group planned to open 3 new first class business-centers. Electric City business centre of 340 thousand square metres was designed by architects Sergey Choban and Evgeny Gerasimov in 10, Copyright by Кирилл Н. Кравченко, Prospect in St Petersburg, in the historic building of 'Duflon, Konstantinovich and Co' plant - 'Electric plant'. ... LSR Group founded in 1993, LSR Group is one of the leading real estate development, construction and building materials companies in Russia". Under copyright by Кирилл Н. Кравченко,

 I  will take pains to collect information on all and  somebody who reads  need to know about.  You don't need to thank me; I'm happy to help whenever I can. I think that we are all  agreed in this matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it..  

'Omsk Engine-Building Production Associationoriginates from the plant in Alexandrovsk /  Zaporizhia, a joint stock company 'Deka' and produces aviation piston engines of foreign models. Was restored in 1920. 

"The area covered by brick-made production buildings of this factory exceeded any of then available engine works in the tsarist Russia and it   was equipped as one of the best; the Mercedes-type 100 hp single-row water-cooled  six-cylinder  engine assembled here in September 1916 and designated Deka M-100 became the firstling of the  company; the date of its manufacture was accepted as the birthday of the Company (i.e. in Zaporozh'e =   Aleksandrovsk or Zaporozhye / Zaporizhzhya); later on the engine power has been increased to 129 hp and  then to 168 hp due to efforts of Deka experts who managed to do this" (quotation from Vyacheslav   Boguslayev, Chairman of Board and Director General Motor Sich JSC of 2001; this quotation without the Author's  written permission, so see:; the engine was  installed to power several modifications of four-engine "Ilya Muromets" aircraft (with the Argus engine  too; for the first time attempted to produce "Benz" and "Argus" engines in the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works that  evacuated from Riga to Petersburg in 1915 but 10 months waited for steel in 1915/16; more than 70 military versions of  the "Ilia Mourometz" were built for use as bombers within 1913 - 1917; in all, 75 bombers were delivered, and roughly half of them saw combat; twenty similar airplanes had  been produced in 1916 and five built in September 1916 were not noticed by military command - were probably with engines of experimental line of 5  pieces Deka M-100; 15 March 1916 the 1st Aero Squadron begins operations) developed by the famous Polish aircraft designers Igor I.  Sikorsky and  his collaborator eng. Witold Jarkowski; outliving the fires of Civil War - sequestration by the Bolshevik authorities in January  1918 - "the  factory has commenced to repair and then to manufacture the parts for Renault aircraft engines" after 1921.   The section of aero engines in  Zaporozhye =  Zaporizhzhya employed as workers for years: in 1916 - 191 employees, 1917 - 420, and at the beginning of 1918 - 416 persons.  

   Завод ''Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко.' 1914  арх. М. М. Чижов, Улица Академика Павлова, 8; проспект Медиков, 3.

   Employees of ours

Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling
elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either  Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918.
 Brilling i.e. Briling; Russian, b. 1876, Russian and Soviet expert of aeroengines after  completion  of the Moscow Polytechnic, twice under arrest due to distribution of Lenin's  "Iskra", 1907 doctor in field of engines, 1908 - 1915 professor of the Moscow Polytechnic and chief of a special engine lab here, 1911 wrote thesis about internal combustion engines;  Zaporoze, DEKA Company - Copyright by Двигатель №4 (58) 2008 г_ СТАНОВЛЕНИЕ КОНСТРУКТОРСКОЙ СЛУЖБЫ ОАО МОТОР СИЧ

the Soviet Council of Labor and Defense issued instructions for the creation of a Commission for Organization of the Design of the Aerosled = KOMPAS in 1919, and the membership of the commission included such leading designers as N. E. Zhukovskiy - its scientific director and N. R. Briling, who  was  selected (according to  Valeriy Potapov; this quotation without the Author's written permission) as director of KOMPAS - it was Briling  himself who had laid the foundation for aerosled design shortly before World War I  in 1912 - mass production of  transport aerosleds was begun in the Russo-Balt i.e. Russian-Baltic Plant in Tsarist Russia". The 'DEKA' company gave work and bread for many future communists:
Antyuhin Fokich Ivan (1894-1938), Mavrin I. F., A.I. Ionov, Michail Georgievich Belov (1881-1936), Skorokhodov Kastorovich Alexander (1880-1919), Sutkevich Pavel Antonovich (1871 - 1919) and Alexander Alexeyev Yemelyanovich in St. Petersburg - then become a draftsman, designer, and finally, an assistant manager at the plant 'Duflon'.

Wladymir Jakowlewicz Klimow
after completion of the Moscow Polytechnic in 1917 worked as trainee in DEKA factory in  Zaporozhye, he designed a certain aero engine of his own here in 1917 and received an award at professor N. R. Brilling's  hands (Klimow i.e. Klimov; Russian, b. 1892, main constructor of the Soviet aeroengines since 1935). 

In August 1916 was a test of the first aircraft engine 'DECA M-100'. Inline six-cylinder water cooling, such as 'Mercedes'. His drawings created under the direction of engineer Vorobyov from
Alexandrovsk / Zaporozhye Plant of St. Petersburg stock company Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co., abbreviated as DECA but "in this study involved a student of the Moscow higher Imperial Technical School - Vladimir Klimov - the future chief designer of engines 'VC', founder of the OKB-117 (now JSC 'Klimov', Saint Petersburg), which took place at the time as the factory practice".

Bedrich  Urban  

(born 1880, d. 1940?)  

signed on with the Konstantynowiczs in year 1908 and he worked for  "Duflon & Konstantynowicz" 1908 - 1911 in St Petersburg.

Urban has got experience from "Tallinn Volta" 1904 - 1908.

Bedrich Urban was  engineer  constructor  and after

1911 - 1918 worked for Siemens - Schuckert  factory in St Petersburg

as  director manager according to Rain  Vaikla. 1918 came back to Estonia and he was owner of the 'Bureau Ins. B. Urban & Co.' for technical products and metal products business, tools, engines, steam engines, turbines and Skoda car factory representation in Estonia. 'Siemens-Halske' played a key role in the formation of the St. Petersburg electrotechnical industry before the First Warld War but in this city were other businesses: 'Universal Company of Electricity', 'United Cable Plants', 'Schuckert and Co.', 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', 'Society battery factories Tudor'. From 1898 'Plant of dynamos Siemens-Schuckert' and in 1895, Erickson launched the company 'NK Geisler and Co.', which has American roots. 'Glebov plant' really was the only Russian electromechanical company in Petersburg. All the rest were foreigners, mainly British and Germans but however, one plant was with mixed capital: 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' so-called 'Deca', but it was mainly French. Copyright by Encyclopedia of Russian merchants: Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company

According to JOHN SPARGO an  author  of   "RUSSIA  AS AN AMERICAN PROBLEM", ed. NEW YORK  and LONDON  in 1920 by Harper  & Brothers

"The four  principal  manufacturers of electrical machinery in Russia were   Siemens - Schuckert, General Electric  Company,  Siemens &  Halske, and Duflon,   Konstantynowicz & Co. These companies  made  practically all the generators and transformers   produced in  Russia, the first two companies  named  producing two-thirds of the whole. Of the four  companies named three were simply Russian  branches  of  German concerns, the  last   named, the   Duflon-Konstantynowicz firm, being French. These  factories were quite unable to meet the demand for   generators,  transformers and  other electrical   machinery even before the war".

Russian aircraft factories in the Russian Empire in 1915:

1. Rusian - Baltic Plant (RBVZ): departments of aviation in Riga and St. Petersburg. In 1910 Sikorsky built C6, C10, C12, C22. 2. Zavod 1st All-Russian Association of aeronautics (Shchetinin). 3. 'The aeronautics company (Lebedev, from 1913 to Petrograd). 4. Zavod V. Slyusarenko, 1912 Riga, Bleriot aircraft. 5. Fabrika A. A. Porohovschikova, Petrograd in 1914. 6. Company 'Dux' since 1910 aircraft Farman, Voisin, Deperdyussen. 7. Aviatsionny plant F. F. Mosca. 8. Masterskaya I. I. Steglau in 1911 Petrograd. 9. Zavod A. A. Anatra 1913, Odessa, Simferopol. 10. Company Mathias, from 1914 Berdyansk, the Schütte-Lanz airships. 11. 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', Aleksandrovsk in the Ekaterinoslav province, the Argus engines for sale under license. 12. Russian factories Daimler. According to: P. D. Duz, 'The history of aeronautics and aviation in Russia': 1. Russian-Baltic Shipyard (RBVZ) manufactured liquid-cooled engine capacity of 166 liters; RBVZ type-6 Argus have been designed by RBVZ in Riga. The evacuation to Petrograd loss of skilled personnel, equipment and system of production and finance. 2. Plant 'Motor': in the summer of 1915 from Riga to Moscow was evacuated the plant of 'Motor' association which already had experience in building of rotating engines. 3. JSCompany of P. Ilin; producing of engines to cars was involved in workshops of the Ilin company in Moscow. 4. the aviation company in Simferopol; it was created as a branch of the Aviation Plant A. Anatar located in Odessa by the beginning of 1917. 5. Deka in Zaporoze / Aleksandrowsk / Alexandrowsk. 6. In Rostov-on-Don was the Agricultural Machinery Plant 'Aksai' began to create the aviation department and has received an order for monthly production of 30 engines of the 'Mercedes'; 7. and many related industries as Singer in Podolsk.  

Comment on Gheorghe Botezat  

Gheorghe Botezat either doctor George, Geogrij, Georges A. de Bothezat or Georg A. Botezat, Botezatu, was born in Iasi i.e. Jassy in Romania 1883 or 1882 - died in Dayton, Ohio in USA 1940 (photo from below). Botezat learnt in Sereth, next graduating in 1908 at Kharkiv Institute of Technology, and two years of study at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1911, was a doctor in field of aviation; a Russian  aeronautical engineer and  mathematician; professor of the  Petrograd Polytechnic  Institute in the beginning of the First world war; worked for DEKA in  Petrograd / St  Petersburg 1914 -  1917 and next he stayed in Iasi at the  turn  of 1918; Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Prof. Bothezat from Romania.wrote (1918) letter and report "General Theory of  the  Screw" (air-screw i.e. propeller of an aircraft); at a later date he wrote off to Subcommittee on Buildings, Laboratories and Equipments in  Feb. 1919 and ( by ) the US  Army Air Corps awarded a contract in January 1921 to Dr. George  de  Bothezat and Ivan Jerome (i.e. Eremeeff, Jeromiejew or Jerome - after a  millionaire   inventor from Long Island and next owner of the Massapequa Farmers Market, the 59-year old Jerome was arrested in 1955, freed on $100,000 bond, he  jumped bail and disappeared; there were reports he had been   seen everywhere from Russia to South America, but he was never found; by to develop a vertical flight  machine; this helicopter, designated the Engineering Division H-1  and designed by George De Bothezat and Ivan (Eremeeff) Jerome,  made its first public flight on December 18, 1922; George de  Bothezat's Army Helicopter Number 1, nicknamed "The Flying  Octopus", possessed 1 x the 180 hp Le Rhone radial engine (Rhone 134 kW).
Copyright by Документальные источники: Duflon and Konstantinovich Company

Count Albert R. de Gern / Albert Gernet ? / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company. His neighbours at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg: G. Bunge, a retired engineer, member of Russian locomotive and mechanical plant in Kharkov, Management Board of Russian-Belgian Metallurgical Society; M. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral, Grotkus Anna von Erne baroness and Grube, Ernest Charles, the Discount and Loan Bank of Persia - Chairman, Board of Siberian Commercial Bank in St. Petersburg, Committee of the Sisters of Mercy of the Red Cross in 1912; Ramseyer ? / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. / Ramsayer, gentleman, office in the Ministry of Imperial Court.
After Revolution the family of Gern (von Gernet?) stayed in the St. Cloud in France. Even in St. Petersburg, Lina de Gern was acquaintance of Anna Pavlovna Pavlova second, a dancer of Russian ballet. Youngest son Nicholas, Frenchman was released from the Marine Corps in the spring of 1917 with the rank of warrant officer and was assigned to the cruiser. The Minister of Marine, Grigorovich has sent him in fall of 1917 to America on charges of ordering new ships. In New York he fell in love with some actress and decided to marry her. In 1918, shot himself. The eldest son Sergei, from post-war Paris, in 1920 went to America. They all were Catholic. Count de Gern for a long time was married to the daughter of the Marquis de Segur, and the Catholic Church does not recognize divorce; the count went to the family estate in the north of France. The consequence of loss of personal funds was that the Count appeared in St. Petersburg as a representative of the French capital invested in the steel factory Makeyevka in southern Russia. De Gern on August 19, 1906 second time married, lived close to Kozelsk and in St. Petersburg. Acquaintance of the Gern family: the family of Zapolsky, Sergei N. Aksakov with son of Boris and daughter Xenia, Peter V. Blokhin and Princess Nadezhda Vyazemskaya from Mogilev, Alexei Nikolayevich Yergolsky from a estate south of Kozelsk.

M. S. Sitnikov employees of ours. 

Nikolay Mikhailovich Shvernik born 1888, was a Russian politician and employees of ours - 1902.
CHARLE Masson Ph. / son of Philiberte / Philibert Masson was Vice - Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg (then L. L. Nobel succeed him) and a member of the Board of Nabpolts (Moscow). Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel: Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935) - hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'. Also: W. W. Kiriejew engineer in Aleksandrowsk (Benz engines) and
Alexander Medvedev born 1900, the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs BASSR - he began his career in 1913 at 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg. Zhurnollo L. A. (Dziurnollo?), engineer and commerce adviser, factory director and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', a board member of the Society of Tver city railway. Mr Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Drzewiecki. And from the Tomsk Province Basil Bunkov since 1915 in St Petersburg

Valentin Petrovich Vologdin
1881 - 1953.
According to Jan Schneiberg / Ian Shneyberg: "Valentin Petrovich Vologdin was born 1881. His father, Piotr A. Vologdin worked as a mining superintendent of the Kuva Metallurgical Plant. ... After moving this family to Perm, Valentin ... enrolled in 1892 to Perm real school. ... In 1900 he successfully passed the examinations to the Petersburg Institute of Technology. ... participated in the demonstrations of the revolutionary ... students. ... he was arrested ... Through the application of a professors of Technology Institute, he was enrolled in the engineering corps soldier ...". V. P. Vologdin began his work after return to St. Petersburg. His real activity began in 1910 in the field of the construction of Russian-built generators for radio communications. "V. P. Vologdin created several original designs, the first of which was built in 1912 for naval stations. ... in 1912, has developed its own ... radiogenerator ... to the naval radio station, manufactured by the factory of Glebov. A year later, in 1913, Vologdin creates a more powerful machine (6 kW at a frequency 20 kHz), which was used for radiotelephone between crests and the main port of Admiralty in St. Petersburg at a distance of 5 km". He worked for the French - Russian plant in 1912 - 1918, now part of the Admiralty shipyard, the plant  “Duflon & Konstantinovich” (Deka)
he designed a certain generator at the plant Electrik (former Deka) in St. Petersburg, and also an high frequency alternator for radio engineering purposes in Russia, with 2 kW, 60 kHz for the Navy and planned to work on much larger machines for radio stations and (1915) on heavy aircraft Ilya Murometz by Igor I. SikorskiIgor Sikorsky airplane with co-operation of DEKA.Prof. Valentin Petrovich Vologdin played an outstanding role in radio engineering and electrotechnology. "V. P. Vologdin becomes head of the technical bureau at the plant 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' near by St. Petersburg. The company produced the high-power generators, which were cheaper than foreign and reliable in operation. ... representatives of foreign firms invited him to work, but he rejected all the proposals and wants to create own research laboratory. During the ... war ... Valentin Petrovich was already working as technical director, produced not only high-frequency machine radios, and generators for airplanes, different equipment for military installations". "He played a special role in the development of the Russian radio industry initially as an expert in power conversion technique and then as one of its organizers. Vologdin is also a pioneer of high frequency electrotechnology" (see: research by Vladimir I. Roginskii, published in 1981, Leningrad). Valentin Petrovich Vologdin was the founder of the industrial use of  high-frequency current technology including shipbuilding, with Michail Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich), the foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia.

In 1918, Valentin Petrovich Vologdin in Lower Novgorod set up scientific Electrotechnical Laboratory to create radio Science Center, founded the summer of 1918. He has built two transmitters spark station at Tsarskoe Selo and Khodynskoe field in Moscow together with M. Bonch-Bruevich, creator of the world's first electronic tube generator with a copper anode, cooled water.

Azbelev Peter P. , b. Febr. the 27, 1868 in Vologda, died after 1927, the Soviet Union. From the hereditary nobility. A retired major-general of the Russian fleet and when the first Russian ocean armored cruiser 'Dmitriy Donskoy' carried out investigations off the coast of the Korean Peninsula in 1896, the crew of the cruiser gave names to islands, capes and bays in honor of the members of the crew: P. P. Azbelev, A. A. Bek-Dzhevagirov, G. I. Butakov, Vitgeft, Gildebrandt, Govorlivyy, Dundukov-Korsakov, G. S. Zavoyko, Semenov V. I. and Shtorre. We can to see familiar names given by the Russian sailors on German maps of Korea published in 1904, according to Nikolai Komedchikov of the Russian Academy of Science. His father Paul B. Azbelev, d. after 1901, a retired Councillor of State, lived in St. Petersburg, Kolpino No 7. Brothers and sisters: Nicholas d. 1912, major-general of the Admiralty, Ivan b. 1862, died in Ekaterinburg 1931, Alexander d. 1913, Constantine b. 1895 died after 1920, Julia d. after 1913; wife Elizabeth F. d. after 1913, lived with her husband in St. Petersburg, Apothecary No 6. Son Paul b. 1900, St. Petersburg d. after 1932, arrested 1932. About the family of the above named Azbelev: 1. Azbelev, I. P., 'Yaponiya i Koreya', published by A. Levenson, Moscow, 1895, 276 pp. 2. Acc. to Yuan Tung-Li: Azbelev, Nikolai Pavlovich, d. 1912. P. P. Azbelev also was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon,  Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt'.

Armand Alexandr / Alexander E., hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons'; a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'. Armand Evgenii / Evgeny E., hereditary honorable citizen, counselor; chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons'; chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'. Von Gernet S. P., a nobleman, a retired captain and board member: the Company 'Bahmugskaya salt', the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and the Company of metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants 'Becker and Co.' Alexander Kastorovich Skorokhodov, a worker-Bolshevik, in Petrograd 1916 and he worked at the plant 'Dyuflon'.

Fedor Illarionovich Stupak - the history of creation and organization of production of the first Soviet vacuum tubes is going to Bonch-Bruevich and to the outstanding Soviet technologist F. I. Stupak; after moving to St Petersburg, 1896 he met Vologdin; in 1898 he was appointed to the plant manager and in 1911 to the position of chief engineer of the plant 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St Petersburg (to 1916).
Pavel Antonovich Sutkiewicz son of Antoni Sutkiewicz. Born 8 / 20 September 1871 in Saratov, nobleman, the Roman-Catholic, Polish, died 24 August 1919. He left a lot of articles in 'Elektrichestvo', by Russian Imperial Technic Society. P. A. Sutkievich was living in Samara and in 1892 Odessa, and after 1892 studied at the St Petersburg Politechnic Instytut, to 1897. Since 1897 worked for 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company' in Petersburg (office job), 1898 was living in Lower Novgorod. Acc. to A. G. Udincew.
Ian A. Berzin / Janis Berzinš b. November 29, 1890, died April 14, 1938. Soviet trade unionist. In 1915, Ian A. Berzin began working in the plant of General Electric Company. The First World War forced the government to evacuate some of the plants from Riga to Petrograd. Together with other workers, Jan Berzin goes to the Russian capital, Petrograd and to factories of Puzyrev, Dyuflon, Rakovitski, Geri, Siemens-Schuckert.

Cooperant of our factories 

Igor I. Sikorsky (or Sikorski) born 1889, he spent three years at the Naval College in St. Petersburg 1903 - 1906; Sikorsky's success  helped win him a job as head of the airplane division of the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works in Petersburg 1912 - 1917, that is where he  developed his first major new airplane design.  The R-BVZ manufactured trains, airplanes, engines and automobiles, and it was run by M. W.  Szydlowski, who had insight into the importance of aviation's future; the engineering and technical staff at the R-BVZ was expanded by  Sikorsky  who brought many of them along with him from Kiev; the first airplane built by Sikorsky and his staff at the R-BVZ was the S-6B  which was a modified version of the S-6A (by Carl Bobrow this quotation without the Author's written permission). In 1920 a business - company of 'Sikorsky - Ukraine', was half of state company, started to operate. 


Comment on  Zaporozhye / Zaporizhzhya  

Announcement on autonomy of Ukraine in April 1917 and the first Declaration of   independence  by Ukraine on 20 November 1917 involved Zaporozhye but shortly assumption of power by the Soviets in January 1918. In 1918 the 'Deca' factory in Zaporozhye was nationalized and in 1923 was renamed on the 'State Aircraft Plant No 9 Bolshevik' - 1995 as JSC 'Motor Sich'. "The Peace of Bread"  concluded by Germany,  Austria - Hungary and  Turkey with the Ukraine:  acceptance of the Ukr. state on 09 February  1918, and Treaty of  Brest-Litovsk  on 03 Mar. 1918 recognized the Ukraine as ind. state and  thus the Austria -  Hungarys Army occupied Zaporozhye since April by November 1918, next Skoropadsky and the Ukrainian Directory since November 1918 by March 1919, general  Denikin since May  1919 by December 1919; general Vrangel by October 1920 and conquered  by the Red Army  then. 

Around that time many others the Polish in Russia were involved in studying flights 

1. eng. Theodor Kalep / Kalepa or Kalepas, Estonian by birth, in "Motor" works which evacuated from Riga to Moscow in 1915  (by here constructed the first Soviet aeroengine in 1919),  
Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovski i.e. Zukowski (1847 - d. 17 March 1921) called "the father of Russian aviation" wrote about stability of  motion and hydraulic shock in water pipe, one of the world first wind tunnel was built in 1902 at Moscow University under his  supervision and First Europe Aerodynamics Inst. was established in Kuchino in 1904,
Stefan Drzewiecki (1844 - 1938) son of Karol, worked in Paris (here edited a handbook in 1916, and died in 1938) and  Petersburg. Drzewiecki met with Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen. The usual guests of Drzewiecki were brothers Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov, Dyuflon, botanist Professor Poirot, K. E. Makovsky, Serbian Prince Karageorgievich. Drzewiecki presented his theory in a detailed report of the Technical Society in April 1884 and published under the title 'The airplanes in under way, the theory of flight experience'. His parents were noble, an ancient clan of the Poles, who owned large estates in the province of Volhynia and a piece of land in Odessa, houses in Warsaw, and so his parents more part of living were in Paris, where he was educated at home and in Lycee St. Barbe.
L. Z. Markowicz who edited handbook in St Petersburg in 1911/1913,  

5. major general P. W. Pniewski, chief of the Russian air force who kept  in touch with the Supreme High Command of the Russian Military  and chief officer of  the "board of directors on aerial - war fleet" in 1916 (the Pniewski family of Rola  arms verified themselves in Kaunas  A.D. 1799: Maciej son of Stanislaw, and also in 1861: sons of brothers Augustyn and Stanislaw; Ignacy Pniewski son of  Szymon possessed Tarucie estate in the  Kaunas government in 1889)

6. W. F. Adamienko, owner of an air factory in Moscow,  

7. O. W. Olechnowicz  (lieutenant Alechnovitch) has beaten many records on the small Sikorsky aeroplane; see,  

Stanislaw Dorozynski (the first flight of Russian Naval Aviation at Kulikovo Pole airfield near Sebastopol with pilot S.F.Dorozhinski on 16 September 1910),  

Dybowski, Sredinski, Heyne, Makowiecki, Malynski,  Bronislaw Matyjewicz - Maciejewicz (he studied in France in 1910, died 01.05.1911 near Sebastopol),  

Grzegorz Piotrowski (or Petrovski, he studied in France in 1910),  

Michal Scipio del Campo (or Campo - Scipio, b. at Polesie area in 1883, did a degree in Polytechnic of Lille, his first flight was here in 1905, he studied in France still in 1910, Scipio flew on a plane constructed by Czeslaw Zbieranski & Cywinski in summer 1911),  

Otto Segno (or Henryk Segno, he studied in France by the end of 1910),  

and at a later date B. J. Rossinski, M. G. Lerch, A. J. Rajewski /  A. E. Raievsky (the first Polish to fly in a Bleriot monoplane was a young student, Raievsky) and G. W.  Jankowski /  Yankovsky (when Sikorsky started to build machines of his own, Yankovsky became his pilot)  -  experimental pilots (the Polish were 33 % of Russian pilots in 1911, and besides Lew Maciewicz died in 1910; the others Polish pilots in Russia who served under general Dowbor Musnicki 1917/1918: Norvid Kudlo in Babrujsk 1918, captain Zygmunt Studzinski in Minsk 1917 - 1918; besides Stanislaw Jakubowski in Odessa 1917 - 1918 and lieutenant Waldemar Narkiewicz in Odessa 1918 - 1919);

8. W. Hurko - chief of the Committee on Air Force since 1915  and the member of the imperial State's Cabinet

9. eng. Butmi, Giedrojc and eng. W. W. Bartoszewicz (i.e. V. V. Bartoshevich, chief of the assembly of aeroplanes; Farman-IV aircraft was built in series under supervision of engineer  Bartoshevich)  at  "Dux" factory in Moscow,  

10. eng. Pozezinski elaborated project of aeroengine in September 1915,  

11.  M. Adam Haber - Wlynski (i.e. Gaber - Vlynskij, b. 1883 - died 1921 in Lublin, he studied in France by the end of 1910 and worked in "Dux" factory near by Alexander station in Moscow; he    flown the most common modification of Russian Farman - IV and had set several ceiling records e.g. April 13th, 1913; next fought in the Poznan province 1919),  

12.  Nagorski (i.e. pilot J. I. Nagurskij did the world  first  flight in Nesterov's  flying boat on September 17th, 1916 twice with a passenger; the international record was registered by the Airclub counsel   on  November 16th, 1916),  

13. Raczynski - in his big estate in the Smolensk government constructed an airplane factory in 1917,  

14.  patents for aeroengines received during the First world war: D. Wiszniewiecki, captain Jablonski, colonel P. A. Gelwach, lieutenant Fajwiszewicz;  

15. W. A. Semkowski was in command (1916) of the "Main war - technical board of directors" where  was an air section; the section was the base of the "board of directors on aerial - war fleet" under major general P.  W. Pniewski (war supply and orders) in 1916, 

16. major general Michal Szydlowski (Sydney Gibbes - who was after appointed English tutor to the Tsar's children in 1908 - spent the summer of 1901 with a family called SHIDLOVSKY = Szydlowski; he was taken on as tutor to two boys and lived in St Petersburg and in their country "dacha" according to "The Romanovs & Mr Gibbes (...)" by Frances Welch, ed. London 2002; see also below) an ex-navy man with connections to the Russian military and who was near connected with W. Hurko in 1916, died 1918

17. Feliks J. Biske or Biskie was born in Plonsk 13.11.1874 and next lived in Warsaw 1912, physicist and air expert in 1915, in Rostov by Don 1916, Izum in   Ukraine 1924,  

18. Stanislaw Ziembinski manager of aerodynamics lab near by Kiev and director of "Gnome" aeroengines factory in Moscow by June 1915; here captain  Wojtkiewicz, lieutenant Radawski and captain Golubicki also worked in May 1916,  

19. W. J. Sredniewski, expert of aerial photograph,  

20. eng. Wladyslaw Zalewski (chief of the Central air constructional office in Warsaw since 1925) and Franciszek Kaczynski carried out designes of planes in 1915

21. Jerzy Jankowski and S. Czerwinski acted as air experts,  

22. Hipolit Lossowski after completion of the Aerial Navigation School (since 1907) commanded the School of Pilots in Moscow since 1916 and the 7th Air Park in 1917, served under general Dowbor Musnicki 1917/1918,  

23. Gustaw Macewicz after completion of the first Course of pilotage in 1911 commanded the 7th Air Squadro since 1914, served under general Dowbor Musnicki 1917/1918, the Polish general 1919,  

(The White Corps of General Dowbor Musnicki (Dovbor - Mus'nicki) was composite of the Polish from Russian Army.  Polish society had known in 1918 only  about  nine tsarist Generals, Poles - according to Baginski: Gen. Michaelis, Dowbor Musnicki, Bylewski, Symon, Latour, Jacyna, Lesniewski, Olszewski and  Osinski. According to Olechowski, during the First world war in the tsarist Army served 800.000 Poles (20.000 officers and 102 Generals in November 1917) but only a couple of a dozen or so had gone through to Polish Corps (the 1st, 2nd and 3rd) in 1917 - 1918. According to Szczesny in Lithuanian Army (in 1919) as many 60 % officers came from the 1st Polish Corps, e.g. commands and orders in the Birzai regiment made in Polish (spring 1919). According to Gen. Bylewski (data of April 01st, 1917) 119 Generals - Catholics - mainly the Polish, 20.000 officers and 480.000 - 700.000 private soldiers served in Russian Army and besides 100.000 prisoners of war - Poles. According to Alexander Lednicki in June 1917 in Russian Army served only 314.000 Poles, and according to Gen. Dowbor Musnicki were 300.000 the Polish

24. eng. Wsiewolod Jan Jakimiuk next acted in Poland,  

25. Jerzy Rudlicki carried out designes of plane in Odessa in 1910 and Tadeusz Heyne in Kiev 1910, too

26. colonel Aleksander Wankowicz was expert in balloons in Russia

27. the eldest Pole among above military figures was general Jan Jacyna who served in a "Main technical committee" of Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891; at a later date he acted, 1901 - 1917 as member on "the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry (next War and Navy  Ministry) in Petersburg; since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during  - 1914 / 1917 - the First world war; then (since 1915) he co-operated with "Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions (confer Jan Jacyna memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71); he was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th  cent., amidst military and industrial activists, social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament  since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz wholy negative when paid a  call on Lenin at the end of January 1918;  

(general Jan Jacyna kept in touch with  e.g. Michal Szydlowski and Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky, who managed with a big loans especially  during  the First world war; about Jaroszynski see Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001  

[Karol Yaroshinsky "(...) died in near poverty in 1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as Sidney Reilly disappeared in the Soviet Union (in the 1920s). (...) Before the Revolution, he had fallen in love with one of the Tsar's daughters (...). Near to Krivoshein - the man who brought Yaroshinsky into the Allied banking scheme. (...) Yaroshinsky was the financial benefactor to the Romanov family during the last days of their captivity in Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg in 1918. The man was involved with Henry Armitstead and Jonas Lied, who had been paid through the British Secret Service for activities in Northern Russia (1918)."]).

The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank. According to V. S. Solomko at this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the St. Petersburg International Bank by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy. The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks". Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a defence Commission 1907-10. In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board. From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of Special Meeting for defence. At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup, acc. to A. G. Kalmykov and

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'.
On the Рамзай surname:
we are looking for who is Riemsnyder / Reimsnyder / Reemsnyder / Reamsnyder or Ramseyer / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. - a family from Estonia and St. Petersburg

Lenin's funds in Russia and the German military intelligence service - part 2: Alexander = Helphand vel Parvus (from Berezyna / Berezino) and also Hanecki and Mecheslav Yulevich Kozlovsky (Mieczyslaw Kozlowski son of Julian, a Bolshevik attorney, died in 1927, was described as the chief recipient of the German money that was transferred from Berlin through the Diskonto-Gesellschaft to the Stockholm Nya Banken and thence to the Siberian Bank in Petrograd) had been working for Parvus, Sklarz in Berlin, Karinsky, Bonch-Bruyevich, Lenin, Radek, and Vorovsky; Eugenia Mavrikievna Sumenson (Eugenia daughter of Maurycy, a woman relative of Hanecki), Svenson vel Hans Steinwachs, Alexinsky.

28. Eng. professor Witold Jarkowski born 1875 - died 1918, took a degree in Paris, he next worked in the St Petersburg Technological Institute; and Jan  Jarkowski i.e. engineer Jan T. J. Jarkowski son of Jozef who verified himself with his sons: Aleksander, Witold, Jan and Wladyslaw M. Jarkowski in MINSK in  November 1894 (they owned village Rusaki - near by Hlybokae in the Dzisna district - since 1840 and they were related to the Szendzikowski family);  

29. naval general Aleksander Fedorowicz Mozajski (Russian, 1825 - 1890; probably from Polish-speaking Ukrainian nobility, who were Roman Catholics; "the Russian nobles, named Mozhaysky (and alike), have originated from the ancient Volhynian Mozhayski-Mozarowski family" according to began to design an aircraft in 1880 and he constructed it in 1883;  

30. Captain Zabski i.e. Shabskij constructed in 1908 the blimp called "Uchebnyj" (1500 m cub.) belonged to the Russian Army. In 1908, the firm 'Duflon' produced two electric motors but the commission found it is not practical enough.  


"The Russo-Baltic Wagon Company had a director Michal Szydlowski who was an ex-navy man with connections to the Russian military and he managed to convince the Imperial Russian Air Force (IRAF) to utilize the "Murometz" for reconnaissance and bombing purposes; in December 1914 Szydlowski himself, with the rank of Major General, took over command of the "Squadron of Flying Ships" known as the EVK (Aleksander Serednicki; captain Jozef Baszko died in Riga 1946 - son of Stanislaw from the Vicebsk goverrnnnment; captain Robert Nizewski b. 02.05.1885 as Catholic and captain Kazimierz Zagorski were pilots here, according to my research work); Szydlowski (...) brought Sikorsky to his base and together they managed to overcome the teething problems; (...) the pre-war Murometz was designed to use German-built engines, which obviously were not available and Sikorsky experimented with a range of Russian (DEKA aeroengine according to me) and British engines, but never achieved the desired level of performance; these problems, together with the low level of Russian manufacturing, meant that only 75 (or 70 - 80) of this outstanding aircraft were produced during the war; Szydlowski decided, after the revolution, that he had no future in Russia, and he convinced Sikorsky to leave also; Szydlowski together with his son, was captured trying to cross the border into Finland and they were shot, Sikorsky was luckier and from Murmansk he managed to escape by ship to London" (quotation from ARI UNIKOSKI; this quotation without the  Author's written permission).  

Russia also had the first aviation research center in the world, the Kouczynski (i.e. Kuczynski) Institute and B.C. Steczkin was the author of the theory of the jet-engine.

Curiosity: the first plant which the Germans built in the Soviet Russia was "Junkers - Werke" in File near by Moscow in 1922; operated till 1925. The Junkers company  activated its branches in Rostov by Don and Turkestan in 1925 and also airline "Deruluft". The Soviets increased import of the BMW aeroengines from Munich in Germany  after 1925, and in 1928 bought a licence on production of the BMW aeroengines, which the German engineers - from Technische Hochschule in Berlin - assembled in Russia  after 1931 (according to professor Andrzej Peplonski of 1996).  

Do you know? In Poland after second world war was a proverb about DEKA Company that any bad car with defective  engine is "deka- wka / dekawka / decavca", i.e.  proverbial junk!  By  all means! ... in an imagination of our  "worshippers"...  

From the other hand we can look at the Orlov Denisov family from Vasily Orlov vel Orlov-Denisov, born 1775, count and his children:
1. Sophia Orlov Denisov b. 1817 and married to Vladimir Pietrovich Tolstoy, countess;
2. Mikhail Orlov-Denisov born 1823 with wife from the Chertkov family, graf;
3. Lyubov Orlova-Denisova / Orlov - Denisov married to Nikolai Trubetskoy, she b. 1828, d. 1860;
4. Fedor / Fiodor born 1802 or 1806 with wife from the Nikitin family;
5. Nadiezda / Nadjezda / Nadine Orlov-Denisov married to Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin, he born ? and died before 1868, Major-General, ataman Orenburg Cossacks. His parents: father Andrew / Andrej Katenin 'youngest' b. 1768 and d. 1835, mother - Irina Lermontov. His grandfather Fedor Katenin and his great-grandfather Ivan Nikitich Katenin d. 4 December 1723. Mother of above named Michail - Irina Lermontov b. 1771 d. 1818. His brother Alexander A. Katenin, b. 1800 Kluseevo or Polovtsov in 1803 with wife Barbara I. Vadkovsky from Jan Wadkowski family.

Above Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin daughters:

Sofia d. 1908 and married Martynov
(Martynov Dmitry M. born 1760 -
that is Martynov Dmitry Michajlovich b. 1760. Captain (or Major?). He was a Kirsanov district (in Tambov Province) leader of the nobility. His brother Solomon Martynow 1774-1839.
Victoria nee Martynov / Wiktoria Matriniwna second voto Krasnickaja was born ca 1796 and died on December 6, 1862 in Kiev, she was daughter of Major (or Captain? Martynov Dmitry Michajlovich probably) Russian army Martynow, her second husband - Krasnicki.
Above named Sofia Katenin d. 1908 and married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov b. 1858 d. 1915 - his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816 and his grandparents: Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783);
his second daughter Mary / Marija Michailovna Katenin b. ? and died 1903; married 1868 or 1869 to
His Highness Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski / Nikolai Ilyich Bagration Gruzinskij of Georgia

(b. 1844, d. 1916, his father Elizbar / Ilija Bagration-Gruzinskij who was b. 1790 and died 1854 son of
Georgij XII Bagration - Kachietinskij who born 10 October 1746 and died 28 December 1800;
1. Iraklij 2nd Bagration b. 1720 d. 1798, 2. Tejmuraz 2nd Bagration b. 1690 d. 1762, 3. Iraklij 1st Nazar Ali Chan Bagration b. 1643 died 1709, 4. David Bagration b. 1612 d. 1648, 5. Tejmuraz 1st Bagration b. 1589, 6. David 1st died 1602, 7. Alexandr 2nd Bagration b. 1527 d. 1605, 8. Levan 1st Bagration Kachetinskij b. 1503, 9. Georgij 2nd Zloj / Bad Bagration Kachetinskij born 1469, 10. Alexander 1st Bagration Kachetinskij b. ca 1455, 11. Georgij VIII Bagrationi).

Prince Nikolai Ilyich relatives
Orbeliani, Chavchavadze and Sviatopolk-Mirsky. Child of Nikolai Bagration: Maria Nikolaevna Bagration Gruzinskaja married Tregubova, Princess.

Georgij XII Bagration - Kachietinskij

according to and Copyright ©Christopher Buyers.

Key note

Among relatives and next of kins of our Mscislau branch appeared the Zarako Zarakowski family in the second half of 19th cent. and in the 20th cent.; 

the Spychalski family was related to kinsmen of our lineage at the turn of the 20th century and in the middle of the 20th cent.; 

the Jaroszewicz family had connection to our line in the middle of the 20th cent. (the Jaroszewicz house derived from the Vicebsk province and had Prus the 1st arms, they possessed here the Ostupiszcze estate from Gruzewski family since 1710 to the end of the 18th cent.; Jerzy Piotr Jaroszewicz with Kwaczynski nickname was an officer here in 1713 - 1714 and somebody here in 1716; related to Kownacki, Rymaczewski and Kopakowski according to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 3; among others several of the Jaroszewiczs died in Old Bychow in 1655; priest Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666, Roman Jaroszewicz in Mahileu in 1682, and Jan Jaroszewicz in Vilna 1720 - 1722, another Jan Jaroszewicz and also his son Jan lived in Szaule near by Mejszagola in 1753, Ludwik Jaroszewicz lived in the Mscislau province in 1764; the Jaroszewiczs were related to Jankowski, Olszewski and Chodasiewicz families in the Dzisna district and also they served Radzivill family in the Minsk government at the turn of the 20th cent.; Dmitrij Jaroszewicz son of Konstantin, Russian admiral)

the Swierczewski family was near socially associated with us, for instance in the sixtieth of the 20th century. 

Some Generals, Prime Minister, the Head of State and one marshal of the communistic Poland - creators of the Soviet   transitory administration 1943 / 1990 - derived from these families. Relatives of our Konstantynowicz / Константинович branch kept in touch  with  Jozef  Pilsudski, Michal Zymierski and Wladyslaw Sikorski at the moment in the first half of the 20th century - marshals  and  General with different political views. 

It wonder that three Marshals and General - military prosecutor died with natural death but three remaining Generals died with tragic one. Generals of communistic People Polish Army: Karol Swierczewski, Piotr Jaroszewicz and Marian Spychalski (later on the Marshal) in the fourties of the 20th century were deputies of Michal Zymierski - Marshal and communistic Minister of Defense. The genealogy of my Mscislau "inlet" of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century  and after  when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo  but especial at the turn of the 20th century. It was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century.  

This connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century. Anyway it relate to Poland only, and not to our easterly neighbours, e.g. Russia and Belarus. This is exciting subject for our family and to historians for the sake of connections with a couple of intelligences, and also it's the example of a genealogical tree on which based the important military structure of communist Poland for 50 years. Very broad, general information on these reciprocal connections was published for the first time in 2003 at my websites after researches ongoing 10 years and it was possible just after complete destruction of previous political system. Particular families of our ancestry didn't know mutually each other and they didn't know general image of this military genealogy up to 1995 (in piece) / 2003 (better in detail). This strange configuration in the genealogy and surprising family relationships give evidence to military service of somebody from our Konstantynowicz family in Soviet Union.


March 2003 - June 2013

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© All rights reserved. No part of all this work covered by copyright hereon may be reproduced in any form or by  any  means - graphic,  electronic, or mechanical - including photocopying,  recording, downloading,  uploading, taping, or storage in an information  retrieval system, without the  prior written permission of the copyright owner  - © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович

This is who is who among the family of Konstantynowicz / Константинович in short. That isn't a family tree.
Many people have helped me with this paper. The author is greatly indebted to  all those who kindly supplied information. Especially acknowledgement  for a military archives in Poland and  England and a civil  archives in Argentina. I inform all readers about  statistic  at my ex-main website  bog4konsta 18898 times on August the 31st, 2009 and this page  was  made 6 years ago on March 9th,  2003; my  five "geocities" 42533 times  (only single openings of index.html), and were made in March 2003. Many thanks for your help. 

We bear in mind that the website was made up in memory of my father Edward Gwidon Konstantynowicz who died on 03rd  November 1987 in very strange circumstances so this is independent website thanks to USA host  Yahoo!

In search of genealogy. It is of greatest importance to me. 

I am looking for all information about my grandfather Marian or Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Константинович and about his family from Moscow and the parish of Berazino (Berezina, Berezino or Berezyna).  He belonged to one of the old noble families from the farthest eastern reaches of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Those lands were also the first to be taken by tsarist Russia as the result of the partitions of Poland. 

Those near and dear (families at the beginning of the 20th cent.) in the Berazino parish (Mother of God of Mercy catholic church), Riga, the Dryssa ujezd, Moscow, Viljandi and Tallinn in Estonia (Эстония) and elsewhere:



Old Svolna, Miezonka, Moscow and the Jauji farm (i.e. Jowce or Javci in LATVIA; 49 km north - east of Vilani in the Ludsen = Ludza district formerly. We know now about Jeci small village close to Dzirkalava / Dzierkalova, Lapava / Lapova, Locukolni, Purini, Zalmuiza in the area of Malnava. Jeci village is located 4 km from Karsava. Malnava Roman Catholic Church was laid in 1932 under the auspices of priest Boleslavs Grisans. This is the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rezekne-Aglona.

Count Szadurski (a friend of the Malkiewicz family) in ca. 1830 - who was himself a nature lover, interested in gardening - lay out a park behind the manor house in Malnow / Malnawa. Documentary evidence of Malnava estate dates back in 1774 but before 1724 the estate belonged to the Hilzen family of German roots.
In 18th century, the Malnava / Malnov / Malnow manor came into the ownership of Count Szadurski. In 1878, this land belongs to Julius von der Ropp, after S. F. Agarkov in 1906.
Oświej / Oswej / Osveya (Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz spent her childhood there; she was born in Moscow, but her father from the Malnow district; she has family in Miezonka, Lodz, Warsaw; in Karsawa - Malnow - Ludsen area were living the Brzezinskis) was a property of the Ciołek-Szadurski family in mid 1820s. Szadurski Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery in 1817 studied in Polotsk / Polock, next in Vilnius 1822/23, landlord of Malnow and Oswiej, in Lucyn / Ludsen, the nearby town, Szadurski held offices, in 1837 married to Marya Zyberk-Plater daughter of Michal. Mikolaj died in 1876.
Melnava / Malnaya / Małnów / Malnow - a village near to Karsawa: Karolina, next of kin with Jozef Hylzen, was wife of Jan Franciszek Szadurski, owner of Pusza, Zielonpol or Zielonpole and Matnow / Malnow; her son Jan Szadurski, m. Dorota Szczyt, and her children: 1. Jozef Szadurski, offices in Witebsk 1814 1817, 2. Ksawery, who taken estates from the Hylzen family; Jozef Szadurski has son Ignacy, who held offices in Witebsk 1835 / 1838, no children and from Ksawery Szadurski is new branch.
A place of offices held by a member of the Szadurski family: Szadurski Stanislaw, a brother of Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery, a Russian colonel, died in 1870; Szadurski Mikolaj died 1876. Properties of Szadurski: Zwirdzin to Stanislaw Szadurski, Newlany, Dorotpol, Dunakla to the Stanislaw Szadurski family. Oswiej and Malnow - the Mikolaj Szadurski family.
Michal Plater-Zyberk 1777 - 1862/63, his daughter Maria married to Mikolaj Szadurski. Maria b. on 23 Sept. 1813, m. on 15 Oct. 1837, she died in Kraslaw on 20 Dec. 1893.

At present we have got few figures with our last name in Latvia: Athena Konstantinovics, Rafael Konstantinovics, Vladimirs Konstantinovics, Ewald Konstantinovics, Siegfried Konstantinovics, Viktors Konstantinovics and in Jelgavas - Edgars Konstantinovics



in farms Hrynica / Griniza and Usochy in the Ihumen district, Moscow and also village Luszewska Slobodka in the Rahacou district (345 ha., here a family of Gorski lived, too) since 1881; the Russian and Soviet general, count  Bronislaw Nieciejewski  who was  born c. 1870 in the Berazino parish came from Hrynica, and his  daughter worked as translator and interpreter as early as November 1917 (after completion of the  University of  Paris)  at the first Council of People's Commissars under direction of Wladymir (Vladimir) Boncz Brujewicz  who was the chief of the Lenin's office 1917 - 1918; either Nieciejovski or  Niecijevskij, Nicijewski and  Nieciovski, too  



or Uminskas with Cholewa arms in the Vilna and Vicebsk provinces (Manulki farm A.D. 1672), Bruslevo (or Bryjelov, Brialewo in the Berezina parish) and Smolarnia - Florian Czarnyszewicz has written the book "Nadberezyncy"  about this village; Smolarnia was situated next to Krasny Brzeg in the Babrujsk district,  property of the Korzeniewski  family and also of Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski - he was born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov and he was related to Hotowski i.e. Gatovskij, Slotwinski from Ravanicy and Malkiewicz / Малькевич, too.
The second son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski: Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski was born 1868 and died after 1930, in 1897-1901 Tokio, 1901-1909 London, 1909-1912/13 Persia, 1913 to November 1917 in Romania! His father Alfons Koziell Poklewski had 4 children: three sons (among others Wincenty Stanislaw and Stanislaw) and one daughter: Anna Poklewska - Koziell born ca 1860 married to Antoni Riesenkampff b. ca 1860 with daughter Aniela nee von Reisenkampf 1890 - 1963 married to Jozef Aleksander Wielopolski 1886 - 1961. Above Alfons, the Roman Catholic religion, was born 1809 or 1810 in the Bykov area of the Vitebsk District that is Bykowszczyzna, in the Vicebsk government, after high school in Polock, after in Vilnius, and St Petersburg, 1838 West Siberie and Perm, Ural, Tobolsk, Tiumen, Jekaterynburg (near to the Szumski family), Omsk, Tomsk, Czelabinsk acc. to Antoni Kuczynski. Died in 1890. His father name Фома that is Foma Koziell Poklewski, officer in Polock and was born ca 1780. His next of kin: Jozef son of Jan and Jozefa nee von Tolensdorff, was exiled to Siberie after 1863.
The Uminski family
was related to Sarnecki (
or  Sarneckis  from  Skierniow estate in the Trakai district) family with Slepowron arms. 


counties Zarako Zarakowski

i.e. the Zarokovskij family e.g. during war 1878 - 1879; properties: Holubovo palace, Kniazievo village and the great Svolna / Swolna estate - the chief  military state prosecutor of communistic Poland  (after - see - 1939 P. O. W. in Russia and next Military Attorney in Warsaw / Attorney General) and Soviet general, count Stanislaw Zarako Zarakowski  was born here in 1909 or November 1907; neighbourhood of them: Lipski Jan who  was the noble marshal of the Vicebsk government, Alina Rykow, Maryia Zabiella, famous Czerski by 1835,  Szczyt since 1725, Rudomin, Korsak, Dluzniewski;

Jan Zaraka(o) - Zarakowski / Ivan Zarako-Zarakovsky b. 08 / 21 February 1857, Russian general, died after 1930, the Roman Catholic religion, educated in the 2nd St. Petersburg military High School, graduated from the Nicholas Ing. School in 1877, Lt. Gen in 1913, the Siberian Division in 1913 - 1917, stayed in Vicebsk / Witebsk in June 1918, next Polish division general 1923, d. in Warsaw before 1934 according to T. Kryska-Karski;

Soviet and Polish general  Boleslaw Zarako -  Zarakowski was chief of the main staff of the Polish People Army in 1944, b. in Polack 1894  



Igumen, Berazino (Michal born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904), Riga and Miezonka; they were relations of Sarnecki (or Sarneckis)  family  with Slepowron arms  



Miezonka and (acquaintances of  Raczkiewicz)  Babrujsk = Bobruisk or Bobruysk




(my family was living also in Omsk after 1929: Viktoria / Wiktoria born 1870/71 or 1873/1875 - daughter of NN Konstantynowicz and - ? - Maria Trubecki / Troubetskoy; she was probably sister of Wiktor Konstantynowicz from Tallinn but she was living in Miezonka with family of Antoni and Stanislaw Konstantynowicz; in Omsk also Konstantynowicz Walery (i.e. Valerij) son of Zygmunt (i.e. Sigizmund) and Eugeniusz / Evgenij / Jewgenij Konstantynowicz born 06. 12. 1982 in Omsk; in Miezonka: Burimsky Henry I. / Burzymski Henryk son of Jan, born in 1906, Berezinsky region, lived in Mezhonka, the  Zapolski region, Byalynichy district; arrested 02/23/1932 and 06/05/1932 sentenced to 3 years of labor camps, rehabilitated in 1989; next of kin Burimsky Ivan Vikentievich born in 1888, Berezinskii District and Burimsky Vincent I. who was born in 1876, Putkovo, Bobruisk district; Pole), 

Petersburg, Svolna = Svol'na or Swolna, Krycau, Daugavpils, Kovalki,

(from our Mscislau / Mscislav branch of the noble Konstantynowicz family was:
Constantine / Konstantyn Konstantynowicz born 1869 and died no earlier than 1917, son of Aleksander P. Konstantynowicz / Alexandr / Aleksander Konstantynowicz / Константинович, in the 90s of the 19th cent. he served in the office in the Bessarabian Province, the Akkerman district, in 1904 member of the Ufa provincial office on Peasant Affairs, he had property - land in the Sterlitamak county of the Ufa province; all inf. about Konstantyn Konstantynowicz need to be check; Alexandr - his father wasn't from the Ukrainian landowner branch of the Konstantynowiczs. He was born ca 1835 / 1840 and was next of kin with the Konstantynowiczs from Miezonka, the Berezyna catholic parish.
Konstantynowicz Konstantin, b. in Riga A.D. 1869 and died in Uzkoje estate ("Narrowly", Узкое, the Moscow estate of Prince P. N. Trubecki b. 1858 d. 1911, now near the Jasenevo) near by Moscow = Moskva in 1924, he was member of the Ufa government office 1904 - 1917 in Baschkirische / Bashkortostan region, married Wiera Puszkin in 1894 - she was born 1871, daughter of Anatol Puszkin / Pushkin (1846 - 1905).

KONSTANTINOVICH Lev, son of Lev / Lew Konstantynowicz, was born in 1900 in Toropets / Toropiec; in 1918 / 1919 a student of a secondary school in Pskov. During the occupation of 'white' was mobilized and after during their retreat, came to Poland. At the beginning of 1922 return to Soviet Russia and arrived in Pskov; May 22nd was arrested and in November, 1922 again re-arrested, 16 March 1923 - sentenced to 2 years in a concentration camp and sent to Petrograd. In March 1923 his mother Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich wrote to the chairman of the Central Executive Committee Mikhail Kalinin. Ольга Васильевна Константинович / Olga Vasilievna Konstantinovich was living in Pskov, str Kalinin, No 15/11, Apt. 1. Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich / Olga Tchelischev daughter of Vasilij Chelishchev and she was married to Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875. Olga b. ca 1875, her son Lew Lwowicz Konstantynowicz born 1900. Above named Vasilij Chelishchev was born ca 1840 / 1850.
Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875, was next of kin with Aleksander and Konstantyn / Konstantin Konstantynowicz from Riga.

Olga's Konstantynowicz relatives:
1. Mikhail P. Rehbinder, he studied at the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence and worked at the Law Faculty of the University; he lived in an estate Lyadno in the Novgorod province; he was trying to create together with peasants agricultural co-operative in his estate in the Novgorod province; he left his family and went to the USA in 1909; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz / Константинович, daughter of Ivan / Jan Konstantynowicz; her son Alexander died d. 1906. Lyadno / Liadno / Лядно - a village in central part of the Porkhov / Порхов / Порховск / Porchovsk district in the Pskov oblast; close to Туготинская волость / Tugotinskaya volost - around 50 / 55 km east - south - east of Pskov / Pskow. 2. Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of orthopedic clinics; populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899 / 1900

Tallinn, Viljandi / Fellin,
Omsk, Kazan and 

(Pawel / Paul Konstantynowicz Adolfovich, b. 1885 in the Minsk Province, Igumen county, Borovin; Pole, individual peasant, place of residence: Tara district, M - Noble, Sibkraya after arrest on 02/10/1930, convicted 04/08/1930 at Sibkray on 5 years labor camp, sent to Siblag of the Omsk region, source: Memorial Book of the Omsk Region. See and Also about  Konstantynowicz Tomasz son of Ludwig / Thomas Lyudvigovich; born 01/01/1893, Borovin in the Berezinskii district,  Pole, lived: Berezinski region, village Borovin / Borowina and arrested on September 25, 1937, sentenced: The Commission and the Prosecutor of the NKVD of the USSR December 17, 1937 for espionage, verdict: he was shot January 19, 1938 and place of burial - Cherven. Rehabilitated April 29, 1989 by the military prosecutor . We know now that Ludwig Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms was born ca 1850 / 1860) Borovina.

Catholic families coming from the Berezino parish:

Adamovich, Aleshkevich of Borovinka, Anzheyachak / Andrzejak from Stare Koluszki close to Lodz, Anikevich / Onikiewicz of Berezovka, Ushanski, Antonevich of Rachyborak, Ambrazhevich / Ambroziewicz, Artishevsky / Arciszewski, Okulevich, Akulich / Okulicz, Askerko / Oskierko, Achapovsky of Zhabihav, Babitsky from Berezino and Knyazevka, Bobrowski of Borovinka, Borovsky, Borisevich, Bakhanovich of Kamen. Berag, Bedunkevich of Selishche / Sieliszcze, Brzezinski, Budnik from Buda, Burzhymski of New Koytsin, Butkevich from Berezino, Bychkovsky, Belyavsky of Mikhalev, Wasilewski of Staychanka, Voinilovich, Vaytekovski / Wojciechowski of Borsuki / Badger, Varaksa / Werakso, Vankevich of Belichany, Borovinka; Wankowicz of Kalyuzhytsa, Venglinski, Vernikovskaya from Berezino, Vintsarevich, Vilitkevich of Bozhyna, Miraslavka / Miroslawka, Witkowski of Berezino, Vitorsky, Wisniewski, Usovich, Vertinsky of Berezovka, Ushanski, Galievskaya, Gorodetsky / Horodecki, Goravsky of Bozhyna, Churchyard, Gorbatsevich / Horbacewicz from Kaplantsy, Garkusha of Knyazevka, Gedroits from Belichany, Germanovich from Rovanichi / Rawanicze, Glazko, Gorecki, Dalatovski from Asmalovka, Dalivayla, Doroshkevich, Dovnar of Bryyaleva, Dushevsky / Duszewski of Utseshyna, Yermolovich of Vyashevka, Yermolinsky from Smalyarnya, Essman, Zalenskii, Zakshevsky of Vyazychyn, Zaprudskaya of Miraslavka, Zuevskaya of Bryyaleva, Zholnerovich, Zhiznevsky, Zhukovsky, Zhuravskii from Yakshitsy, Korenevsky / Korzeniewski, Korpeko, Karpovich / Karpowicz of Berezino, Kovalevsky, Kanstantynovich / Konstantynowicz from Myazhonka / Miezonka and Borowina, Kochanowski of Dmitrovich, Klimantovich / Klimontowicz of Utseshyna, Korsak, Kilitkevich from Miraslavka / Miroslawka, Kisilevsky of Zhornovka, Krasovskii, Krachkovskii, Kublitsky in Berezino, Lapitsky of Utseshyna, Lipnitsky from Vasilevschina, Lihodievsky, Likhtarovich, Loyko, Mankovsky, Marcinkiewicz in Berezino, Masalsky of Belichany and Dubavrucha, Makhnach from Rachyborak, Mironovich from Neganichy / Niegonicze, Mirkulevich of Berezino, Narushevich, Nevedomsky of Belavichi, Nemirka in Vyazovka, Nitievsky / Nieciejewski, Nedvedsky / Niedzwiedzki, Radkevich / Radkiewicz, Romanovsky / Romanowski, Raparovich of Bozhyna, Rzhevutski from Borok and Berezino, Ralonek, Rogalevich in Berezino, Rudakovskaya, Raut / Reutt, Sobolewski of Borovinka, Saykovsky in Berezino, Knyazevka; Sokolovsky, Sventorzhetskih / Swietorzecki, Siblitski of Vyazychyn, Sinkevich / Sienkiewicz of Knyazevka, Slavinski of Neganichy / Niegonicze, Slyapko, Stanishevsky of Buda, Starinsky of Gorenichi / Horenicze, Sukhotsky, Sushytski, Suschevsky, Selitsky of Berezino, Potocki, Pashkevich of Rovanichi, Pekur from Padkamen, Petrashkevich of Rovanichi, Petrushkevich / Pietruszkiewicz from Myazhonka, Pitkevich, Tatur, Tisetski / Cisiecki of Asmalovka, Trubski of Yakshitsy / Jakszyce, Trusevich, Tumilovich / Tumilowicz, Tyszkiewicz, Umetski / Umecki from Kostavshchyna, Urbanowicz, Wroblewski of Dubrovka, Filkovski of Borovinka, Frantskevich of Utseshyna and Badger / Borsuki, Chmielewski, Tsybulsky / Cybulski, Shabunya of Belichany, Shumsky / Szumski, Shimanovich from Rachyborak, Chachkovski, Chulitskaya from Kotov, Eismont of Rachyborki, Yuzefovich, Yushkevich, Yanushevich of Kamen and Borok, Yarotsky from Kaplantsy and Yakubovich / Jakubowicz from Myazhonka. Full list of the Roman Catholic surnames at ''.

The Roman Catholic history in the Berezino parish

- following Konstantynowicz  Konstantin, son of Alexandr /  Aleksander  Konstantynowicz / Константинович, b. in  Riga A.D. 1869 and died in  Uzkoje estate   ("Narrowly") near by  Moscow = Moskva in 1924, he was  member of the Ufa government  office 1904 - 1917 in Baschkirische /  Bashkortostan region,  married  Wiera  Puszkin in  1894 - she was born  1871, daughter of  Anatol Puszkin / Pushkin (1846 1905)  and grandchild of  

Elzbieta  Zagrazski (Russian noble house of  Zagrashskije, for  the first time  information in 1493 - 1503. Jelisaveta Aleksandrovna Zagrjasjkaja / Zagrazski b. 15 December 1821, d. 9 April 1898) and  

Lev Pushkin / Lew Puszkin

(b. 1805  - died in Odessa 1852,  who was brother of famous writer; when Pushkin was young he communicated in French, not Russian, and he also wrote his first poetry in French.

Lev Sergeyevich Pushkin was a brother of the poet, a brave officer, and at the end of the life he was the Odessa customs officer, he married Elizabeth Alexandrovna Zagryazhskaya (1823 - 1898). They had four children:
Olga (1844 - 1923),
Anatoly (1846 - 1903 / 1905),
Sophia (died in infancy)
and Maria (1849 - 1928).
Descendants of 'Levushka': the grandson of Lev S. Pushkin - Alexander Anatolyevich Pushkin (1872 - 1919) son of Anatol / Anatoly Pushkin, at the end of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum entered military service. In 1912, he served in the rank of captain, and in 1917 as Lieutenant-Captain; A. A. Pushkin joined the White movement, and in the army commanded a brigade of the South Russian Kuban Cossacks. In the battle with the mountaineers who supported the Bolsheviks, he was killed.
His widow, Catherine nee Chikin and three children went to Estonia.
Alexander Pushkin was living among immigrants in Estonia, Narva, in the mid-1920s. He was great-grandson of the poet's younger brother Lev Sergeyevich Pushkin. The famous Pushkin's great-grandfather Abram Petrovich Hannibal lived in Estonia for 21 years and in Revel a Pushkin's grandfather was born - Osip Abramovich Gannibal. In Narva in 1821, and at Revel in 1824 rested Pushkin's sister - Olga Sergeevna. Grigory Alexandrovich Pushkin's grandson served in the Pechora regiment stationed in the years 1911-1914 in Narva. Here were born two sons of Grigory: Sergei and Gregory. In Estonia, the 1920s a descendant of Hannibal was living in Tartu; in Narva, Pushkin's great-nieces Alla and Irene in 1924 and a great-nephew - Alexander Alexandrovich Pushkin (born 1912) in 1926, acc. to Kolpakov; the family fled the Bolsheviks at the end of 1919; mother - E. I. Pushkin worked in a Narva emigre school, and her two daughters were in this school. Father, Alexander A. Pushkin was brutally murdered by the Bolsheviks in southern Russia in 1920, in Ekaterinodar. On the other hand, a son of Grigory Pushkin was Gregory, and born in Narva; he was the great-grandson of Alexander Pushkin. In May 1926, the boy - a great-nephew Alexander Alexandrovich Pushkin (born 1912) - came to Narva from Russia. The son of Lev Pushkin was Alexander, who was born on December 30, 1872. His son was born in 1912. A. Pushkin before the war in 1914 was a officer and lived in St. Petersburg (Daymische village near Petersburg, where he lived). In St. Petersburg was living the Chikin family and from the family was a wife of A. Pushkin - Pushkin Katherine nee Chikin. The Narva emigrant High School, where E. Pushkin worked in the 1920s, was one of the best. But the teachers, in summer, did not receive a salary, and to live, go to the heavy physical work: E. I. Pushkin maid in Haapsalu, not having a separate room and forced to earn money in the summer. On the Pushkin family in Estonia is a book of Gernet.

We can to read on Chikin Alexander Andeevich:
he was born on 27 Sept. 1865 and died in Soviet Union on 25 July 1924; engineer and optometrist / optician, a pioneer of amateur telescopes in Russia, 1887 he graduated from the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, Chikin in 1911 first manufactured in Russia parabolic mirror for the telescope, 1915 he published a book on a telescope; from 1919 until his death Chikin worked at the State Optical Institute in Leningrad.
His younger brother Andrei Andeevich Chikin b. ca 1885, a doctor, died at the age of 56 years during an epidemic of typhoid fever in 1941. He was married twice (ca 1910 and ca 1919) - married to the daughter of Russian director of a gymnasium in Warsaw, Olga, and her daughter, Alla, in marriage was Serebriakov (b. 1921; Alla Andreevna Serebrjakova / Serebriakov has got two daughters: Valeria and Irina; Irina Vasilyeva has a last name Vasilev / Vasilyev - a nobleman, and Valeria remained Serebriakov: Ekaterina Vladimirovna Serebriakova - her daughter). Unfortunately, Olga's father was opposed to her marriage - firstly, Andrew Andreevich Chikin was married when they met, and secondly, Andrew wanted to go back to Soviet Russia; her maiden name is unknown.
Andrew / Andrei Chikin older b. ca 1840, was a father of above Alexander and Andrei and was married 2 times, and so Alexander Chikin was the eldest son and born 1865 from his first marriage, and Andrew was the youngest; between there were 3 girls: ca 1870 Tanya, after Kate / Catherine / Katarzyna or Ekaterina nee Chikin b. ca 1880 (either 1877 or 1886) married Pushkin in 1909, and Olga ca 1880.

Brothers of Wiera Pushkin b. 1871: 1. Lev / Leo (1870-1918), Deputy Governor of Orenburg in 1905, married from 1898 to Alexandra daughter of Alexander Nikolayevich Dobrolyubov; and 2. Alexander (1872-1919), captain, wife from 1909 Katherine Chikin (1886 -?) and her children: Alla b. 1910, Alexander (1912 - 1941), Irina b. 1913. and 3. sister of Wiera: Nadiezda / Nadezda (1875 - 1898). All above children from Anatoly Pushkin (1846 - 1903 or died 1905) who was married from 1868 to Olga Alexandrovna Alexandrova (1852 - 1884).

Brother of the poet, Lev Sergeyevich Pushkin, a brave officer, and at the end of the life was the Odessa customs officer, he married Elizabeth Alexandrovna Zagryazhskoy (1823 - 1898). They had four children: Olga (1844 - 1923), Anatoly (1846 - 1903), Sophia (died in infancy) and Maria (1849 - 1928).

The only son of Alexander Anatolyevich Pushkin - Alexander Pushkin younger, was killed in 1941 at the introduction (?) of Soviet troops in Estonia. Catherine Pushkin and her two daughters Alla / Alia and Irina were after the Second World War in a displaced persons camp in Bavaria. From there, the eldest daughter was able to emigrate to Venezuela, and the widow, and the youngest daughter wrote in 1948, to the chairman of the American Board of the Pushkin Society - B. L. Brazol - to help them find work and to arrange her life. The fate of the descendants of A. Pushkin is lost in obscurity.

Major-General of the gendarmerie
counterintelligence and being the successor in office of Benkendorf; General Dubelt / Dubbelt, Staff Commander of the Corps of Gendarmes 1835-1856)
Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region; he enjoyed high confidence and patronage of the king. Von Dubelt, Leonti Vasilyevich / Leonti Wassiljewitsch Dubelt (b. 1792 died 1862), born into a family of Vasily Ivanovich Dubbelt by his wife - Mary Grigorievna Shperter vel Medina Celli, Princess;
his brother Peter, Colonel.
Von Dubelt is the German noble family from Livonia since the beginning of the 18th century.
Ivan Dubbelt entered the Russian service. His sons, Vasily and Mikhail Dubbelt.
Above Leonti V. Dubbelt married Anna Nikolaevna Persian nee Mordvinov in 1818.
In marriage, had two sons:
Nicholas / Nikolai (1819-1874)
and Michail / Michael (1822-1900).
Michael Leontievich was Lieutenant-General (1897). Dubbelt / Dubelt Michael or Michail Leontievich who was born February 8, 1822 in Kiev, Russian cavalry Major General, he was commandant of the Tiflis Alexandropol / Aleksandrapol fortress 1887-1890. His first wife Nataly / Natalia Puszkin / Natalja Aleksandrovna Pushkin since 1853, born May 23 / 4 Jun 1836 in St. Petersburg, was the daughter of Alexander Pushkin, poet. This son - M. Dubelt in 1860, lost above named Kuvshinovo factory in gambler to hands of Peter Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1826 died 1880, the leader of the provincial nobility 

(Prince Troubetzkoy in 1869 sold it to Michael Gavrilovich Kuvshinov; his father Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804 and his grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy born 1760: daughter of Alexander Gruzinsky - Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) with four children, including Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) who was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason). 

Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel; father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal. Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805.
Nikolai Leontievich / Nicholas (1819-1874) was also Lieutenant-General (1864), commander 1852 - 1856 Belarusian Hussar Regiment.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich - Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski.
A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64.
His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi
The Uzkoje  estate that was otherwise Uzkoje village, situated 15,5 km S-W-S of  Moscow core in  the suburbs of the capital i.e. 9 km from boundary of urban housing in 1917, and there are nowadays Litovskij bulvar Str. and Jasnogorskaja Str. near by Vitcevskij forest and also Tschertanovka river.

Note at margin on the Dubbelt, Puszkin / Pushkin, Swanidze / Svanidze:
Dubelt, Michael L. / Michail Dubbelt, b. on February 8, 1822, Kiev - d. April 6, 1900, St. Petersburg, major general, commander of the Tiflis Alexandropol fortress / Aleksandrapol fortress 1887-1890. Michael Leontievich Dubelt was Lieutenant-General (1897). His wife Nataly Pushkin / Natalia Puszkin / Natalja Aleksandrovna Pushkin since 1853 (daughter of Alexander Pushkin). His son - Leonti Dubelt Michailovich (1855-1894), captain of the second rank. Leonti M. Dubelt was in the Corps of Pages, where due to accident, was expelled, and then studied at the Naval College, who finished with honors. He was married to the prince Agrippina Obolensky.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich Dubelt / Dubbelt - Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski. A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64. His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi.

Now about the Pushkin family tree: Interesting reading from the book 'BEFORE THE STORM' by Carl, Baron Wrangell-Rokassovsky, dedicate this story to his mother BARONESS VERA ROKASSOWSKY / Wiera Rokossowska: "...on the wall of the Kolpino gallery was a portrait of Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, a direct descendant of a Lithuanian princely family. Their appanage was the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev. ... He came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Anna Deszpot-Zienowicz, my great-grandmother. His principal estates were Kraszuty (Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty, a village in the Mikolajewska area, a district of Polock, goverment of Witebsk / Vicebsk; Soltan, 1853-1905, engineer from Lodz, the Congress Poland, owner of Kraszuty, married to Amelia Maria Weyssenhoff; this estate located north-east of Polock / Polatsk, close to present border of Belarus and Russia; Savino 3.6 km north east) and Porzecze, and in Kolpino he was only a visitor. ...At the time of his marriage to Lady Joanna, he had informed his brothers and his sister, Anna von Wrangell, who was seventeen years younger than he, that he had decided to give up in their favor his share in the landed estates of his father's family. The estates were in Belorussia, and after the death of his parents, Stanislaw Juriewicz, as the oldest brother, divided these properties among his brothers. His brother, Michal Juriewicz, received Kraszuty, a large estate covered by a dense forest, known to contain bears, moose, and other big game. His brother Jan received two estates, Franopol and Porzecze. Franciszek, another brother, lived in St. Petersburg, where he occupied an important position in a government department. ... My grandmother, Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother, Zienowicz / Despoth / Deszpot - Zienowicz. Originally, this estate had belonged to the Princes Oginski; Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell. The title to the estate Porzecze was left in the name of Stanislaw Juriewicz ... The only son of Stanislaw Juriewicz, Mieczyslaw, was a student at St. Petersburg University. ... By that time, Czar Peter the Great was dead, and on the throne of Russia was his widow, Empress Catherine I. The young Hannibal joined an artillery company with the rank of Lieutenant. However, in 1727, this young Lieutennat got into a dispute with the all-powerful Field- Marshal Prince Alexander Danilovitch Menshikoff, a favorite of the late Tsar / Czar, who, during the short reign of his widow, was the actual ruler of Russia. As a result of this dispute, the Field-Marshal banished the poor Negro to Siberia. This incident proved how close the black lieutenant stood to the Imperial Court. In the meantime, Abraham Petrovitch married a daughter of a Greek merchant. His wife gave birth to a child a girl who appeared to be completely white. Since then it has been scientifically proven that a child of mixed parents may be white, but our Negro instituted court proceedings against his wife, suing her for divorce. He accused her of infidelity and won his case! Abraham Hannibal remained in Siberia for fourteen years and evidently the severe climate of Siberia agreed with this native of Africa. On the 25th of November, 1741, Empress Elisabeth, the younger daughter of Czar Peter the Great, ascended the throne of Russia and Hannibal was permitted to return. He was reinstated in the army and served during the reigns of three Sovereigns Empress Elisabeth (1741-1761), Czar Peter III (1761-1762), and Empress Catherine II (1762-1796). Upon his return from Siberia, Abraham Hannibal married Christine-Regine Skjoberg. His son from the second marriage, Joseph (in Russian, Osip), was evidently dark enough because his father did not dispute his legitimacy. Abraham Hannibal died in 1781. At the end of his life he was Major-General and Commandant of the fortress of Reval in Estland (now Esthonia, Tallinn in Estonia), a province acquired by the Czar Peter the Great from Sweden. Osip Abramovitch Hannibal had two daughters Sophie and Nadejda/ Nadiezda. The older one, Sophie/ Zofia, married Adam von Rotkirch, and their daughter, Vera von Rotkirch, married Alexander von Traubenberg. Their daughter, Dorothea von Traubenberg, married Baron George von Wrangell of the House Ludenhof, and their descendants, including General Peter Wrangell, Commander-in-Chief of the White Russian Army in South Russia, have all carried some Negro blood. The younger daughter of Osip Abramovitch, Nadejda Osipovna, married Serge Pushkin / Sergei Puszkin, father of the Russian poet, Alexander Pushkin. Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) married Natalie Goncharoff, of an old Russian noble family and a rare beauty. They had two sons, Alexander (1833-1907) and Gregory (1835-1905), a friend of my father, and two daughters, Maria and Natalie. Natalie Pushkin was exceptionally beautiful. Evidently she inherited the beauty of her mother accentuated by a few drops of Negro blood. She married General von Dubelt / Dubbelt, but divorced him, with great difficulty, and in 1868, married Prince Nicholas of Nassau, whose very close relative was the Grand Duke of Luxemburg. This second marriage was morganatic, and a cousin of her second husband, the reigning Prince zu Waldeck, granted the young wife a title of Count ess von Merenberg. Prince Nicholas of Nassau and his wife had two daughters and a son. Their elder daughter, Sophie von Merenberg, married, in 1891 in San Remo, Italy, Grand Duke Michael Michailovitch, who was called Mish-Mish by his intimate friends. Mish-Mish was a first cousin of Czar Alexander III, and his marriage to Sophie von Merenberg also was morganatic. As a wife of a Russian Grand Duke, Sophie von Merenberg received a title of Countess Torby. This title of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg was recognized in Great Britain where they lived. Their daughter, Nadejda Torby, born in Cannes and married, in 1916, Prince George von Battenberg, who in Great Britain received a title of Marquis of Milford-Haven. In 1917, the family name of Battenberg was changed in Great Britain to Mountbatten, and a son of George Milford-Haven, a close relative of the British Royal family, still carries some Negro blood of his ancestor Abraham Petrovitch Hannibal ... Gregory Pushkin, and my father, and Leo Waxel, another neighboring landowner, were passionate bear hunters. They used to hunt in several provinces where they were invited by their relatives and friends. They had killed a number of bears in the forests of Kraszuty, an estate of Michal Juriewicz, my father's uncle, and in Wyshki, an estate of Count Stanislaw Mohl. After the Polish uprising, many Polish landowners were ordered by the Russian government to sell their family estates, and Count Stanislaw Mohl was one of them. He sold Wyshki to Leo Waxel, a Russian nobleman of Swedish extraction, but the sale was fictitious...".
Carl Wrangell-Rokassovsky calls his book "History of the life of my father." But in reality, it tells the story of his family from 1787 to 1913. ...the family estate Kolpino - what was then Sebezhsky county. Until 1924 the county was part of the Vitebsk province. Now Kolpino Pustoshka is in the district of the Pskov region... Wrangel, more precisely, the two branches of this kind. The first branch - the family Gyubentalya von Wrangel, the second - the family Wrangel, who lived in Pskov. ..."Stanislav Karlovic Frangel von Gyubental", Lutheran, who owns an estate in Kolpino, Soinskoy parish. Alexander Pushkin back in 1824 from Odessa to Mikhailovsky, was in Kolpino, close to present city Pustoshka. In those years it was owned by Ignatius Despot-Zenovich, a member of the Masonic Lodge in St. Petersburg. In the second half of the XIX century, owner of the Kolpino estate was Stanislav Wrangell (1844-1913) - son of the famous physician Carl Philipp von Wrangel Gyubentalya (1786-1858). Carl Wrangel was married twice. From his first wife Constance, he had two sons. After the death of Constance in 1832, he married Anna Yurevich. In 1844 they had a son Stanislav, the future judge and the owner of the estate in Kolpino. Anna Jurevich had three estates in Vitebsk - Kolpino, Reblino and Zabel. Kolpino belonged to her mother, nee Despot-Zenovich. Originally, the estate was owned by the Duchess of Polonia Oginska. The first owners of the estate were the descendants of Rurik, the princes Oginski / Ahinskis. Princess Polonia Oginskaja married Joseph Deshpo-Zenovich, and their daughter married Joseph Jurevicha (Jurewicz - Polish princes). Stanislav Yurevich, with whom the poet Pushkin met in Mogilev, accounted Ignatius Despot Zenovich nephew owner of the estate. Apolonia Oginska has twice married to Jerzy Szemet and Michal Despot Zienowicz.

Many noble families with Pushkin's roots now lives abroad. In Switzerland, in Morocco, Paris, in London, Brussels. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia Alexandrovna, married with secondary marriage to Prince of Nassau - intermarried with the royal family, as the elder brother of her husband, Duke Adolf of Nassau, was married to Grand Duchess Elizaveta - granddaughter of Nicholas the 1st. Also by marriage for one grandson of Nicholas, Grand Duke Mikhail Mikhailovich. Not only that. Pushkin intermarried with the Romanov dynasty, reigned in Russia until 1917, by marriage a grand-daughter of Pushkin, the Countess Sofya Merenberg - de Torbay. Pushkin's grandson, the son of his daughter Natalia and the Prince of Nassau, Count George married Highness Princess Olga Alexandrovna Yuryevskaya - young princess was illegitimate daughter of the king and Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna Dolgorukoj. Alexander II was married to Catherine Mikhailovna after the death of the Empress, and granted her the title of Serene Highness Princess Yuryevskaya. One of the many grandchildren of Pushkin, and their was twelve, Maria, the daughter of his eldest son, Alexander, married a nephew of Gogol, Nikolai - a son of Gogol's sister, Elizabeth.

Pushkin was the next of kin with a chief of staff of the gendarmerie, General Dubbelt, who was fighting against an anti-government lyrics. It was so. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia, a beauty woman after her mother, married the son of General Dubbelt, adjutant Michael L. von Dubbelt. And she met with him in the apartment of a house Volkonskaya in which she lived as a child, where her father died, mortally wounded in a duel in January 1837, and of the wedding in 1853, the family took Dubbelt / Dubelt. The eldest daughter of Pushkin, Maria, married Hartung, who lived 87 years, died in 1919 and was buried in Moscow - children did not have. The youngest son Grigory Pushkin died in 1905.
Alexander Pushkin, the eldest son of the poet, was born in 1833 and died in July 1914. All his life, he served in the army. During the war for the liberation of the Balkans in 1877-1878, he commanded the Narva Hussars, for his personal bravery was awarded a gold sword of St. George. He died in the rank of lieutenant-general at the age of 81, only he had five sons, but direct descendants in the male line only left his son Grigory Alexandrovich (1868-1940). They formed the main branch of the family tree of Pushkin. Daughters of Alexander Alexandrovich, and there were eight, but only five of them were married, formed branchs of the descendants in the female line: Vorontsov-Veliaminoff, von der Mezentsov Rozenmayer. The youngest daughter of Pushkin, Natalia Alexandrovna 1836-1913 - her first marriage to Mikhail Dubelt, gambler, he squandered his fortune. Five years later, Natalia secondary married to Nicholas Prince William of Nassau. But because she was not of royal blood - this was a morganatic marriage. She did not trust the title of Princess of the Duchy of Nassau, and was granted the title of Countess Merenberg. The Countess Merenberg, daughter of Pushkin, from his second marriage, marriage with the Prince of Nassau, had two daughters and a son. They formed a branch Merenberg, Grevenits, English lords Mountbatten and Loris-Melikov. Descendants of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin living in Georgia. In Irkutsk live Vorontsov, in Rostov-on-Don, Nikolaev, and Tarlanovy in Petrozavodsk, Lukashi and Chalikov in Klin, in Tbilisi Svanidze, according to A. Lopyrev of 1983 - 1998, N. Zenkovich and Volkogonov.

Nataliya Nikolaevna Pushkina-Lanskaya / Наталья Николаевна Пушкина-Ланская, b. 1812 nee Nataliya Nikolaevna Goncharova / Гончарова, was the wife of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin from 1831 until his death in 1837. Natalya Pushkina gave birth to four children: Maria b. 1832, Alexander b. 1833, Grigory b. 1835, and Natalya b. 1836 become Countess of Merenberg. Nikolaus Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau married in 1868 Natalya Alexandrovna Pushkina the daughter of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin and a descendant of Abram Petrovich Gannibal and Petro Doroshenko (she was divorced from Russian General Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt); they had three children:
1. Countess Sophie von Merenberg de Torby married in 1891, Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861; 2. Countess Alexandrine von Merenberg, 3. Count Georg Nikolaus von Merenberg married firstly Princess Olga Alexandrovna Yurievskaya daughter of Alexander II of Russia.
Above Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; "he was a year old when, in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus. Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years. ... He was educated at home by private tutors. ... During the years in the Caucasus, the Grand Duke excelled at horsemanship and started his military career. As a young man, he served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. ... In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg...", acc. to Wikipedia.
His father Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.
Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich (Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832 the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I; Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya / Ekaterina Troubetzky / Troubetzkoy (nee Mussina-Pushkina; her father Pietr Klavdijevich Mussin-Puschkin b. 1768) was born 1816 and died c. 1897; her partner
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia
and with him was daughter Sofia Troubetzkoy b. 1838 in Moscow, Russia and died July 27, 1898 in Madrid
) of Russia:
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters), Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.
Above countess Olga / Ольга Осиповна Калиновская born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie; Bogdan Ogiński died on 25. 03. 1909. Sister of Olga: Jozefina Kalinowska born 1816, was also married to duke Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński who was born 1808. And Северина Иосифовна Калиновская / Seweryna Kalinowski b. 1814 d. 1852 was married to Mikolaj Plautyn / Плаутин b. 1794 or 1796 d. 24 December 1866, son of Fiodor Sergiejewicz Plautyn / Plautin died 1807? Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin was an outstanding military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, General of Cavalry 1856, Adjutant General 1849, a member of the State Council in 1862. Countess Maria Kalinowska was born after 1805 - ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski. The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Czeliszczew; father Josif / Jozef / Osip Kalinowski b. after 1780 ? and died 1825. Grandfather Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 and grandmother Elzbieta Bielska from Olbrachcice b. ca 1760. Emilia Potocka married first to Kalinowski and second time to Czeliszczew, was born 1790 and her parents: Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 and mother Marianna Lubomirska (Zubow, Potocki, Uwarow) born 1773 or Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766.

At margin (more

1. Ivan Vernadsky born 24 or 26 May / 5 or June 7, New Style, 1821 in Kiev - died 26 or 27 March / 7 or 8 April on the Gregorian calendar, 1884 in St. Petersburg, father of Vladimir Vernadsky, grandfather of George Vernadsky. The first wife died in ten years after the marriage, leaving him a son, Nicholas. The second time, Ivan marries her cousin - the daughter of Ukrainian landowner Anna Petrovna Konstantynowicz, teacher of music and singing.

The genealogy of above named Anna Petrowna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Анна Петровна Константинович married Vernadsky / Vernadskij / Вернадская (Anna became the wife of Professor Ivan Vernadsky): b. November 11, 1837 in Kiev / Kyiv in Ukraine and died on November 7, 1898; her mother Victoria nee Martynov / Wiktoria / Виктория Мартыновна Константинович second voto Красницкая was born ca 1796 and died on December 6, 1862 in Kiev, she was daughter of Major Russian army Martynow, her second husband - Krasnicki. Anna's father: Петр Христофорович Константинович / Piotr Konstantynowicz son of Krzysztof Konstantynowicz, b. 1785 (date 1795 was error) and died on October 9, 1850 in Kiev, Baykove cemetery; Anna's brothers and sisters from Victoria nee Martynow:
Iwan - Jan Konstantynowicz,
Zofia - Sofija,
Aleksandr second,
Piotr older,
Piotr younger.
Above Krzysztof Konstantynowicz / Christofor Konstantinovich was born 1741.
Петр Христофорович Константинович / Peter Hristoforovich Konstantinovich b. 1785, was Major General of the Russian army 1848. Grandfather of historian George Vernadsky. Peter Hristoforovich was a soldier to 1849. General Konstantinovich had 13 children, five of them died infants. Some of the children were also military. The greatest success in this field has achieved son Alexander Konstantynowicz. Peter / Piotr Konstantynowicz participated in many military campaigns of the Russian army: in 1812 near Smolensk and the Battle of Borodino. From 1836 he was commander of the Kiev garrison artillery. 1838 taken a possession in the Pereyaslavl county of the Kiev province.

Vernadsky Ivan was a teacher of Russian literature in high school; in 1847, in St. Petersburg, Ivan V. defended a master's degree thesis; after at the University of St. Vladimir; in 1850 he was transferred to the same department in Moscow University and was here from
1851 until 1856 as full professor; in the village Giant Shishaki in Poltava government Vernadsky had got a mansion, where all the family was living in summer. 

2. Константинович / Konstantynowicz / Konstantinowicz / Konstantinovich Anna Petrovna was a daughter of Brigadier-General Piotr H. Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович (b. ca 1785) and was the second wife of Ivan Vasilyevich Vernadsky. Anna Petrovna, nee Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович born 1837 - died 1898.  H. Konstantinovich that is Христофорович, son of Christofor / Hristofor Konstantinovich that is Krzysztof Konstantynowicz (here was error: Henryk, Gawrila, Havrila) born 1741.

3. Her brother, Ivan Petrovich Konstantynowicz / Jan son of Piotr Konstantynowicz b. 1818 died 1877, a professional Navy officer, after a cadet school - 1834 he achieved Captain 1st Rank in 1868, in 1875 he served in the Caucasian Army, died in Tiflis. Owned estates in the province of Poltava, the Pereyaslavl County, Voitovtsy village.
4. His daughter,
Alexandra Ivanovna Konstantynowicz born 1848 and died after 1912, was wife of L. N. Modzalevsky.
5. Another daughter Victoria Ivanovna Konstantynowicz / Константинович 1846 died 1899 or 1900; in 1867, she married M. P. Rehbinder, and after second husband O. E. Weimar

6. Sister of Ivan Petrovich, Elizabeth Konstantynowicz / Константинович married Mr Neyolov / Nieelov 1824 - 1889.
7. her daughter Lydia A. Neyolov, who died at a old age in Kiev during the German occupation in 1941 / 1942. 

8. Another sister Helena Petrovna Konstantynowicz / Константинович with her husband Kravchenko who was born 1831 and he was died no earlier than 1909, married to Kravchenko in 1859, lived in Piryatin

9. His brother Alexander Petrovich Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Константинович Александр Петрович was General-lieutenant, General-Governor of Bessarabia in Kishiniev 30 July 1883 to 4 July 1899. The Rogge noble family was close friends with the family Konstantinovich and Ippolit Rogge / Hippolytus born March 2, 1853 in Kerch, colonel in 1909, was baptized March 7, 1853 in St. John Church of Kerch; godfather - Lieutenant Adjutant Ivan Konstantinovich / Jan Konstantynowicz son of Piotr Konstantynowicz from Kercz / Kerch. All - Orthodox. A General List of noble families of Bessarabia includes the name of the Konstantynowicz Alexander in 1893 from the Poltava province. 

10. Ivan Vernadsky b. 1821 was a grandson of Ivan Nikiforovich Vernadsky (b. ca 1770), which was recorded in the local book of the Chernigov governorship as a gentleman, graduated from the Kiev seminary, was a priest of the village Tserkovschina.
11. Ivan Vernadsky b. 1821 was a son of a doctor Vasil or Basil Ivanovich Vernadsky and his wife Ekaterina Yakovlevna; in 1856 - 1867 worked at the Ministry of Internal Affairs; professor of Main Pedagogical Institute 1857 - 1859, St. Petersburg Institute of Technology 1864 - 1868, professor of political economy at Kiev and Moscow universtities and moved to Kharkov, where he served as manager of the Kharkiv office of the State Bank until his resignation in 1876.
12. His first wife Maria Shigaevo 1831-1860.
13. His second wife, Anna Petrovna, nee Konstantinovich / Константинович / Konstantynowicz 1837 - 1898.
14. Children: Nicholas 1851 (by first wife) - 1874; Olga - her grandson, Rynda Alekseev Dmitry Borisovich b. 1917 - 1941 ?, a student at the Leningrad Textile Institute, in July 1941, was missing; Catherine was married to Korolenko; Vladimir 1863 - 1945, his granddaughter was married to Fokin, Anatoly Mikhailovich 1892 - 1979. 

15. Modzalevsky Leo / Lev 1837 - 1896, the teacher, a graduate of History and Philology of St. Petersburg University. He worked in the schools of St. Petersburg and Tiflis / Tbilisi, the author of many works on pedagogy. His wife Alexandra Ivanovna nee Konstantynowicz / Константинович was born 1848. 

16. Mikhail P. Rehbinder, he studied at the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence and worked at the Law Faculty of the University; he lived in an estate Lyadno in the Novgorod province; he was trying to create together with peasants agricultural co-operative in his estate in the Novgorod province; he left his family and went to the USA in 1909; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz / Константинович, daughter of Ivan / Jan Konstantynowicz; her son Alexander died d. 1906. 

17. Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of orthopedic clinics; populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899 / 1900. 

18. Kravchenko Ivan Ilyich 1829-1890, a assessor in 1867, lived and died in Piryatin in the Poltava area; his wife Helena Petrovna Konstantynowicz daughter of Piotr Konstantynowicz, she was born 1831 and died no earlier than 1909; her son - probably not only one - Sergey. 

19. Alexander Konstantynowicz son of Piotr / Petr,  born 1832 died 1903, was a professional soldier, in service since 1846, an artilleryman; the Colonel in 1867, Major-General in 1877, Lieutenant-General in 1889; conquest of Khiva in 1873, in 1878 to 1883 he was the military governor of Orenburg, and Commander of Turgay region; since 1883 to 1899 - Governor of Bessarabia, since 1889 member of the Minister of the Interior; awards Anne 1st Class, Vladimir 2nd degree, the White Eagle; his wife since 1856 Ilyashenko Sophia Antonovna 1840 d. 1896. 

20. some of his children: Olga b. 1858 or 1860 and died ?, daughter of Alexander P. Konstantynowicz, in 1878 she married Andrei Ivanovich Schmidt, who served in the Orenburg district court; she emigrated to Paris and USA. Michal Konstantynowicz / Michael b. 1860 and died in 1902, he was a district marshal of the nobility in Kovno Province in 1899, his children: 
Xenia nee Konstantynowicz b. 1889, Natalia nee Konstantynowicz born 1894, 

Catherine / Katarzyna daughter of Alexander b. 1863 died in 1942, in 1885 she married P. A. Galenkovski, and after her divorce in 1905 she married L. N. Chernoyarov; her daughter from her first marriage, Elizabeth married Suprunov

Sofia nee Konstantynowicz b. 1864 died 1942, in 1886 she married E. A. Mamchich, before the Revolution she was living in Chisinau - the Kremenchug area

Natalia nee Konstantynowicz 1867 d. 1938?, in 1889, she married Jerzy Bulacel / Gregory Pavlovich Bulatsel

Constantine / Konstantyn Konstantynowicz born 1869 and died no earlier than 1917, son of Aleksander P. Konstantynowicz, in the 90s of the 19th cent. he served in the office in the Bessarabian Province, the Akkerman district, in 1904 member of the Ufa provincial office on Peasant Affairs, he had property - land in the Sterlitamak county of the Ufa province (all inf. about Konstantyn Konstantynowicz need to be check). 

21. Ilyashenko Sophia Antonovna b. 1840 d. 1896, was daughter of a captain; her husband since 1856 was Alexander P. Konstantynowicz 1832-1903. 

22. Mamchich Eugene A. / Eugeniusz Mamczicz 1849 died 1917?, state councilor in 1908, not later than 1905, was elected to a honorary magistrate in Kremenchug county in the Poltava province

23. Bulacel / Bulatsel Jerzy / Grigory P., died in 1908, in 1899 the Chairman of the Vilnius Regional Court; his wife Natalia Konstantynowicz 1867 - 1938? 

24. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky born February 28 / March 12, 1863 in St. Petersburg and died January 6, 1945 in Moscow, from the nobility, he was Russian scientist and encyclopedist, humanist, an expert in the field of Earth Sciences, philosopher and social activist, the member of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences, first president of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Once in October 1905, the Board of the University of Moscow, headed by Professor Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Vernadsky's mother was from the Konstantynowiczs of the Fox coat of arms) admitted women to listening of lectures, and Inessa Armand has made payment and went to law school. In June 1907, Comrade Inessa confirmed the intention to be student, but instead of studying at university she had to go for exile with Vladimir Armand. In late October 1908 she managed to escape.
We back to Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky: his mother, Anna Petrovna Konstantynowicz (1837 - 1898), father - Ivan Vernadsky (1821 - 1884), professor of political economy.
Letters by V. Vernadsky published in 2003 by Russian. In 1928 Vernadsky was at the University in Prague, 1928 on trip to Germany and Norway, research work in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia, 1933 / 1934 Vernadsky was on a business trip to France, England and Czechoslovakia.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky in 1886 married Natalya Staritskaya (1862 - 1943), with whom he lived for more than 56 years; had two children - son Jerzy / George V. Vernadsky (1887 - 1973), professor of Russian history (lived in Perm; after in exile in Czechoslovakia and USA, since 1927 prof. Yale Univ.), the daughter Nina Vernadskaya - Toll (1898 - 1985 or 1986), a psychiatrist, both died in exile in the United States.
Nina Vernadskaya Toll / Nina V. Toll-Vernadskaya was second wife of Toll Nikolai Petrovich / Nicholas P., an orientalist archaeologist and art historian. His first marriage to Olga Petrovna Toll nee Syromyatnikov, both Orthodox on 17 August 1917 in a garrison of Samarkand, and cancel on November 9, 1925. Toll Nikolai Petrovich (1894 - 1975), member of a volunteer army of the 1st Kuban Ice campaign, in the armed forces in the south of Russia before evacuation of the Crimea. In exile in Gallipoli, after in Czechoslovakia. On January 10, 1926 in Prague, married Nina Vladimirovna Vernadsky b. 1898, daughter of Professor V. I. Vernadsky. Since 1939 in the United States, occupied the chair of Iranian studies at Yale University.
Vernadskaya Toll Nina b. 1898, in 1922 - 1939 lived in Prague, and later the United States.
Toll Tatiana born 1929, granddaughter of Vernadsky.
Von Toll family, the noble family of Baltic Germans, had the title of baron, from Reval now Tallinn in the province of Estonia (Эстония), Russian Empire and Dorpat now Tartu.
Some details at margin:
Johanna Sophie von Toll nee von Rehbinder 1740 - 1801, her father Otto Magnus von Rehbinder from Kockora / Kokora - 40 km north-east of Tartu / Dorpat, and her grandfather Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder, and great-grandfather Wilhelm Christoph von Rehbinder b. ? - died ca 1703, her husband Christian Wilhelm von Toll, and her children: Johann Wilhelm Baron von Toll and Adolf Friedrich Baron von Toll. Johann Wilhelm Baron von Toll 1768 - 1805, his sons among others: Julius Johann Baron von Toll 1800 - 1831 and Peter Wilhelm Christian von Toll 1795 - 1854 (his son Julius Wilhelm Baron von Toll 1833 - 1921 and grandson Julius Arnold von Toll 1865 - 1922) and next son Hugo Diedrich Baron von Toll 1801 - 1885 with his son Johann Wilhelm Baron von Toll born on February 9, 1841 in Lublin of the Congress Poland and died on June 27, 1863 in Poland. The Toll family estate: 20 km south-west of Jarva-Jaani, Vodja is a village in Kareda Parish, north of Sargvere, and north-east of Sarevere; in Järva County, Estonia (Vodia / Veisenshtein / Wodja).

25. See also inf. about the Armand family from Moscow, Lenin and Inessa Armand 1909 - 1920 and on Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz b. Moscow 1908, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, and Dyuflon / Duflon in Russia after 1884 / 1892. All inf. in my domain ''. 

The Sedoh / Siedoh / Sedykh / Седых / Siedych family in Estonia and in Tatarstan now.

Victor Konstantynowicz vel Wiktor Konstantynowicz or Wiktor Konstantynowicz Staroch Siedoch vel (nickname) Starych Siedych / Sedykh (acc. to me he changed the surname because Viktor Konstantinovich has the documents named Constantine and scans of Estonian passports with the Starych Siedych surname), was born on 20 October 1874 in Kazan, his father unknown name, but mother was Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya born ca 1853 (or circa 1840). Wiktor Konstantynowicz was married to Alexandra Nikolaevna nee Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, born 03 February 1877 in St Petersburg, her father Nikolai Ivanov Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Riabczynski; on 09 June 1934 lived in Estonia, Nomme, the Harku street No (tn) 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu (by the order of Nomme Small Town Council, Hiiu-Rahu Cemetery, which was established in 1919, is the smallest among the cemeteries in Tallinn) in Tallinn: Victor on 19 January 1945 buried by Rita Tunkel / Tungel, address Apteegi 14-2 and Alexandra - 09 December 1948 buried by Galina Tunkel.
Inf. among others things by Inga Ilves (she is from Moscow / Москва, Russia but with roots from Järva County and near by families from Odessa, Tallinn - Hiiu [Hiiu is a subdistrict / asum in the district of Nomme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia], the town of Elva in Estonia) and ''.

There are 10 people in Estonia with the Trubetskoi / Trubetskoy (Трубецкой и Эстония) last name now, in Harjumaa. Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland; Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is included in the county.
See also: '' acc. to Josef Zvonecka and '' "...but then the page was attacked by Polish nationalists who turned it into a mess, starting a bunch of unnecessary stubs with Polish names. They also extensively used the Trubetskoy genealogy which I had compiled and posted at ''. I am sorting this category and some of it's members have really more connection with Russia then Poland..." (?!). "Someone give a bibliographic reference for this genealogy" at ''. My correspondent was writing to me in June 2012: "...The Library of Congress as well as some other world libraries own the official Troubetzkoy family genealogies. The most recent one was published in 1976 and has full information about Princess Maria and was written by a nephew. In addition, there are 3 books about the descendants of that particular branch of the family, with the latest book published in 2006".

Bedrich Vilem Urban was born on March 18, 1880 in Senice in Austria / now Czech Republic and died 1955; in 1904 worked for 'Tallinna Volta' and 1908 for 'firmas Duflon ja Konstantinovitsch' that is the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company, 1911 'Siemens-Schuckert'. In 1918 back to Estonia. His wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban; his children: Dalibor Dalka Urban, Jean Boris Urban, Zdanek Zdenya Urban; his parents: Marie Urban and Stepan Urban father. Above named his wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg born on June 29, 1882 in Tallinn, Harjumaa county - her father Gustav Kustas Steinberg b. on March 2, 1850 in Üksnurme - Üksnurme is a village in Saku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, close to Tallinn, Üksnurme is 2 km south - west from Saku; Saku is 12 km south of Nomme, and 16 km from Tallinn. Saku is a small borough in Harju County, Estonia. Her mother: Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt b. June 21, 1862 in Harku; Harku is 6 km west of Nomme, where lived the Sedykh and Konstantynowicz families, next of kin with the Troubetzkoy family. Wiktor Konstantynowicz was living on 09 June 1934 in Estonia, Nomme at Harku (the Harku street in Nomme located in north of the town, near to the Hiiu-Rahu kalmistu Tallinnas) tn 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu. Above named address: Hiiu, street Harku tn (No) 28, apt. 2, Nomme - Tallinn, Harjumaa district, Eesti / Estonia - Harku str. No 28 crossroads streets on Vahtra str in north part of Nomme. Nomme is one of the 8 administrative districts of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Harku / Hark is a small borough in Harku Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt died in the Czech Republic. And a grandmother of wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg: Mina Salwelt nee Mamers b. on October 7, 1836 in Parmel.

Genealogy of the Constantinovich family in Estonia in the second half of the 19 cent. to the end of the 20th cent. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives and other families: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, Kalinowski from Cracow.  The Baltic German families: Dunkel / Tunkel, von Toll, Gernet, Rebhinder, Croy, Weiss, Steinberg. This map under copyright by

An information from a database of the White movement: