Mesjanizm, Prometeizm, Iluminaci - Tadeusz Grabianka i niepodleglosc Polski, 11 listopada 1918. Cagliostro - Martynisci, Templariusze i Masoneria - walka o Rosje - 1917.

History and genealogy of the noble Konstantynowicz family. Education and information - author Konstantynowicz Bogdan.



So the main thought of the Illuminati Order is the work of Tadeusz Grabianka. The thought of taking power in Russia was a central idea guiding the Polish underground from the 80s of the 18th century until 1917. The first step to limit Russia to its ethnic territory was made by Jozef Sulkowski, then Adam Mickiewicz, and Israel Parvus from Berezina. The continuator of the main thought of Tadeusz Grabianka about taking power in the tsar state - in the Russian Empire - was the political movement of Jozef Pilsudski.

Remember here on connections:

Jozef Pilsudski - Andrzejak - Karol Zbieranowski - Marshal Marian Spychalski - Miezonka - Konstantynowicz, and then Moscow:
General Franciszek Paszkowski - Armand - Demonsi of Kazan - Apolon Konstantynowicz + Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand - LENIN;
and further Breguet - Duflon - Piotr Maleszewski - Michal Poniatowski - Venture de Paradise - and we return to Jozef Sulkowski; here, Marshal Murat and Napoleon Bonaparte;
again from Marshal Jozef Pilsudski we have lines to Aldona Dzierzynski + Feliks Dzierzynski and Pilar Pilchau of Parnu / Parnawa - Oziemblowski and Terlecki.
And again, we return to Wojciech Paszkowski + Franciszek Paszkowski, but this time we are going to Sebastian Bystrzanowski in Trzebniow and the Templars in Scotland. We're joining Br. Bystrzanowski with George Washington. We similarly connect General Franciszek Paszkowski - General Tadeusz Kosciuszko - General Stanislaw Fiszer - and then Mielzynski of Chobienice - von Unruh / Niepokojczycki of Sluck and Kargowa - Oppeln-Bronikowski of Kunowo {Kiedrzynski}; Wojciech Paszkowski + Artur Potocki and again the Templars.
Artur Potocki with a network of connections to Cracow / Krakow, Berezina / BEREZYNA, and Lubuszany close to Miezonka. And Miezonka: Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Oskierka, Prozor, Stafania Radziwill, and Chrapowicki of Swolna. And Chrapowicki of Swolna - this line leads to Wankowicz from Kaluzyca and to Konstantynowicz from Miezonka, Swolna, Tallinn, and Moscow.

The structure of the Illuminati was taken over as a whole in the Spring of 1937 in the Soviet Union by Stalin and our enemies. This network of multi-country intelligence underwent degeneration and it transformed around 1961 into a globalist movement.
The main role is currently played - after 2015 - by Russia and China as the heirs of this globalist movement and Soviet ideology - currently the main enemies of Donald Trump, the USA and contemporary anti- Communist Poland.


This "sect" of Tadeusz Grabianka [since 1778/1779], or The Order of Illuminati, it is a Polish intelligence network created during the collapse of the Polish-Lithuanian State and it is a secretive intelligence and political organization working to rebuild independent Poland in conditions when the entire territory of the country was occupied by three hostile neighbors.

In the absence of state independence, Tadeusz Grabianka created the foundation of a political intelligence. It was the period of his activity from 1778 to the murder in 1807 in Russia.

Tadeusz Grabianka used social engineering methods, he had the ability to recruit collaborators - for example during a visit to London [then this network surrounds Edward Brown], which lasted almost a year - and he could recruit future "soldiers": a courier, probably also murderers, heads of smaller underground groups.

Tadeusz Grabianka co-operated with the French intelligence.

Tadeusz Grabianka also knew that in every country [Berlin, London, France, Austrian Galicia, Russian Podole and Ukraine; in Russia] after some time his conspiracy would be taken over by counterintelligences of these countries.
However, Tadeusz Grabianka's aims were at the same time attractive to France and Great Britain.

Thus, the situation will appear in which our Polish resistance conspiracy will help to other countries - including the US and not only through official state channels, as Thomas Jefferson said - and to the royal courts [George III, Duke of Kent].

And the reverse, other countries gladly use our underground networks.

It was not alchemy and sect. These were chemical laboratories where it was possible to produce poisonous and hallucinogenic drugs for Polish intelligence in the absence of an independent state.

The goals have changed over the next years.
In the 70s of the 19th century, the Polish conspiracy [Koziell-Poklewski] unequivocally led to
causing chaos in Europe,
provoking a European war and world conflict [USA, Japan],
invoking massive revolutions
[the scheme of Tadeusz Grabianka; use of national minorities - Leopold Kronenberg and the Wloclawek area]
by providing attractive ideologies [Nestor Trubecki, Duke Kropotkin, Lenin].

Some researchers have come to a completely wrong conclusion that this is a devilish conspiracy.

Most European politicians in the 19th century knew, however, that this is so-called "Polish conspiracy."
That is, a conspiracy involving the entry into the Russian state and intelligence system.
This was done, among others, by the Konstantynowicz family, creating the company "Duflon & Konstantinovich", also co-operating with the NOBEL family, Armand, Gernet, Azbelev, Pilsudski, Breguet; co- creating Lenin's person.

The family of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantinovich took part in the non-legal conspiracy.

And so the powerful underground Network was created:

the King of Naples, Marshal Joachim Murat - General Armand - General Axamitowski of Poznan - General Franciszek Paszkowski
[+ Maria Paszkowska Armand - Apolon Konstantynowicz - BREGUET]
-
Colonel / General JAN DEMBOWSKI, the Freemason, the friend of Ignacy Potocki and Artur Potocki
[the Templars and of the Grand Orient in 1818]
-
and from ARTUR POTOCKI to Wojciech Paszkowski + Br. Bystrzanowski and the Mark Masons Order
[and here the line to Kalinowski and Tadeusz Grabianka / Marcin Tarnowski / Stadnicki / Ilinski - the ILLUMINATI and the TEMPLARS]
+
Tadeusz Kosciuszko in 1776
[+ General Franciszek Paszkowski and General Stanislaw Fiszer (Fiszer lived in Koninko in 1803 - 17 km south-east to POZNAN)].

The Armand family, who since 1799 wanted to settle in Moscow, met with General Franciszek Paszkowski, through the family Alexandre de Bauffremont-Courtenay and his son - Alphonse de Bauffremont / prince de Bauffremont Courtenay.

Named Alphonse de Bauffremont and General Franciszek Paszkowski were together adjutants / aide-de-camp of Marshal Joachim Murat.

Murat and Jozef Sulkowski were adjutants of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Mentioned Alexandre de Bauffremont-Courtenay and [then he was Baron] General Armand were in Russia in 1791. So, 29 year-old general Paul Armand [Paul 1st] came from Paris together with Alexandre, the Marquis de Courtenay.

Paul Armand [Paul 2nd, wine merchant], 1760 - 1835, or was born in 1762, was the first in Russia in 1791.

General Paul Armand [Baron, the 1st], in Russia in 1791, but Jean-Louis Armand [he was the son of Paul Armand, the 2nd] was the first in Russia in 1799.

Mentioned Alexandre de Bauffremont [de Bauffremont-Courtenay], born in 1773 and died in 1833, prince de Bauffremont, emigrated to Koblenz but rallied to Napoleon I who made him count Empire.

Mentioned above Alphonse de Bauffremont, born in 1792 and died in 1860, duke of Bauffremont, prince of Bauffremont, was created count by Napoleon and became aide-de-camp of Murat [see JOZEF SULKOWSKI and General FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI !].
Alphonse de Bauffremont distinguished himself at the Battle of the Moskowa, in 1812, under MURAT as his aide- de-camp, as well as in the Saxony campaign in 1813 [Dresde / Dresden / Drezno in 1813]. During the Hundred Days, Alphonse de Bauffremont was instructed by Murat to bring Napoleon confidential dispatches.



The main political objectives set by Tadeusz Grabianka:

1.
Universal Society.

The Polish Count Tadeusz Grabianka influenced by the Christian mysticism, contained a "Plan" for a Universal Society [Chastanier], which was to work for the Swedenborg works.

2.
The mass revolution - like in France 1789.

3.
Occupation of Jerusalem.

4.
Polish messianism

- by Robert Collis and Natalie Bayer:

"... Despite Grabianka proclaiming that 'the light must be spread from the north', the New Israel Society never propounded a messianic doctrine in which the Russian emperor and his nation would play the leading role in ushering in the millennial reign of Christ. Grabianka reserved the preeminent role in the imminent drama for himself (as King of the New Israel). Furthermore, the society remained resolutely cosmopolitan, attracting aristocrats, clergymen and enthusiasts from across the length and breadth of the European continent. These 'People of God' were not defined by nationality, but by their shared faith that membership in the New Israel Society secured them entry into the long-awaited New Jerusalem. In the decade after Grabianka's death this cosmopolitan form of millenarianism was swept aside in Russia by a rising tide of providentialism, especially after 1812 ...

It has been well documented that this messianic eschatological discourse was greatly influenced by two of the foremost Christian theosophists of the age - Eckartshausen and Jung-Stilling - as well as by the famous Livonian mystic Barbara von Krüdener (1764-1824).

Significantly, none of these figures posed a challenge to the civil authority of the Russian authorities or to the moral mandate central to many Masonic rites, and, most crucially, Jung-Stilling and Krüdener set forth a messianic role for the emperor that was denied by the New Israel Society. ...".

The Polish "imperialist" messianism is quite old and it was born of a polemic of the Reformation day.

"The chosen people" called Poles.

Wojciech Dębołęcki predicted to the Poles, rule over the world.

In the eighteenth century there was already a flood of prophetic texts.
In Avignon, the Polish nobleman Tadeusz Grabianka proclaimed himself a messiah and he claimed that the spirit of Israel joined the Poles, with whom he, Grabianka, would gain dominion over the world.

Polish Messianism was based on the idea of ​​the earthly salvation of humanity.

The political program postulated by him was based on moral and spiritual superiority, thanks which "Polish cause" was to triumph over the invaders. In philosophical terms, he drew from Jakob Böhm's mysticism and Emanuel Swedenborg, Sarmatism and Slavophilia.

5.

Prometeizm:

On the political and social goals propagated by Tadeusz Grabianka, grew up a hundred years later, the Promethean movement of Józef Pilsudski.
Prometheism was also called the political project of Józef Piłsudski against the Soviet Union in the interwar period.

The Promethean movement coordinated and supported materially in 1921-1939 of some emigre governments and independence organizations of nations conquered by Soviet Russia in 1918-1921.

6.

Taking over state power in tsarist Russia.

In 1785, Tadeusz Grabianka went to Avignon to be created there the Pernety Avignon Iluminates Association and the alchemical laboratory.

He arrived at the place as the ruler of the New Israel - after taking control of the Russian state of tsars and occupation of Jerusalem - he will become the Polish king. He soon reorganized the sect under a new name the Kingdom of the New Israel.

7.

Independence of Poland

- see: 'Masoni a kultura i niepodległość Polski' by Adam Witold Wysocki.

And on Natalie Bayer and Robert Collis [The University of Sussex, United Kingdom and The University of Turku, Finland - at academia.edu]:

"...Between 1802 and 1807 many of the leading members of the society, including the Polish nobleman Tadeusz Grabianka (1740-1807), the so-called 'King of the New Israel', were resident in St. Petersburg. Drawing on archival material related to the interrogation of Grabianka and other members of the society after their arrest in 1807, this paper charts the initial Russian connections to the group in Avignon prior to the French Revolution. ...
On January 13, 1807, the Committee for the Preservation of General Security ... was established in St. Petersburg ... [NOVOSILTSEV] reflected the influence of Augustin Barruel and John Robison, who argued that secret societies were responsible for unleashing and overseeing the French Revolution. The conspiratorial theories advanced by Barruel and Robison were first translated into Russian in 1805 and 1806 respectively.
Thus, Novosiltsev was able to draw on these works at a time when Russia faced a foreign threat.

On February 6, 1807, within a month of being established, the Committee arrested Tadeusz Grabianka (1740-1807), a Polish nobleman ...
who had been resident in St. Petersburg since August 1805. Grabianka's incarceration was probably the foremost priority of the Committee, as since 1778 he had played a [top] role in the Illumines d'Avignon, or New Israel Society.

Indeed, it was this very society, according to Barruel, that formed 'the most secret and monstrous of Lodges, and form the most terrible tribunal for Kings ... which pointed out the Sovereign that was to fall, named the assassin, prepared the poisons, or sharpened the dagger.'

The Russian authorities took these sensational claims very seriously. They suspected that Grabianka, who held the lofty title of 'King of the New Israel' within the society, was fomenting revolutionary sentiment in support of both Polish sovereignty and Napoleonic France. ...
No formal sentence was ever passed against Grabianka, as he died in prison on October 6, nine months to the day after first being arrested. ...

he underwent lengthy interrogations - along with Nicolas Simonin and Francois Leyman, two fellow members of the New Israel Society
... Consequently, the Russian authorities catalogued a wealth of evidence, including detailed statements by Grabianka, Leyman and Simonin, as well as notebooks that recorded, among other things, the prophecies of the Sacred Word ...
The officials overseeing the case also recorded the key accusations levelled against Grabianka, as well as providing a summary of the proceedings for the benefit of Emperor Alexander. ...
In 1860, Mikhail N. Longinov wrote a biographical article on Grabianka in which he evidently made use of documents from the fonds, although he provided no references. In recent years, Andrei I. Serkov has referred to the documents in his work on Russian Freemasonry ...

Indeed, a study of the New Israel Society's links with Russia between 1788 and 1807 goes some way to bridging the gap between the first wave of so-called 'Martinism' in Russia in the mid-1780s, and Alexander I's embrace of millenarian mysticism in the wake of the invasion of Napoleon's Grand Armee in 1812 ...
document compiled by Pierre Pechard Deschamps, a French legal referendary working for the Committee of General Security, who had also been Novosil'tsev's secretary since 1799.

... eighteen points in his case against Grabianka, nine of which directly related to Russia.

These are:
1.

Over the course of nineteen years (since 1788), Grabianka had collected prophecies containing violent pronouncements against Russian sovereigns.

2.
Among these, in one God allegedly prophesied the destruction of the Russian Empire and the murder of the tsar.

3.
The society had sent a messenger to the Russian Emperor, that is, Paul Petrovich (1754-1801), in order to convince him to pray and to convert him into a fellow zealot and to emulate the role of Jacob. This would seemingly be a reference to Isaiah ...

4.
The leaders of the New Israel Society in Avignon had hatched a terrible conspiracy against Catherine II.

5.
The Empress unmasked the plans of the sectarians, but they continued to operate in Avignon and Paris.

6.
The four leaders of the sect had arrived in Russia and drawn close to notable Russians.

7.
Tadeusz Grabianka arrived in Russia and created a sect in which he hoped to enrich himself by attracting new initiates.

8.
The laws and oath of the sect were directed against the Greek faith and the state.

9.

The leaders of the sect were under the direction of Russia's enemies and the society was prepared for the second coming of Christ and to rule over the people.

The Russian authorities' persistent line of inquiry regarding the New Israel Society's alleged plot to assassinate Catherine the Great and their general prophetic pronouncements against Russian sovereigns can be traced to a specific question posed to the Oracle in Avignon on October 14, 1788. On this day Francois-Louis de la Richardiere, a Parisian physician and leading member of the society, asked the Archangel Gabriel whether it approved of him instigating correspondence with a certain Madame Le Maire d'Attigny in Russia.
The answer he received was that d'Attigny should leave Russia if she did not wish to perish, as the archangel would soon ravage the whole empire and would strike down the sovereign with a sword. This would apparently give her what she had deserved some twenty years earlier.

... Madame Le Maire d'Attigny followed the advice of the Oracle, as she did indeed leave St. Petersburg, where, according to Grabianka's testimony, in 1788 she had been employed as a governess in various families. In November 1789, a Swedish nobleman, Gustaf Reuterholm, noted that d'Attigny had made her way to Avignon from Petersburg and had been initiated.
... Madame d'Attigny, as she was one of the leaders of the sect who came to reside in St. Petersburg prior to Grabianka's arrival in the city. It was precisely at the time that the Oracle began making ominous prophecies about the fate of Russia that the society in Avignon initiated its first Russian:
Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802).
Pleshcheev's arrival in Avignon in the autumn of 1788 marked the culmination of something of an odyssey through France and Switzerland in which he sought out the foremost Illuminist sages of the era:
Saint-Martin in Strasbourg,
Jean-Baptiste Willermoz (1730-1824) in Lyon, and
Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801) in Zurich, among others.

Pleshcheev, an officer in the Russian navy and a Freemason since at least 1776, was a close confidante of Grand Duke Paul and had helped plan for, and escorted the Russian heir on, his Grand Tour of Europe in 1781-1782. Moreover, he journeyed to Avignon with Paul's mother-in-law, Friederike Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Württemberg (1736-1798), who was herself initiated into the society. On November 4, 1788, Richardiere asked the Oracle whether Pleshcheev could joint heir union. The Oracle replied affirmatively. Consequently, Pleshcheev underwent an extraordinary nine-day initiation ... referred to as Mont Thabor - near Avignon. On the first day, Pleshcheev and members of the society ascended to the summit of the hill.

...
Amazingly, the written records of a conversation between Emperor Paul and Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1732- 1798), the last Polish king, which took place on September 15, 1797, suggest that Pleshcheev had indeed revealed a great deal about the New Israel Society to the Russian heir-apparent.

Paul describes in highly favorable terms to Poniatowski how he heard of the 'Avignon brotherhood' about 'eight years ago' and that 'they live very devoutly'.
He added that he was told that 'in 1800, after terrible earthly strife, a full peace will occur that will come from the North'.

Paul also confessed to Poniatowski that he was 'awaiting the advance of these great upheavals, which ... are near'.

Thus, Pechard-Deschamps had good grounds to accuse the New Israel Society of pronouncing violent prophecies against the Russian Empire and her sovereigns, as well as sending a messenger to try and convert Paul.

... According to Grabianka, the society suspended activities in Avignon on October 28, 1800, after a turbulent decade and as a result of dwindling membership. Five years later, not only Grabianka, but also
three other leaders of the society were resident in St. Petersburg:

Baron Louis Dagobert Adolphe Emmanuel Lefort (b. 1764), the Chancellor of the society and a distant relative of Franz Lefort (1655-1699);

Madame Le Maire d'Attigny (born ca 1742), the Great Mother;

and Nicolas Simonin, the Interpreter of Dreams. ...

At the same time, geopolitical factors brought St. Petersburg firmly into Grabianka's orbit. Indeed, since the Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Grabianka, as a Podolian nobleman, had officially been a Russian subject. Thus, when he sought to return to his family estate in October 1802, he sought a passport to travel from Arkadii Ivanovich Morkov (1747-1827), the Russian Ambassador in Paris, which he duly received.

... Grabianka spent two and a half years in Podolia, where he was able to utilize the support of at least three local noblemen:

Josef August Illinskii (1766-1844);
Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki (1752-1805);
and
Marcin Tarnowski (1778-1862), his nephew, whose parents had been consecrated into the New Israel Society in Berlin in 1779.

Illinskii, in particular, was able to offer abundant financial support as well as fervent belief in Grabianka's mission. Indeed, Grabianka wrote to brethren in Avignon that Illinskii had prophesized that he would 'be in possession of his lands before the following May 18'.
This referred to Grabianka's goal of being elected Polish king as a necessary step toward being crowned the king of New Israel.

Moreover, Grabianka was able to reside in Illinskii's home in St. Petersburg which was located near the Kharlamov Bridge over the Catherine Canal (now the Griboedov Canal), when he decided that 'it will be possible to find more sources and more means of undertaking and completing something [when] living in the capital, near the Court'.
On arrival in Petersburg in August 1805 along with Simonin, Grabianka was able to consolidate a support network that Lefort and d'Attigny had developed since 1802. Lefort was the first of the society's leaders to arrive in Petersburg, on September 1, 1802. In the capital he quickly became reacquainted with

Sofia Stepanovna Razumovskaia (1746-1803),

Louis de la Forest Divonne (1765-1838),

and Rodion Aleksandrovich Koshelev (1749-1827),

who all shared his theosophical outlook.

Indeed, Divonne was a fellow initiate of the New Israel Society. Furthermore, Lefort soon took on the position of governor of the children of Natal'ia Fedotovna Pleshcheeva (1765 -1855), the widow of Pleshcheev, who had died in early 1802. We do not know the precise role of Pleshcheeva in the New Israel Society, but Grabianka did write at the time that the widow had 'rendered small services to me'.

A contemporary, Matvei Matveevich Muromtsev (1788-1879), also noted many years later that Pleshcheeva hosted Grabianka and that many meetings of the society took place in her home.

In 1804, Lefort also secured a position for d'Attigny as governess in Pleshcheeva's household. Soon, however, d'Attigny appears to have retired from service and was able to take up residence in the home of
Mariia Antonovna Naryshkina (1779-1854) / NARYSZKIN, the Polish mistress of the Emperor.

Intriguingly, Grabianka wrote that 'I am convinced for several reasons to think that she [d'Attigny] did not arrive there [in Naryshkina's home] for nothing. God will do with her what he wants'.

In 1805, Simonin too secured a position as governor of the children of Pavel Petrovich Ushakov (1779-1853) in the Mikhailovskii Palace.
Although Lefort left Petersburg in August 1806 in order to accompany Pleshcheeva and her daughter to Lausanne, Grabianka wrote that he had only been 'necessary until I arrived in St. Petersburg'.
We do not know whether Naryshkina or Ushakov were active members of the New Israel Society, but whatever the case they did help to provide a means for d'Attigny and Simonin to proselytize among the Petersburg nobility.

By December 1806 Grabianka was able to boast of his popularity among the Petersburg elite. ... Grabianka also succeeded in winning over the influential support of the preeminent Petersburg Freemason Aleksandr Fyodorovich Labzin, as well as the other brethren associated with the Dying Sphinx Lodge ... including Grigorii Maksimovich Pokhodiashin (born ca 1760) and Aleksandr Alekseevich Lenivtsev (d. 1818). In effect, Grabianka succeeded in winning over the ...
Petersburg's Illuminist Masonic community.

At the time Labzin first became acquainted with Grabianka, he was not only the Grand Master of the Dying Sphinx Lodge but was also the foremost publisher of mystical literature in Russia.
Between 1801 and 1806 Labzin translated and published a series of key works of contemporary Christian mysticism by Karl von Eckartshausen (1752-1803) and Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling (1740-1817). ...

In attracting Pokhodiashin to the New Israel Society, Grabianka also secured the support of a figure who, according to M. K. Longinov, held 'important significance in the history of Martinists' in Russia in the late eighteenth century.

From the early 1780s Pokhodiashin became one of the most loyal supporters of Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (1744-1818), providing crucial financial support over many years. ...".


During 1795-1799 period, the initiation hierarchy was established by TADEUSZ GRABIANKA, and the temple of the Avinion Illuminati was modeled on the Solomon Temple.

In 1799, Tadeusz Grabianka left France and he went to the AUSTRIA = Galicia for a short time, and then to Russia in 1802 in Ukraine, then in St Petersburg. There he entered the circle of aristocracy.

Tadeusz Grabianka in 1802 found himself in Russia, i.e. in Ukraine.

In the autumn of 1804, Grabianka found himself in Tulczyn with Stanisław Szczesny Potocki (born 1751).

In 1805, the next protector of the "master" Tadeusz Grabianka, became Count August Ilinski (1766-1844), at whose invitation he arrived in St. Petersburg in August 1805.

"... Indeed, since the Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Tadeusz Grabianka, as a Podolian nobleman, had officially been a Russian subject. Thus, when he sought to return to his family estate in October 1802, he sought a passport to travel from Arkadii Ivanovich Morkov (1747-1827), the Russian Ambassador in Paris, which he duly received.
... Tadeusz Grabianka spent two and a half years in Podolia, where he was able to utilize the support of at least three local noblemen:
I.
Josef August Illinskii (1766-1844) = JOZEF ILINSKI;
II.
Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki (1752-1805);
and
III.
Marcin Tarnowski (1778-1862), his nephew, whose parents had been consecrated into the New Israel Society in Berlin in 1779".

I.

Josef August Illinskii = Jozef August Ilinski.

See:

Izydor Borovsky / Isidor Borowski in 1776 born in Warsaw, Poland - d. 1837 or 1838, his mother was a Jew and his father was a Polish nobleman (the illegitimate son of Prince Radziwill ?); 1794 under Kosciuszko in Poland; 1797 in Italy - the Polish Legions; in 1801 - 1802 / 1803 at Haiti served the French Army. Borowski developed great military abilities in the service of that warlike prince, and took for him the strong town of Cochan in Khorassan. Later he took the castle of Sarakhs and made prisoner the leader of the Turkomans. After the death of Abbas in 1833, Borowski gave most essential assistance to Abbas' son, Mohamed Mirza (Muhammad / Mahmud 1834), and enabled him to ascend the throne of his grandfather. The English were behind most of the military undertakings of the Persians in those days, and Borowski was looked upon as an English general, and even wore the uniform.
But he forsook the interests of the British government and joined the Russian party in Persia, and was shot at the siege of Herat (war 1838 against the Turkmens; but close to Herat in 1836 fought Count Antoni Aleksander Ilinski).

Note:

In 1805, the next protector of the "master" Tadeusz Grabianka, became Count August Ilinski (1766-1844), at whose invitation he arrived in St. Petersburg in August 1805.

Józef August Iliński born in 1766, General, the owner of Zytomierz until 1796, supporter of IGNACY POTOCKI;

the son of Jan Kajetan Benedykt Iliński;

Jozef August Ilinski married to Antonina Leonora Komorowska 1770-1838, the daughter of
Jakub Bartłomiej Komorowski, born in 1697 or in 1724 - died in 1781, and Antonina Brygitta Pawłowska;

the granddaughter of Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660/1670

{Antoni Piotr Józef Komorowski / Antoni Piotr Józef Kajetan Jan Walenty Adam Komorowski b. 1769 in Sushno, was son of Jakub Bartłomiej Komorowski 1697 - 1781, who was son of Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 / 1670, and grandson of Jan Komorowski b. ca 1640 - 1700, who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.

Above Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 also had son Jan Komorowski junior b. ca 1680 [m. Zofia Polanska] [see President Bronislaw Komorowski].
Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 [1670 ?], was son of Jan Komorowski senior b. ca 1640 - 1700, who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.
Above Stefan had also son Adam Komorowski b. ca 1640 [?] who had son Jan Komorowski d. 1719 - the 3rd.

Ignacy Komorowski of Chelm, 1710-1760 was son of above named Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670- 1719 and
Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska
[Jan's next son was Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski of Belz, 1699-1750].

Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670-1719 married to Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska b. ca 1670, daughter of Mikolaj Stefan Sulimierski and Teofila Gluzicka;
they had all 4 sons: above Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski; above named Ignacy Komorowski; Adam Ignacy Komorowski b. 1699, d. 1759 in Skierniewice; and Piotr d. 1747}.

II.

CONSPIRATOR - Colonel Marcin Tarnowski / Count Marcin Amor Tarnowski, born in 1778 in Kozin.

Kozin / Kozyn, in the ROWNO county, close to Radziwillow. The estate belonged to Hojski / Gojski; Firlej; and to Tarnowski - that is Jan Amor Tarnowski met here, in the palace, King Stanislaw August, in 1787 on the way to Kaniów to the Empress Catherine II. And belonged to Kajetan Amor Tarnowski - inf. of 1738. After the partitions, the Kozin commune was in the Volhynia Province.

CONSPIRATOR - Colonel Marcin Tarnowski, d. 1862; he served the 16th Cavalry Regiment of the Warsaw Duchy, and the 3rd Horse Rifles of the Congress Kingdom - the Galician campaign when the Tarnowskis formed an regiment; the campaign of 1812 under General Latour-Maubourde [Rohaczow, Smolensk, Dubrowna, Mozajsk, Kaluga and Borysow], and the campaign in 1813.

Marcin Tarnowski was the President of the Volhynia Province, 1821 to arrest in 1826, of the Patriotic Society.
The Marshal of the nobility of the Krzemieniec county.
Marcin Tarnowski died in Zator, the Polish military commander under Kosciuszko in 1794, son of mentioned Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and Tekla Grabianki from Pankracewice near Leszczyce (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county.
He started the military service as an adjutant of Tomasz Wawrzecki in 1794; took part in the battles in defense of Warsaw, he also fought against the Suvorov near the Warsaw Praga. In June 1809 he became the head of the insurgent horse unit in Podolia: in Tarnopol with Piotr Strzyzewski; in Stryj and Sambor; Wieniawka; Grzymalow, Chorostkow, Brzezany, Adamówka and Zaleszczyki. In 1813 fighting for Hellensdorf, Königstein, and Peterswelde, Pirna, Sere and Dresden. He was taken prisoner (November 8); the army of the Kingdom of Poland, on January 20, 1815, he commanded the 3rd Rifle Division of the Kingdom of Poland. However, he resigned on December 9, 1815.

He settled in Wolyn, where he was active member of the Patriotic Society, 1821, as the head of the Volhynia province, as its president, he was also the vice-president of the central committee for the Kiev, Podolia and Wolyn provinces, whose formal president was KAROL PROZOR; Marcin Tarnowski knew about the contacts of the Society's emissaries with the Russian decembrists.

MARCIN TARNOWSKI was arrested in 1826; transfered several times to the prisons of Warsaw and St. Petersburg (here he sat in the Pietropavlovsk Fortress). He tried to suicide in prison (1827); his wife Zofia Tarnowska fell into oblivion.

Finally sentenced to a month of fortress and year of police supervision. In 1829 he returned to Wolyn;
on the eve of the November Uprising in 1831, he was taken back to Russia, he was sent to Skier; released after a few years, he settled in his Podberezka palace in the village of Berezka near Krzemieniec in Ukraine;

in 1854 he supported the plans of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. He became the marshal of the nobility in Krzemieniec.

Shortly before his death he came to Krakow [compare the TEMPLARS and General Franciszek Paszkowski !]. He died on November 20/21 or 22, 1862 in CRACOW.

The Scytheman's society = KOSYNIERZY, headed by Denerowski, with senior officers of the Polish army, such as Mielzynski and Uminski, Marcin Tarnowski from Wolyn, Lukasinski. Olizar in his Memoirs called the Patriotic Society - as the Society of Kosynierzy = SCYTHEMAN. The Russians suggested that the Poles join in a conspiracy against the imperial family; the Poles replied that they fought for the freedom of the country, but do not want to make secret conspiracies against the regime of the state in Russia.
The commanders in 1807 were recently Jacobins' conspirators in Galicia: Kazimierz Rozwadowski; Gabriel Rzyszczewski; Colonel Marcin Tarnowski.
Jan Amor Tarnowski born in 1735 in Krasnobród, died ca 1799, General major of the Crown troops, captain of the National Cavalry of 1775-1783, count, poet and philosopher,
was the father of Marcin.

JAN was the son of KAJETAN AMOR TARNOWSKI.

Jan Amor, Count Tarnowski, lived also in Markuszewa / Markuszów / Markuszew - a settlement in Poland, in the Pulawy district.

KAROL PROZOR was Freemason in 1808, and two years later he was at the head of the Lithuanian lodge. In 1812, after the beginning of the Napoleonic campaign, PROZOR and his family stayed with their sister Marianna Bykowska (died in 1833) in the Mahilyow governorate.
He was appointed to the five-person Government Committee of the Lithuania, appointing him a Treasury Minister. The confederation was signed in Mogilev; Napoleon received the delegation coldly.

In 1821 Karol Prozor joined the Patriotic Society and he was elected to the so-called Provincial Council in Lithuania. He acted with Michał Romer in Poprawy near Vilnius. Soon after, he was appointed by Marcin Tarnowski as the president of the Central Committee of three provinces: Podolia, Wołyń and Kijów.

We back to the genealogy of CONSPIRATOR, Marcin Tarnowski:
Jan Amor Tarnowski, b. 1735, the son of Kajetan Amor Tarnowski and Anastazja Bogusz / Bohusz / Anastazja Anna Tarnowska, 2 voto Józef Mier; Jan was the half-brother of Albert Mier.

Named Kajetan Amor Tarnowski, born in 1706 in Tarnów, died in 1748; the son of Aleksander Dominik Amor Tarnowski, Count, and Marianna.
Father of Aleksandra Strojnowska; Jan Amor Tarnowski; Fortunat Antoni Tarnowski; and Marianna Mier.

They have genealogical - family relationships to Henryka Komorowska (Mier) b. 1840 in Szufnarowa; the daughter of Tytus Mier; the wife of
Wojciech Jerzy Edward Komorowski Count;
mother of Jerzy Komorowski; Maria Magdalena; Stefan Komorowski and Adam Graf von Liptowa und Orawa-Komorowski.

And they have genealogical - family relationships to Adam Graf von Liptowa und Orawa-Komorowski b. 1864 in Zywiec;
they come from Jakub Bartlomiej Komorowski 1697 - 1781, the son of Michal Józef Komorowski.

Explanation:

Jakub Bartłomiej Komorowski 1724-1781 = Jakub Bartlomiej Komorowski 1697 - 1781, the grandson of Michal Józef Komorowski [NOT son !].

Note:

Teresa Oziemblowski, m. Bartlomiej Komorowski b. 1697 in Laszki, d. 1758
[Bartlomiej had son Franciszek Antoni Komorowski b. 1723 in South Moravia; - see President Bronislaw Komorowski; and daughter Countess Marcjancella Pilsudzka / Pilsudska !]
who was son of
Jan Komorowski b. ca 1680 and Zofia Polanska;
and grandson of Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660.

Compare the lines in the genealogy of the Komorowski family:

Antoni Piotr Józef Komorowski / Antoni Piotr Józef Kajetan Jan Walenty Adam Komorowski b. 1769 in Sushno, was son of mentioned Jakub Bartlomiej Komorowski 1697 - 1781,
who was the grandson or the son of Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 / 1670,
and grandson of Jan Komorowski OLDEST, b. ca 1640 - 1700,
who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.

Above Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 also had son Jan Komorowski junior b. ca 1680 [m. Zofia Polanska] [see President Bronislaw Komorowski].

Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 [1670 ?], was son of Jan Komorowski senior b. ca 1640 - 1700, who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.

Above Stefan had also son Adam Komorowski b. ca 1640 [?] who had son Jan Komorowski d. 1719 - the 3rd. Ignacy Komorowski of Chelm, 1710-1760 was son of above named Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670- 1719 and Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska [Jan's next son was Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski of Belz, 1699-1750].

Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670-1719 married to Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska b. ca 1670, daughter of Mikolaj Stefan Sulimierski and Teofila Gluzicka; they had all 4 sons: above Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski; above named Ignacy Komorowski; Adam Ignacy Komorowski b. 1699, d. 1759 in Skierniewice; and Piotr d. 1747.

Franciszek Komorowski b. 1723 was Antoni's grandfather.

Bartlomiej Komorowski was father of Countess Marcjancella Pilsudzka / Marcjanna Pilsudska Komorowska / Marcjanella Pilsudski + Franciszek Pilsudzki b. 1707 [Pilsudski] in Pajuralis, close to Silale, and died in 1791 in Šilale, the Taurage County, Lithuania.
Franciszek Pilsudski / Pilsudzki was 1st married to Johanna von RONNE b. ca 1718 / Joanna Rehno / Renno {see below}
- she was mother of Anele Pilsudskyte of Zermaitija / Aniela Pilsudska Frackiewicz.

And we back to the PILSUDSKIS:

Colonel Ferdynand Ignacy Pilsudski (b. ca 1685 married to Ludwika Urszula Billewicz / BILEWICZ)

[with son - above named Franciszek Pilsudski married 2nd time to Johanna RONNE / Joanna Rehno {von Rönne / Roenne / RONNE, barons - see OGINSKI !}; + married 1st to Marcjanella Komorowska {Bartlomiej KOMOROWSKI was father of Countess Marcjancella Pilsudzka / Marcjanna Pilsudska / Marcjanella Pilsudski + above Franciszek Pilsudzki b. 1707} and grandson - Jan Chryzostom Pilsudski + Helena Strutynska; and great-grandson Stanislaw Pilsudski 1795 - 1865 + Anna Wicencja Plater b. ca 1790 daughter of Jerzy Broel Plater + Karolina Giedroyc]

was brother of Roch Pilsudski b. ca 1680 + Malgorzata Pancerzynska who had son
Kazimierz Ludwik Pilsudski b. ca 1710 + Marianna Kukiewicz + Rozalia Dss Puzyna {see Marshal Jozef PILSUDSKI}.

Mentioned above
Kazimierz Pilsudki - great-grandfather of Marshal Józef Pilsudski - b. ca 1750 / 1760, owner of Zemogile by the Dubisa river, married to Anna Bilewicz - her mother nee Polubinska;
oldest brother of Anna Pilsudka was died !;
next brother Colonel Józef Bilewicz, lived at Court of Stanislaw August Poniatowski;
sister Eufrozyna m. Wincenty Biallozor of Poszuszwie.

III.

Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki (born 1751):

In 1799, Tadeusz Grabianka left France and he went to Galicia for a short time, and then to Russia in St Petersburg. There he entered the circle of aristocracy;

in the autumn of 1804, Grabianka found himself in Tulczyn with Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki (born 1751).

The first on JAN Potocki:

in 1785, Jan Potocki in Warsaw married Julia (1767-1794), the daughter of Izabela Lubomirski and the cousin to Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861). They moved home to Paris for 2 years. 1786, was born Alfred (1786-1862). Potocki make friends with Lady de Staël.

In 1787, was born Artur POTOCKI (1787-1832), the TEMPLAR.

Jan Potocki come to Spa, with Anna Teresa and Lady de Genlis [see below]. Potocki stayed in Antwerpia, then in England; back to Paris.

1788 - JAN POTOCKI met Stanislaw August the King.
Moved to Ukraina; met Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki; he, in Lublin, met Seweryn Potocki.
In Poznan and Sroda - he is elected a Great Poland deputy.
JAN Potocki corresponds with his brother-in-law, Ignacy Potocki; Jan inherited together with Seweryn Potocki the property of Józef Potocki and Wincenty Potocki in Ukraine. In November, a political club with 150 members was founded in Warsaw.

Remember -
Aleksandra Potocka, with nick-name Aleksandryna

(1818-1892, born in St Petersburg, the daughter of Stanislaw Septym Potocki;

the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki 1751-1805;
the great-granddaughter of Franciszek Salezy Potocki, 1700-1772,
who was the son of Józef Potocki (died 1723), and grandson of Feliks Kazimierz "Szczesny" Potocki (1630-1702), the great-grandson of Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki, 1589-1667),

married her cousin August Potocki

(= August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778; the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755; the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720; the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki).

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice
[I had explained incorrect inf. on Jerzy Dunin-Wasowicz of the 18th century].

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892]

(K. Lipinski - the manager of Berezyna, Tepliki, Zwinogród.
LUBUSZANY - 13 km to MIEZONKA),

to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor - Andrzej Potocki.

IV.

"... Pleshcheeva hosted TADEUSZ Grabianka and many meetings of the society took place in her home.

In 1804, Lefort also secured a position for d'Attigny as governess in Pleshcheeva's household. Soon, however, d'Attigny appears to have retired from service and was able to take up residence in the home of Mariia Antonovna Naryshkina (1779-1854) / NARYSZKIN, the Polish mistress of the Emperor.

Intriguingly, Grabianka wrote that 'I am convinced for several reasons to think that she [d'Attigny] did not arrive there [in Naryshkina's home] for nothing. God will do with her what he wants'.

In 1805, Simonin too secured a position as governor of the children of Pavel Petrovich Ushakov (1779-1853) in the Mikhailovskii Palace.

Although Lefort left Petersburg in August 1806 in order to accompany Pleshcheeva and her daughter to Lausanne, Grabianka wrote that he had only been 'necessary until I arrived in St. Petersburg'.

We do not know whether Naryshkina or Ushakov were active members of the New Israel Society, but whatever the case they did help to provide a means for d'Attigny and Simonin to proselytize among the Petersburg nobility".

Maria Antonovna Naryshkina / Maria NARYSHKIN, 1779 - 1854, nee Princess Maria Czetwertynska- Swiatopelk,
was a Polish mistress of Tsar Alexander I of Russia for 13 years.

She was the daughter of the Polish prince Antoni Stanislaw Czetwertynski-Swiatopelk and his wife, Tekla Kampenhausen. In 1795, she married Dmitry Lvovich Naryshkin. In 1799, she entered into a relationship with Alexander, who became tsar in 1801. Alexander was persuaded to leave her in 1818. Her son was: Emanuel Naryshkin (1813 - 1901).

Mentioned
Prince Antoni Stanislaw Czetwertynski-Swiatopelk (1748-1794),
was the son of Wlodzimierz Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski and Teresa. Mentioned Wlodzimierz Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski b. 1720, was the son of
GABRIEL = Gavriil, b. ca 1680 + BARBARA STEMPKOWSKA [Stepkowska]. Gabriel Czetwertynski, the Braclaw official in 1715; his parents:
Waclaw Czetwertynski + Ludwika Wojna-Oranska. WACLAW Swiatopelk / Waclaw Czetwertynski, b. ca 1630/1635, the owner of Stara Czetwertnia, Zyczyny, and of Utejkowszczyzna in 1662 in the Czerniechow province,
the son of Hrehory Czetwertynski + Marianna Wkrynska.

Hrehory Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski b. ca 1570, died ca 1651, was the son of prince Eustachius Czetwertynski = Eustachy.

Note 1 -

Franciszka ZALUSKA / Franciszka Maria Lubomirska born in 1793 in Warsaw; her father
Teofil Wojciech Zaluski + Css Honorata Igelström nee Stempkowska.

Note 2 -

Dorota Teresa Regina Woroniecka of Zbaraz, 1712-1785 - the daughter of MIKOLAJ WORONIECKI 1680 - 1748 [died on November 1, 1748 in Dziembowo, Kaczory close to Pila], and Teresa Rydzynska.

Granddaughter of WLADYSLAW Woroniecki b. ca 1650, d. 1719 [and DOROTA], who was the son of WALERIAN, and
grandson of Duke MICHAL Woroniecki and Konstancja Stempkowski;
they come from NASTAZJA and Mateusz Maciej Woroniecki b. ca 1570 ?.

Compare with:

Alexander Troubetzkoy, born 14 July 1813, General Major, his parents: Vassily Troubetzkoy b. 1776, died in 1841, and mentioned Sophia Marianna von Weiss b. 1795;

above Alexander married 24 November 1852 to Marie Eugenie Gilbert de Voisins / Voisin b. 1835, and his children: Margarita Troubetzkoy b. 1857 and Alexei b. 1866.

Above Vassily mother -
Elena Nesvizky / Helena Nieswiz b. 1746 died 1831 and his father Serguei / Siergiej Troubetzkoy died 1782,
grandfather Alexey TRUBECKI born 1700 and grandmother Anna Naryshkine / NARYSHKIN b. 1704;
great-grandfather Youri Troubetzkoy by wife Elena Tcherkasskaia / Tcherkassky.

Note:

Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father KSAWERY Lubomirski; EUGENIUSZ was the son of
Ksawery Lubomirski / Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819, and Teofila Rzewuski / Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831.

Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski, born in 1747, d. in 1819, 2nd married to Maria Lvovna Naryshkina / NARYSHKIN, born in 1766.

Mentioned Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski born in 1747, was the son of Stanislaw Lubomirski, born in 1704, d. 1793, married in 1740 to Ludwika Honorata Pociej.

Above named Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha.


Additional explanations to the person of
Józef August Iliński, the Tadeusz Grabianka's supporter:

Józef August Iliński b. 1760 or in 1766 in Romanow in the Zytomierz county, MP, senator, chamberlain, head of the grenadier regiment, Polish and Russian general lieutenant and the general inspector in 1792;
a Maltese bachelor in 1797.
Named Romanów / Romaniw / Dzerżynśk.
Józef August Iliński born in 1760/1766, General
[Jozef was maybe a brother to ILIŃSKI Jan, b. 1754 - d. bef. 1814, emigrated. Jozef ILINSKI was the brother of Ludwika Giżycka, and the half brother of Kajetan Aksak, Agnieszka Skarbek and Józef Dąmbski, Count. Acc. to Myszkowski:

August Józef Iliński was born on 18.08.1766 in Romanów, and had sibilings:
1.
Janusz Stanisław Iliński b. 1765, Romanów; killed in 1792, Markuszew; Chamberlain of the Polish King Stanisław August in 1785, captain of the national cavalry, General Inspector of Cavalry in 1789, the deputy of the province of Kijów in 1791.
2.
Anna Maria Ilińska b. ca 1765, 1st m. Franciszek Zabierzowski, Chamberlain of the Polish King Stanisław August in 1786; 2nd she was married to Franciszek Ksawery Brückmann.
3.
Ludwika Ilińska b. ca 1766, married Bartłomiej Giżycki d. 1827, Mołoczki, 56 km SW to Żytomierz; General, the nobility Marshal in Volhynia in 1825, the son of Kajetan Giżycki, the grandson of Bartłomiej GIZYCKI, b. 1682].

August Józef Iliński was the son of Jan Kajetan Benedykt Iliński, born in 1731 in the DUBNO parish + Józefa Wessel
[Jan Kajetan Benedykt Iliński was the owner of Romanów, the Zytomierz official, MP of Kiev, in 1779 Count;
m. 1st Marianna Józefa Wessel 1 voto Jan Aksak;
m. 2nd Katarzyna Bielska the daughter of Józef Bielski b. ca 1700;
m. 3rd to Anna Jakoba Braconnier.

Jan Ilinski was the son of Kazimierz Iliński born ca 1670/1690, died in 1756 in DUBNO, and Anna Suszczewicz].

Above KAZIMIERZ ILINSKI - the owner of Romanów / Romaniw ca 1710 ?; Kazimierz Iliński the owner of Romanów and Kureń / Kurne, in 1722 Colonel.
Above Kazimierz was the son of Piotr Stanisław Iliński b. ca 1650, d. 1691;
Kazimierz was the Luck and Czernichow official, 1685, m. Zofia Skarbek.

Piotr was the son of
Aleksander Iliński b. ca 1620, the Czernichow official, 1659; Aleksander m. Regina Korczewska b. ca 1620, d. 1701.

Aleksander was the son of Iwan vel Jan Iliński b. ca 1580, m. Dorota Szczepanowska b. ca 1585.

JOZEF ILINSKI / Józef August Iliński probably was born on 18th August 1760. He was owner of the Romanow palace; the palace was surrounded by a manor park, in which there was a three-meter granite monument in the shape of a pyramid [ILLUMINATI], dedicated to the memory of General Janusz Iliński who died in 1792 near Markuszów. In the second half of the nineteenth century the palace became the property of the Stecki family.

Above
Janusz Stanisław Iliński born in 1765 in Romanów, died on July 26, 1792 near Markuszów; General. In 1785 he became the chamberlain of King Stanisław II August. Supporter of the 3rd May constitution, member of the Congregation of Friends to the Government Constitution. Member of the General Staff of the Crown Army in 1792. During the Polish-Russian war in 1792 he arrived at the headquarters of Prince Józef Poniatowski in Kurów. He got into a skirmish with the Russians at Markuszów, where he died.

All below acc. to 'myszkowscy.pl/ilinski.html':

Janusz Stanisław Iliński b. 1765 in Romanów, was the brother of
1.
Ludwika Ilińska b. ca 1765, m. Bartłomiej Giżycki.
2.
Anna Maria Ilińska 1st m. Franciszek Zabierzowski, 2nd m. Franciszek Ksawery Brückmann.
3.
and
JOZEF ILINSKI = August Józef Iliński, b. 1766, Romanów, the main supporter of the ILLUMINATI; Polish and Russian General.

Jozef married 3 times - 2nd to
Antonina Leonora Komorowska, 1770 [?] - 1838, but acc. to me she [Eleonora Antonina Komorowska] was born ca 1755. She was married twice: 1st to
Józef August Iliński, b. 1760 / 1766 - died in 1844 in Saint Petersburg;
2nd Antonina Komorowska was married to Piotr Litwinow in 1811; he was the Russian General; the Kamieniec Podolski governor.

Antonina was the daughter of Jakub Komorowski died 1781, and Antonina Brygitta Pawłowska, d. 1791 in Lwów.

Antonina Brygitta Pawłowska in 1782 married 2nd to Józef Szeptycki of Stanisławow.

JOZEF ILINSKI born on 18th August 1760 [or 1766], had 2 sons:
1.
Janusz Iliński known as Jan Iliński, b. 1785, in Romanow, in the ZYTOMIERZ county. Died in 1860 in BRODY, the Lviv province.
Above JANUSZ / Jan Stanisław Iliński was the owner of Tajkury and Zahoroszce; Senator and Maltese bachelor, novelist and composer.
JANUSZ's children:
1.
Aleksander Iliński b. ca 1810; the owner of Oktawiny and Tajkury in Volhynia / Wołyń; Colonel in Russia, m. in 1863 to Franciszka Klaudia Kaszowska b. 1844, 2voto Edwin Drucki Lubecki.
2.
Joanna Ilińska b. 1830 or 1834 - d. 1900, Wisbaden;
1st she was married Stanisław Worcell;
2nd to Edward Keller.

3. Leonia Maria Eleonora Ilińska, b. 1835 in Kijów, m. Adolf Kaszowski.

Note:

Stanisław Gabriel Worcell b. 1799 in Stepan;
the CONSPIRATOR, the son of Stanisław Grzegorz Worcell b. ca 1760 and Anna Małgorzata Fergusson-Tepper. The grandson of Stanisław Worcell, the Halicz governor, 1740-1778 + Tekla Dunin-Borkowska.

Above Stanisław Gabriel Worcell b. 1799 was
the member of the Masonic Lodge. Participant of guerrilla fights in Volhynia. On August 11, 1831, decorated with The Silver Order of Virtuti Militari. In 1831, he was elected a deputy from the Równo to the insurrectionary parliament. After the November Uprising he emigrated to France and England. First he was in the Polish Democratic Society, was removed in 1835, then he was founder of the Polish People's Group; the Union of Emigration; he returned to the Polish Democratic Society again. He was friends with Italian politician Giuseppe Mazzini!

His brother Mikołaj Worcell, imprisoned in 1827, was sent to a penal company in the Caucasus. Freed in 1843 and he came back to home; he was returned to the family estates confiscated after the November Uprising.

Stanisław Gabriel Worcell had a son Stanisław Worcell married Joanna Ilińska, 1830-1900.

2.
Janusz's brother was Henryk Iliński b. 1792 in Romanow, d. 1871, the son of Józef August Iliński and Eleonora Antonina Komorowska.

Above HENRYK ILINSKI:

the owner of Romanów
[ie. Romaniw, 51 km east-south-east to SLAWUTA - the Romanow palace of Józef August Iliński, at way from Połonne to Żytomierz],
m. Michalina Bierzyńska, 1794 - 1858,
the daughter of Adam Bierzyński

[Adam married Teresa Walewska, b. 1776, d. 1856, Stutgard],

the graddaughter of Onufry Bierzyński, b. ca 1730, d. 1783, Colonel + Ludwika Ponińska, d. bef. 1785.
Come from Maciej Bierzynski, b. ca 1710, the Wschowa official.

Above Teresa Walewska, b. 1776, d. 1856, was the daughter of Michał Walewski, 1735 - 1806 + Kasawera Marianna Jadwiga Turno.

Above MICHAL WALEWSKI:

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jabłonowska, died in 1826; the daughter of Michał Walewski

{Michał Walewski 1735/1740 - 1806; the son of Marcin Walewski

(Marcin Walewski 1700 - 1761 was son of Franciszek Walewski from Sieradz, 1670-1733)

and Magdalena Antonina SZEMBEK

[Marek Szembek b. circa 1700, d. 1744, son of Antoni Felicjan Szembek and Ewa Apolonia; husband of Jadwiga; father of Paulina / Paula Oginska; brother of Józef Eustachy Szembek, and Magdalena Antonina Walewska].

Michał Walewski 1735 or 1740 - 1806, Voivode of Sieradz 1785-1792.
Michal Walewski m. 2nd to Ksawera Marianna Jadwiga Turno, with children:
Teresa Walewska 1776 - 1856 m. Adam Bierzyński,
Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846 m. 1st Aleksander Franciszek Chodkiewicz 1776 - 1838, m. 2nd to Aleksander Golicyn 1789 - 1858;
Józef Walewski 1780 - 1813;
Hieronim Jerzy Walewski b. ca 1780 m. Cecylia Potocka 1783 - 1861.

Above named Michał 1735 / 1740 - 1806 m. 3rd to Szczęsna Feliksa Kokoszka-Michałowska 1770-1844.

Michał Walewski in 1788-1792 put forward the project of expansion of the Polish army to 100 000 soldiers; the Speaker of the Bar Confederation of Cracow province in 1771. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation, with Stanislaw August Poniatowski;
he was the son of Marcin Walewski / Martin (d. 1761) who married 1st to Antonina Magdalene Szembek b. circa 1710, d. 1744, daughter of Antoni Felicjan Szembek.

Marcin Walewski married 2nd to Marcjanna Romer (d. 1761).

Jozefina or Józefa Walewska nee Lubomirska married to Brigadier Adam Walewski, brother of Michal Walewski, the Voivode / governor of Sieradz}

and Jadwiga

{above Jadwiga Colonna-Walewska / Walewski, born 1740 / 1744 to Józef Colonna-Walewski and Ludwika Colonna-Walewska. Józef was born in 1700 / 1710, in Walewice. Jadwiga had brother Anastazy Colonna-Walewski. Jadwiga married Michal Walewski. Michal was born in 1735/1740/1750, officer in Sieradz}.

Note:

Antoni Michał Jabłonowski - CONSPIRATOR,
the prince in Ostrog, Maryampol and Podkamień; born 1793 in Warsaw - died 1855 in Annopol; member of the Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland, chamberlain of the emperor of the Russian Empire, prince of the Congress Kingdom in 1820; a Polish conspiracy activist to 1826.
Stanisław Paweł Jabłonowski and Teodora Walewska were the parents of Antoni.

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jabłonowska, died in 1826; the daughter of above named Michał Walewski.

Above
Antoni Jabłonowski was the caretaker of the Masonic lodge Bouclier du Nord in 1818; a member of the Patriotic Society of Walerian Łukasiński; In 1825, Antoni Jabłonowski negotiated with the Decembrists. After the fall of the Decembrists' uprising, he was arrested in 1826.
Ca 1810, Antoni Jabłonowski married Paulina Wandalin-Mniszech, the daughter of Michał Jerzy Wandalin-Mniszch. Their daughter Dorota Jabłonowska married Stanisław Kostka Korwin-Krasiński, an officer of the November Uprising.

Mentioned above HENRYK ILINSKI had a daughter

Jadwiga Ilińska b. 1824, d. 1889 in Bursztyn, the lady-owner of Romanów, m. Henryk Józef Michał Stecki - Olechnowicz, d. aft. 1895;

Jadwiga Ilinska STECKA had a son

Henryk Stecki b. 1847, the owner of Romanów and Sielce in the Zytomierz county, and of Wojtowce in the Nowogrodzki county; m. Henryka Kurzenicka, the daughter of Gustaw Kurzenicki + Oktawia Ilińska, the daughter of Jan Ilinski + Oktawia Morawska Ilinska.

ROMANOW -

in the Zytomierz county. Passed into the ownership of the Iliński in the eighteenth century, the village became a property of Kazimierz Iliński.
Józef August Iliński founded a steam mill and a large cloth factory in the village.
In the nineteenth century, the village became the property of the Stecki family.

The Ilinski family come from:
Iliński of the Żytomierz county.
Seweryn Iliński b. ca 1820 + Jadwiga Paczkowska.

We know on
Stefania Iliński (1841 - 1920) m. Władysław LASKI = Lasek, banker, in 1870 the President of the International Bank in St. Petersburg
[see below !].

Above Władysław Karol Jan Tadeusz Laski b. 1831.

Stefania Ilinska was the daughter of
Janusz Iliński / Jan Iliński, b. 1785 in Romanow;
the granddaughter of Józef August Iliński b. 1760 [the friend of TADEUSZ GRABIANKA !];
the great-granddaughter of Jan Kajetan Benedykt Iliński, b. 1731;
the great-great-granddaughter of
Kazimierz Iliński b. ca 1670, d. 1756.

Stefania Iliński (1841 - 1920) m. Władysław LASKI and they had 2 children:
Maria Lasek / LASKI, b. 1867 + Count Zygmunt Wielopolski;
Aleksandra Lasek / LASKI (1870-1909).

Wladyslaw Lasek / Wladyslaw LASKI was the son of Zofia Berta Tischler Laski / Lasek (1802-1870) and Zofia
was the daughter of Szmul Zbytkower!

Note 1:

Atalia Józefa Adolfina Zbytkower Sonnenberg (1776-1850, was the wife of Karol Jan Laski, Polish banker of Jewish origin, and after his death in 1802, she was married to Samuel Fraenkel / FRENKIEL).

ATALIA was the daughter of banker Szmul Zbytkower!

Karol Jan Laski was the friend of Szmul Jakubowicz / Józef Samuel Sonnenberg / Zbytkower, b. 1727 - d. 1801, the son of Jakub Awigdor.

Note 2:

Szmul Jakubowicz / Józef Samuel Sonnenberg / Zbytkower, b. 1727 - d. 1801, the son of Jakub Awigdor.

Szmul was a Jewish merchant and supplier, banker, factor, protégé of King Stanisław August Poniatowski; The Great Polish Patriot in 1794.
The friend of MICHAL PONIATOWSKI - see Maleszewski + Venture de Paradise and BREGUET.

SZMUL ZBYTKOWER was three times married.
By Wikipedia:
For the first time with a woman of an unknown name.
For the second time with Euprozyna Gabriel (1750-1836), with whom he divorced.
For the third time in 1799 with Judyta Bucky (died in 1829).
With his first wife he had two sons - Abel, from him descends the Pragier family, to which Adam Pragier belonged; and Berka.

With his second wife, he had a daughter, Atalia Józefa Adolfina (1776-1850, wife of Karol Jan Laski, and after his death Samuel Fraenkel / Frenkiel).

With his third wife, he had three daughters -
Marianna Barbara Dora (1780-1830), Ludwika Rebeka (born 1781) and Anna (wife of 1. Łazarz Tischler - a Warsaw merchant, 2. Józef Alekse Morawski (1791-1855) - senator, 1788-1828).

Granddaughter of Anna and Józef Morawski was Franciszka Siedliska (blessed Maria from the Lord Jesus the Good Shepherd) founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.

Note to named SZMUL:
"... His position at the royal court was extremely strong. His third wife, Judyta (Gitel) Jakubowicz Lewi, from Frankfurt by Oder, led a salon in Warsaw ... She was also regularly invited by the king for Thursday's dinners ...
After his death, Zbytkower's interests were taken over by his son Ber Sonnenberg. He founded the Bergson family, from which Henri Bergson, a French philosopher, came from...".

Insurgents of 1831 and they had estates confiscated by the Russians:
Iliński Antoni and
Xawery Ilinski;
Iliński Jan.

Note:

St. Petersburg International Bank - director A. I. ROTHSTEIN, a German by origin. A. I. Rothstein, a director of the Russo-Chinese Bank also. After LASKI / Ljasskij's death in 1889, Adolf Rothstein was assigned to director's board.

Stefania Iliński (1841 - 1920) m. Władysław LASKI = Lasek, banker, in 1870 the President of the International Bank in St. Petersburg.

Copyright by Sofya SALOMATINA of Moscow:

"... In the first part of the 1880s two banking groups competed for Russian issues ...

The first group's leader was DiscontoGesellschaft, the other active members being Mendelssohn & Co, Robert Warschauer & Co. and Deutsche Bank. The group included Petersburg International Bank and Russian Bank for Foreign Trade from Russian side.

Their rivals may be called as 'Rothschilds' group', including besides Rothschilds their allies:
S. Bleichröder, Berliner Handels-Gesellschaft and Lippmann, Rothenthal & Co.

In this alliance the Russian side was presented by Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank [see Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company] and sometimes by Volga-Kama Commercial Bank. These groups united in 1887.

... Petersburg International Bank and Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank had approximately equal shares, although International bank usually acted as a leader of Russian group and kept syndicates' accounts in Russia. In 1888-1891 owing to barriers to Russian equities at German market the French group, led by Paribas, joined to Russian issues due to active role of banking house Hoskier E. & Cie, which had been able to opened French market for Russian equity throughout intermediary of International Bank in negotiation with the Russian Ministry of Finance. ...

The French side included ...
Crédit lyonnais [see Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company] and Crédit industriel et commercial ...

Petersburg International Bank and Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank acted as intermediaries between the syndicate and the Russian government, railway companies, mortgage institutions. ...

WLADYSLAW LASKI / Vladislav Ljasskij (1831-1889) and Discount and Loan Bank's director, Abram Zak (d. 1893) played the roles of financial advisers of Ivan Vyshnegradsky, the Russian minister of Finance in 1888-1892. The minister was suspected of close connections with 'Rothschilds' group'.

His no less close ties with International Bank arose before his appointment to ministerial post, when Vyshnegradsky executed duty of vice-chairman of the South-West Railways Society's board. International Bank provided the company with banking services. Sergei Witte, the successor of Vyshnegradsky as the minister of finance, began his private career at this railway company. International Bank enjoyed support or even auspices of government...

After LASKI / Ljasskij's death in 1889, Adolf Rothstein was assigned to director's position and he enabled to retain bank's privileged positions in the time of the Witte's ministry in 1892-1903. ...".

The eldest Pole among Polish military figures bef. 1917 in RUSSIA, was
general Jan Jacyna
who served in a "Main technical committee" of Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891;
at a later date he acted, 1901 - 1917 as member on "the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry (next War and Navy Ministry) in Petersburg;

since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during - 1914 / 1917 - the First world war;

then (since 1915) he co-operated with "Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions (confer Jan Jacyna memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71);

General JAN JACYNA was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th cent., amidst military and industrial activists, social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz wholy negative when paid a call on Lenin at the end of January 1918.

General Jan Jacyna kept in touch with e.g. Michal Szydlowski [see Sikorsky and Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company] and Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky, who managed with a big loans especially during the First world war; about Jaroszynski see Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001.

Karol Jaroszynski / Karol Yaroshinsky
"(...) died in near poverty in 1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as Sidney Reilly disappeared in the Soviet Union (in the 1920s).

(...) Before the Revolution, he had fallen in love with one of the Tsar's daughters (...).
Near to Krivoshein - the man who brought Yaroshinsky into the Allied banking scheme.

(...) Yaroshinsky was the financial benefactor to the Romanov family during the last days of their captivity in Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg in 1918. The man was involved with Henry Armitstead and Jonas Lied, who had been paid through the British Secret Service for activities in Northern Russia (1918)."

The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank.

According to V. S. Solomko,
this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the St. Petersburg International Bank by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy.

The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".

Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank.
In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a defence Commission 1907-10.

In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board. From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of Special Meeting for defence.
At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup,
acc. to A. G. Kalmykov.

The 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8:

Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman,

Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg,

L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland,

Alexander E. Armand,

Sergei Gernet, the son of Pavel GERNET

and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg;

his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'.


Let's try to think about where Tadeusz Grabianka actually stayed in 1799-1802 in Galicia. This matter requires very exact verification.

We can consider a dozen or so towns where Tadeusz Grabianka could possibly be in 1799 - 1802:

Przyborowice;
Radom;
Sedziszow;
Lownia / Lowina;
Wegrzynow;
Sreniawa;
Międzyrzec Podlaski - 1795-1809 in Austria;
Skeliwka = FELSZTYN;
Nawojna / Nawojowa and Zbyszyce of STADNICKI;
Podhorce and
Siedliszcze; and
OPOLE LUBELSKIE;
Zator;
Rymanow and Dukla.

Tadeusz Grabianka stayed in Galicia, that is in Austria, in 1799-1802. He left France in 1799, in the face of Napoleon Bonaparte's unfavorable attitude.

Let us remember that in 1799 Jozef Sulkowski died in Egypt, probably on Napoleon's orders.

After 1795, Austria occupied New Galicia, as well as the Galicia and Lodomeria from 1772. Galicja Nowa did not include Bystrzanowskie property in Bystrzanowice and Lgota Murowana of Kalinowski, which were in Prussia in 1795.

Then Grabianka traveled from Austrian Galicia to Russia, first on Ukraine and Wolyn, in 1802. It was not until 1805 that he went to the capital of Russia, to St. Petersburg, where Tadeusz Grabianka, the top Polish conspirator, was poisoned in prison in 1807.

However, some of the Bystrzanowskis were lived in the Austrian New Galicia since 1795 until 1809, then in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, 1809-1813, Russian occupation in 1813 and from 1815 these lands of the former New Galicia were now in the Polish Congress Kingdom - see above.

I.
See below on the Bystrzanowskis:

Pawel Bystrzanowski was the Czernichow official and he owned Dzbany, and Przyborowice / Przeborowice - 27 km south-west to Opatow.
Pawel's brothers:
Wojciech Bystrzanowski;
Jozef Bystrzanowski,
Lieutenant Jan Bystrzanowski - inf. in 1782 in Radom, m. Mlodzianowska.

Pawel's [+ Agnieszka Grzymala] sons:

1. Franciszek Bystrzanowski b. 1750, d. 1815 in Sedziszow [1795-1807 in Austria];

2. Stefan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1752, d. 1808;

3. Stanislaw Bystrzanowski b. ca 1754, the official in WISLICA [1795 in Austria] in 1792 + Wiktoria LUBANSKA.

Above Franciszek Bystrzanowski, 1750-1815:
owner of Lowina / Lownia [Lowina], and the official in Checiny in 1769 until 1810; m. Joanna Laskowska in 1775 in Zlotniki, with 3 or 4 daughters:
Katarzyna Fink,
Komornicka;
Anna Starowieyska,
Witkowska;
Joanna;
Aleksandra Zrebicka.

And above Franciszek's sons:
1.
Izydor Bystrzanowski b. after 1777, the owner of Lownia

[Lowina / Lowinia, close to Jedrzejow and south to Naglowice; and 9 km north-east to Sedziszow - east to Szczekociny and Lelow]

since 1807 + Ludwika LINOWSKA,
with a daughter Xawera / Ksawera Bystrzanowska, born 1808;

2.
Maksymilian Bystrzanowski in WEGRZYNOW [13 km north to Strawczyn, and north-west to Kielce] - inf. in 1837 in the Polish Kingdom + Magdalena KONARSKA

[Maksymilian Bystrzonowski and Magdalena Konarska, in Kraków, too; they came from the Lowina estate close to Sedziszów].

II.

Tadeusz Grabianka, on 28 November 1799, closed the TEMPLE in France;
he came to Czartoryski and Lubomirski; visited 1799-1802 in GALICIA.

He knew the daughter of Izabela Czartoryska (1746-1835).

The son of Tadeusz:
Erazm Grabianka was the official in Ploskirów, b. after 1770; m. Helena Skrocka; with
Martyna + Aleksander Zaleski - with
Maria Helena Zaleska 1863-1942 + Zdzislaw Aleksander Tytus Czartoryski 1859-1909.

Above Zdzislaw's great-grandparents:

Adam Kazimierz Joachim Czartoryski 1734-1823;
Michal Hieronim Radziwill.

Above
Adam Kazimierz Joachim Czartoryski was the General, acted in Podolia; MP; was born in 1734 - Gdansk; d. 1823 - Sieniawa.
The Field Marshal in 1805 in AUSTRIA.

SIENIAWA:

Adam Mikolaj Sieniawski, had a daughter Zofia Czartoryska nee Sieniawski; Zofia married in 1731 to August Czartoryski. In 1734 Sieniawa belonged to Czartoryski.
1772-1918 in AUSTRIA.

Adam Kazimierz Joachim Czartoryski, visited in 1755 Viena. In 1756 MP of LWOW.
1757 studied in England; MP in 1758, 1760 and in 1762. 1759 in St Petersburg. Married Izabela Flemming.
The Freemason.
The owner of Miedzyrzec Podlaski, then Aleksandra Potocki.

Adam Kazimierz Joachim Ambrozy Marek Czartoryski, as Daniel Belgram, b. 1734. The owner of Sieniawa - north to Jaroslaw - GALICIA !

PODHORCE:

In 1728, Podhorce inherited Waclaw Rzewuski, SENIOR.
1754, Rzewuski SENIOR bought Olesko, too. 1751, Podhorce was the main seat of Waclaw RZEWUSKI, for over 30 yeras.
At that time, he was married to Anna Lubomirska, with whom she had several children. During his stay in Podhorce, he protected Podole / Podolia against the Cossacks invasion and carried out the renovation of the castle.
He wrote poems and political trials. In the castle, he organized a theater;
founded an alchemist laboratory and printing houses.
In 1767 he went to the Parliament.
He did not return to his property. He was arrested by Russians and deported with his son and others senators to Kaluga, where he stayed for over 5 years. At that time Podhorce passed into Austria.

Waclaw Rzewuski SENIOR lived in the village of Siedliszcze, in the Chelm Lubelski area [1795-1809 to AUSTRIA].


III.

Siedliszcze passed into the hands of the Rzewuski family bef. 1700.
After Michal Rzewuski, this estate took Stanislaw Mateusz Rzewuski, in 1706 the field Commander, and in 1726 the great Commander of the Crown. After his death, the estate in 1728 was owned by his son Waclaw RZEWUSKI, senior, who in 1752 became a field Commander, and in 1773-1774 he was a great Commander. Waclaw Rzewuski is also known in history as a poet and playwright. In 1758 he sold Siedliszcze to the colonel Wojciech Weglinski, the Chelm Lubelski governor. Colonel Wojciech Weglinski built a new manor here.

PODHORCE

in 1865 was sold to Eustachy Sanguszko / Sanguszka; or in 1865 Wladyslaw Hieronim Sanguszko bought from Leon Rzewuski the Podhorce Castle, but in 1867 the Castle took over his son Eustachy Sanguszko.

And next CONSPIRATOR:

Marcin Tarnowski was the President of the Volhynia Province, 1821 to arrest in 1826, of the Patriotic Society.
The Marshal of the nobility of the Krzemieniec county.
Marcin Tarnowski died in Zator [see below !] in Austria.

Marcin Tarnowski was the Polish military commander under Kosciuszko in 1794, son of Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and Tekla Grabianka [see the ILLUMINATI of Tadeusz Grabianka] from Pankracewice near Leszczyce (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county.

Marcin started the military service as an adjutant of Tomasz Wawrzecki in 1794; took part in the battles in defense of Warsaw, he also fought against the Suvorov near the Warsaw Praga. In June 1809 he became the head of the insurgent horse unit in Podolia: in Tarnopol with Piotr Strzyzewski; in Stryj and Sambor; Wieniawka; Grzymalow, Chorostkow, Brzezany, Adamówka and Zaleszczyki. In 1813 fighting for Hellensdorf, Königstein, and Peterswelde, Pirna, Sere and Dresden. He was taken prisoner (November 8); the army of the Kingdom of Poland, on January 20, 1815, he commanded the 3rd Rifle Division of the Kingdom of Poland. However, he resigned on December 9, 1815.

He settled in Wolyn, where he was active member of the Patriotic Society, 1821, as the head of the Volhynia province, as its president, he was also the vice-president of the central committee for the Kiev, Podolia and Wolyn provinces,
whose formal president was KAROL PROZOR;

Marcin Tarnowski knew about the contacts of the Society's emissaries with the Russian decembrists; among CONSPIRATORS were:
Mikolaj Worcell,
Atanazy Gródecki,
Aleksander Prozor [?],
KAROL PROZOR,
Franciszek Zaleski,
Jan Lipski,
Narcyz Olizar,
Waclaw Rzewuski JUNIOR,
Aleksander Bledowski and many others.


IV.

ZATOR:

1772-1918 belonged to Austria.

1765 - the commander was Fryderyk Piotr Dunin, the son of Piotr DUNIN. 1772 the Castle took the Austrians. In 1778, Fryderyk Piotr Dunin bought ZATOR.

1805 - Anna Potocka, Dunin-Wasowicz, nee Tyszkiewicz gave her ex-husband Aleksander Potocki, the estate of ZATOR.

Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki, b. 1778, was the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Dunin-Wasowicz [the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748].

Note:

Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, was the great-grandson of Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha, 1668-1732,
who was the son of Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha + Krystyna Hlebowicz,
and was the grandson of Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), the owner of Luboszany and Berezyna / Berezino.

Aleksander's brother was Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1808, who married Dss Konstancja Poniatowska, the owner of BEREZYNO-LUBOSZANY, 1759-1830, the daughter of Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski 1721-1800;
with the daughter
Anna Tyszkiewicz, POTOCKA, 1779-1867, the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany + Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845

[= Aleksander Potocki / Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845),
was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska.
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki],

with the son August Aleksander Potocki, 1805-1867 + Aleksandra Julia Potocka, 1818-1892.

August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778;
the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755;
the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720;
the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of
Stanislaw Rewera Potocki.

ZATOR:

1836 new Zator Castle;
in 1845 Aleksander Potocki died and the new owner was his son
Maurycy Potocki, the 1863 insurgent.

Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA.
The son of mentioned above
Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778

{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Dunin-Wasowicz Potocka

[the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - Ludwik TYSZKIEWICZ was the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY (Luboszany took his wife Konstancja nee Poniatowska) in 1793 after Sapieha]

and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska}.

But the last owner of BEREZYNA

{Beata Terczynska inf. Maurycy Potocki was the owner of Berezyna in the 80's of 19th cent. ? - but we know
Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR and Lubuszany [when ?], and named Luboszany / LUBUSZANY took Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, of Krzeszowice, 1866-1952!

BEREZYNA belonged to above mentioned
Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, and to his sons}

before 1916 until Dec. 1918 was Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki b. May 1894 in Jablonna, died in 1949
- the son of
August Adam Potocki b. 1847, died in 1905 in Warsaw - the owner of BEREZYNA Ihumenska

{a widow after death of August POTOCKI, in 1905 took ZATOR and maybe Berezyna [1905-1909];

she sold Zator in 1908; she sold Berezyna after 1909 to hands of her son - MAURYCY POTOCKI.

August Potocki also was the owner of JABLONNA.

Next owner of ZATOR in 1908 - Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz of KRZESZOWICE, and her son Adam Potocki, 1896-1966};

the grandson of Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA

{Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice in AUSTRIA, or in Paris in 1880 - was the owner of BEREZYNA in Russia!

In 1880 his son August Potocki took JABLONNA, Zator, and HALF of the BEREZYNA ESTATE.

The second half of named BEREZYNA took August's brother Eustachy Potocki / Eustachy Maurycy Aleksander 1859-1914.

August Potocki - the Austrian citizen - bought in 1890/1891 the second part of BEREZYNA belonged to named Eustachy with Baron Eugeniusz WULF, Klimkiewicz manager, Colonel KOZLOWSKI, and Zaglowski};

the great-grandson of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778

{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Dunin-Wasowicz

[the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - Ludwik was the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY (Luboszany took his wife Konstancja nee Poniatowska) in 1793 after Sapieha]

and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska};

the great-great-grandson of
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki 1755 - 1821, the FREEMASON.

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR in Austria [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905;
then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI.

Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925.

And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice near CRACOW.

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892]
(K. Lipinski - the manager of Berezyna, Tepliki, Zwinogród.
Lubuszany 13 km to MIEZONKA of Konstantynowicz),
to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(Krystyna Tyszkiewicz was born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! -
the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN;
the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA;
the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor - Andrzej Potocki [he was killed].

Andrzej Potocki died in 1908 =
Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861 in Austria, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.

Andrzej's wife was KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, and she was the owner of ZATOR in Austria, ca 1908/1909, and since ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA in Russia

[they had children:
Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz; Izabela Maria Krasinska; Kystyna Siemienska-Lewicka; Adam Wladyslaw Franciszek Potocki;
Artur Antoni Bonawentura Hubert Maria Potocki born in 1899 in Krzeszowice close to CRACOW].

Above
ANDRZEJ POTOCKI of Krzeszowice,
the son of Adam Józef Mateusz Potocki; died in Krzeszowice in 1872 - acted in STASZOW;

the grandson of Artur Potocki, 1787-1832, the Freemason-TEMPLAR and Zofia Branicka 1790- 1879.

The great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki 1761-1815, who was the son of

Józef Potocki 1735-1802, and the

grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698-1760 and Helena Zamoyska 1717-1760
and the great-grandson of
Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski - the Smolensk governor, 1679-1735 {see Wilkowo Polskie - Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski - Szoldrski};
Józef Stanislaw Potocki (1673-1751) = Józef Potocki in Cracow in 1748
- who was the son of Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 in Stanislawow;
and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki Rewera b. 1589 in Podhajce, d. 1667.

Mentioned Stanislaw Kostka Potocki / Un Polonais, born in November 1755 in Lublin;
Polish politician, count in the Congress Kingdom in 1820; member of the Warsaw Jewish Education Chamber in 1808; Member of the Patriotic Party in the Four-year-Parliament; freemason, president of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers of the Warsaw Principality, president of the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in 1818-1821, memoirist, poet, playwright and translator.

He was the son of Eustachy Potocki, general of the Lithuanian artillery, and Marianna Katska / Koncka or Kacka;
the brother of Ignacy Potocki.

In 1772-1775, Stanislaw Kostka Potocki traveled a lot around Europe [compare Tadeusz Grabianka and Jozef Sulkowski], visiting Italy, France, Switzerland and Germany; and in 1777, 1779-1780, 1783, 1785-1786 and 1796- 1797.

Above
Ignacy Potocki = Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki / Jan K. Szabranski, born February 28, 1750 in Radzyn Podlaski, police minister in 1791, great Lithuanian marshal in 1791-1794; the Department of Foreign Interests of the Perpetual Council in 1779; member of the National Education Commission in 1773-1791;
in 1781-1784 Grand Master of the Polish National Grand Orient,
Polish politician and patriotic activist, publicist, playwright, poet, pedagogue, historian and translator.

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz,
was the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, and Konstancja Poniatowski, the king's niece

[Konstancja Poniatowska Tyszkiewicz, 1759-1830; was the niece to the King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who had a brother KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski born 1721].

Konstancja PONIATOWSKA was the daughter of Apolonia Ustrzycka, 1736-1814, and Duke Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721-1800), General, the brother of named King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski.

The brother of mentioned Konstancja was Stanislaw Poniatowski (1754 - 1833); the sister - Katarzyna Poniatowska b. 1760.

Konstancja in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1750-1808), MP, the Lithuanian Marshal in 1793.
Konstancja's daughter:
Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), m. Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki in 1805 in Wilno,
with 3 children: Natalia Potocka,
Maurycy Potocki
and
August Potocki.

Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), grew up in Bialystok under the care of a French governess at the court of her cousin, Izabela Branicka, the sister of King Stanislaw August PONIATOWSKI.

Anna Tyszkiewicz married Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki, the son of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki. Her second marriage with Dunin-Wasowicz, Adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I.

Above Stanislaw Wasowicz - Dunin b. in 1785 in Wolyn / Volhynia, died in 1864 in Paris, General in 1831, Count. In 1831 - moved out to ZATOR.

We back to
Krystyna Potocka of LUBUSZANY, ZATOR and Krzeszowice.

Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of LUBUSZANY / Luboshany.

But Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki (1894 - 1949) was the owner of BEREZYNA.

Krystyna was the wife of ANDRZEJ POTOCKI. Her father was Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN.

Below the branch of
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor - born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861.
Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780, Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778, Aleksander Michal Pawel Sapieha 1730-1793, Agnieszka Magdalena Anna Lubomirska both were the grandparents of Konstancja Soltyk.

The parents of named Konstancja SOLTYK:
Stanislaw Soltyk 1752-1833 and Karolina Sapieha, 1759-1814.

Konstancja Soltyk 1794-1836 m. Ludwik Anastazy Stanislaw Lempicki, senator, 1791-1871, with
great-grandson:
Edward Cezar Marian Broel-Plater, 1871-1958 who married in 1900, Waka, to Janina Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska, 1877- 1928,
the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz, 1831-1892 + Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz.

Above JANINA Tyszkiewicz:

parents - Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz 1831-1892; Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz, 1836-1907.

Mentioned Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz had also the oldest daughter
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz the owner of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor.

Andrzej Potocki / Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA.

ANDRZEJ was the grandson of Artur Potocki 1787-1832, the TEMPLAR; the great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki.

V.

Count Waclaw Rzewuski junior - CONSPIRATOR in Ukraine:

Waclaw Rzewuski, 1775-1831, certainly the most mysterious figure in the history of the world; he bought Arabian horses, the son of the field commander
Seweryn Rzewuski and Konstancja Lubomirski;
after the death of his father, he became the heir of the fortune. Already in student times, he took lessons in Arabic in Vienna.
And from his uncles, Jan Potocki and Adam Czartoryski - he had the first knowledge about Arab countries.

He was visiting Slawuta of SANGUSZKO [compare GRABIANKA],
Antonina and Biala Cerkiew, and he started to buy Arabian horses; 1817-1820 spent in the East.

Above SEWERYN RZEWUSKI:
During the Kosciuszko Uprising he was sentenced to death by the Supreme Criminal Court and executed in effigy on 29 September 1794. He was married to Konstancja Malgorzata Lubomirska and had three children, Waclaw Rzewuski junior, Izabella Rzewuska and Maria Rzewuska.

CONSPIRATORS in Belarus:

We look on Alina Aleksandra Beydo-Rzewuska / Alina Rzewuska MONIUSZKO + ca 1830 to Aleksander Moniuszko b. 1790 - with a daughter
Paulina MONIUSZKO, 1831-1903 + Leon Wankowicz b. 1831.

Alina's great-grandparents:

Waclaw Rzewuski 1705-1779 SENIOR;
Michal Kazimierz Radziwill 1702-1762;
Antoni Jerzy Rdultowski;
Stanislaw Ferdynand Rzewuski 1737-1786;
Anna Lubomirska 1717-1763;
Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka 1705-1753;
Justyna Chlusewicz;
Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwill 1740-1789.

The son of named above WACLAW Rzewuski 1705-1779, senior:
Seweryn RZEWUSKI, General major in 1760, 1743-1811 + Konstancja Malgorzata Lubomirska.

Note on
Sawran
- in Ukraine, close to Odessa, at Podolia. A private noble town located in the Braclaw Province was in 1789 owned by Józef Lubomirski.

Prince Józef Lubomirski, the governor of Kiev, founded the city of Kodym, from his name Józefgród in 1771. His son, the last heir from the Lubomirski family, made for the town the privileges. The town was called Balta.
Towards the end of Waclaw Rzewuski's [JUNIOR] life BALTA was his main residence until the confiscation of the estate.

Waclaw Seweryn Rzewuski junior,
with foster names, and nicknames: Emir Tadz el faher Abd-el-Niszan; Emir Arslan; Abu Assed; Le Comte W. S. R.; Child el cheil; Count W. S. R.; born in Lviv, died in 1831 ? - the son of
Seweryn Rzewuski, and Constance Malgorzata Lubomirska;
a traveler, orientalist, memoirist, poet, conspirator and horse expert.
After returning to Poland, he settled in Sawran in Podolia. He was friendly with Tomasz Padurra, poet of the Cossacks, promoter of folklore and Ukrainian music.
1825-1826 he belonged to the Patriotic Society. Denounced in 1826, for two years he was controlled and interrogated.
The investigation was discontinued due to lack of evidence of guilt.
In 1831, during the November Uprising, Rzewuski JUNIOR has organized the Cossack riot division, giving him his Arabian horses and commanding the unit in the battle at Daszów, was lost in unspecified circumstances on May 14, 1831.

Above named
Konstancja Malgorzata Lubomirski Rzewuska (born 1761, died 1840 in Kamieniec Podolski),
the daughter of
Stanislaw LUBOMIRSKI and Izabela Czartoryski Lubomirska.
Painter, circa 1780, made a series of drawings; 1782, she married her cousin Seweryn Rzewuski and was mother of Waclaw RZEWUSKI, junior.

Since 1817 or in 1819, KONSTANCJA RZEWUSKA lived in Podhorce; and after confiscation of her son's property for participation in the November Uprising of 1831, she moved home in Kamieniec Podolski, and she was living in scarcity.

See:

Lubomirski Franciszek Ksawery (1747-1819), Russian General; the son of
Stanislaw Lubomirski, and Ludwika Pociej;
the brother of Józef and Michal.
He took the part of the Smilanszczyzna; his 2nd wife Teofila Rzewuski had owned Miedzyrzecz; Smila wa the center of the estates.

And again we back to Belarus:

Apolinary's Wankowicz [CONSPIRATOR] wife was (m. ca 1830) Izabella Obuchowicz,
with children:
1.
Helena + Józef Woynillowicz;
2.
Leon Wankowicz born in 1831, and married Paulina Moniuszko, 1831-1903,
the daughter of
Aleksander Moniuszko b. 1790 + Alina Aleksandra Rzewuska / Alina Rzewuska,
and the granddaughter of
Stanislaw Moniuszko b. ca 1760 + Ewa Woynillowicz b. ca 1770.

Note at margin:

The great-grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:

1. Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 or 1690-1736

(Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 either 1690-1736 or ca 1700 - 1764 who was son [here was mistake] of Jan Andrzej Henryk Plater and Ludwika Maria von Grothuss; Jan Ludwik was husband of Rozalia Brzostowska; father of Konstancja; Konstanty Ludwik and Józefa; brother of Fabian Ksawery Broel-Plater; Aleksander Konstanty; Izabela Borch and Anna Sybilla von Syberg / Zyberk),

2. Józef Tadeusz Oginski

(1693 - 1736, son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski and Eleonora; husband of Anna; father of Augustyna Plater; Katarzyna Przezdziecka; Michal Kazimierz Oginski; Elzbieta Wielhorska and Genowefa Brzostowska; brother of Marcibela Zawisza-Kiezgajlo and Helena Oginska);

3. Waclaw Rzewuski, SENIOR, b. 1705 / 1706 - d. 1779;

4. Michal Kazimierz Radziwill

(Prince Michal Kazimierz Radziwill born in 1702, Olyka and died in 1762, nick-name Rybenko, owner of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk, Kopyla and Shumsk. He was Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Field and Grand Commander- in-Chief of Lithuania and in 1725 in Biala Krynica he married Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka, 2nd time married Anna Luiza Mycielska in 1754 in Lviv.
His lover was Maria Karolina Sobieska, grand daughter of John III Sobieski);

5. Rozalia Brzostowska 1690-1746;
6. Anna Wisniowiecka 1695-1732;
7. Anna Lubomirska
(1717 - died 1763, m. in 1732 to Waclaw Rzewuski of Cracow, the Grand Commander-in-Chief of Poland, 1706 - 1779);
8. Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka 1705-1753.

Grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:

1. Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778,
2. Augusta Oginska 1724-1791,
3. Stanislaw Ferdynand Rzewuski 1737-1786,
4. Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwill 1740-1789.

And brief note on

Aleksander Lubomirski (d. 1808), the Kiev governor.
He had a daughter Aleksandra Franciszka Lubomirska Rzewuska,
and a granddaughter
Kaliksta Teano Rzewuski, b. 1810, Opole Lubelskie, died in 1842 in Roma; the author and musicologist.

Kaliksta's parents:
Waclaw Seweryn Rzewuski, junior, a traveler and orientalist;
and his wife named Aleksandra Franciszka Lubomirski, the daughter of
Aleksander Lubomirski (d. 1808), the French General.

We also have slightly different information about the above-mentioned Aleksander Lubomirski.
The owner of Opole Lubelskie, the French General and Polish Colonel.
Born ca 1740 or he was born in 1751 in Kiev / Kijów, d. July 1804 - Viena / Wieden.

Duke Aleksander Lubomirski, d. 1804 or in 1808. He was buried with wife in PODHORCE [see above on RZEWUSKI !]. Named Podhorce in 1772 belonged to the Austrian Galicia; it is the estate of the Rzewuskis (1725 - 1865), and then to Sanguszko [note about the TEMPLARS].

Duke Aleksander Lubomirski, d. 1804 or in 1808, the Kiev governor in 1785 - 1790.
He married in 1780 to Rozalia Chodkiewicz 1768-1793, the daughter of
Jan Mikolaj Ksawery Chodkiewicz, 1738-1781 + Ludwika Maria Rzewuska, 1744-1816;

Aleksander's daughter:
Rozalia Aleksandra Franciszka Lubomirska, 1788-1865 + Waclaw Seweryn 'Emir' Rzewuski, 1784-1831.

Above
Jan Mikolaj Chodkiewicz b. 1738 in Gdansk, d. 1781 in Czarnobyl, the official in Zmudz in 1764, Count, the owner of Szklow in Belarus.

Mentioned Aleksander Lubomirski, died in 1804 in Vien,
the parents:
Stanislaw Lubomirski, 1704-1793 + Ludwika Honorata Pociej, 1726-1786;
grandparents:
Jerzy Aleksander Michal Lubomirski, 1666-1735 + Joanna Karolina Zuzanna Stärtzhausen b. 1675.


VI.

Compare
Skeliwka = FELSZTYN of Kalinowski-Grabianka, and of BERNARD Grabianka

[close to stary Sambor - 1772 in Austria.
In 1753 new church was founded by Marianna Grabianka nee Kalinowska; the wife of Jozef Grabianka, the Latyczow official.

Then FELSZTYN + Rajkowce belonged to Jozef's son - TADEUSZ GRABIANKA.
Tadeusz sold in 1781 the half of Felsztyn + Rajkowce to Onufry Morski, the Kamieniec Podolski governor.
But again Onufry Morski sold Felsztyn to hands of TERESA GRABIANKA nee Stadnicka bef. 1791.
They were the friends of the Kamieniec Podolski bishop KRASINSKI.

Then, MARTYNA GRABIANKA Czarnecka
and next to Martyna Zieleniewska nee Myslowska].

VII.

NAWOJOWA:

This is the history of the Stadnicki family.
In 1799 one of the Stadnicki family, Franciszka Stadnicki, bought the land of Nawojowa situated near Nowy Sacz.

The Stadnicki family who settled in Nawojowa, resided there from 1799 until 1945. They had important contribution in political life of Galicia. Adam Zbigniew Stadnicki (1882-1982), was the last owner of Nawojowa.

NAWOJNA = NAWOJOWA, 9 km south to Nowy Sacz;

the Lubomirskis owned the estate before the Stadnickis; Lubomirski were here since 1713.

Franciszek Stadnicki (1742 - 1810), the Bar insurgent in 1768, defender of Cracow / Krakow.
The Ostrzeszow official; MP of Wielun in 1764;
the owner of Rymanow and Dukla (1809).

Stadnicki Franciszek was the General of the Kalisz troops in 1792 and in 1794.
The son of Antoni STADNICKI of Ostrzeszow and Wyszogrod + his 2nd wife, Teresa Potocki Stadnicka,
the daughter of Franciszek POTOCKI, Colonel + Marianna Stradomski, Szembek, Potocka.

Named Antoni Stadnicki, the Ostrzeszów official, 1710-1777 + Teresa Potocka.

Antoni was the son of
Wladyslaw Józef Stadnicki, b. ca 1670, d. 1737;
the grandson of
Jan STADNICKI + Katarzyna Kowieska.

Above KOWIESKA:

Note 1:

Brzezie close to Wloclawek [+ Badkowo] and the LANCKORONSKI family [Brzezie + Jedlno, Wola Pszczolecka]:

Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski / ADAM Mecinski, 1740-1796, m. Aniela Stadnicka, with daughter Ewa Mecinska b. 1789 / 1790 {maybe ca 1780}.

Mecinski / ADAM, 1740-1796, m. Aniela Stadnicka. Aniela Stadnicka b. ca 1740, the daughter of
Antoni Stadnicki who married three times;
Antoni was the Ostrzeszów official, 1710-1777 + Teresa Potocka b. ca 1710.

ANTONI STADNICKI, the official in Ostrzeszów, Czernihów, and Wyszogród, the owner of Kobyle; Roznow; Zbyszyce;

named Zbyszyce - south to ROZNOW - north to Nowy Sacz [1772 in Austria].

Antoni's father -
Wladyslaw Józef Stadnicki [Wladyslaw Stadnicki had 2 brothers: 1668-1745 and 1671-1721] b. ca 1670 - 1737; he was the son of
Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Kowieska.

Wladyslaw Stadnicki was the Czernihów official, lived 1670-1737.

Jan Stadnicki, b. 1636, married Katarzyna Kowieska: STADNICKI Jan Franciszek d. 1713, the owner of MOGILNO, the Volhynia governor, m. in 1664 to Katarzyna, born 1636.
Jan's father:
Piotr Stadnicki, b. 1598, died in 1636, and Elzbieta Jordan b. ca 1610
- Elzbieta Stadnicki of Lichwin, was married 3 times. Jordan was the owner of Zakliczyn.

1558 Stanislaw Stadnicki bought the part of Zakliczyn - his scion mentioned Piotr Stadnicki m. Elzbieta Jordan of Zakliczyn.

Note 2:

In London, Tadeusz Grabianka met with Louis - Claude de Saint-MARTIN - who had come in 1785 to England; Saint-Martin collaborated with Goran Ulrik Silverhjelm, Swedenborg's nephew, in 1790-1792.

Tadeusz Grabianka married Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronski. Tadeusz Grabianka and Teresa owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice / RAJKOWCE at Podole / Podolia [see FELSZTYN !].

Named Stanislaw Stadnicki b. 1710/1720, was the son of Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka. Husband of Martyna Stadnicka. Brother of Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki.

Above JAN STADNICKI: b. maybe ca 1690, died in 1740, the son of

Mikolaj Franciszek Stadnicki. Above MIKOLAJ: b. ca 1660 ?, died in 1714, the son of

Franciszek Stadnicki b. ca 1620/1640 or ca 1637. Franciszek Stadnicki b. ca 1637, was maybe the son of above {?}
PIOTR Stadnicki, b. 1598 and above ELZBIETA JORDAN
[came from Marek Stadnicki of Lichwin, 1560/1570-1611].

But we know on Franciszek Stadnicki:
b. ca 1629/1630, d. 1663.
The son of Mikolaj Stadnicki, 1580/1600-1629;
grandson of
Andrzej Stadnicki
[Mikolaj was the brother of above MAREK Stadnicki]
and Anna Niedrzwiecka.

Mikolaj Stadnicki d. 1629, MP, the Sanok official;
Mikolaj's brother was Marek Stadnicki - they together visited Germany, England, Niemczech, Francji, Anglii, Netherlands and Italy. Studied at Bolonia and Padwa in 1611.

Mikolaj was the son of Andrzej Stadnicki + Anna Niedrzwiecki.

MIKOLAJ STADNICKI was the brother of
Stanislaw Stadnicki;
Barbara;
Domicela;
Marek Stadnicki.

Mikolaj married to Regina Anna Borek, with 5 children:
above Franciszek Stadnicki;
Mikolaj Stadnicki;
Krystyna;
Zofia;
Marianna + 3rd to Stanislaw Sicinski.

Note 3:

JAN Stadnicki was the owner of Rymanów - close to KROSNO - Galicia in 1772.

Rymanow - owned by Franciszek Stadnicki, too.
Bef 1900 - owned by Anna Potocka. Anna Zofia nee Dzialynski, Potocka, b. 1846 in Kórnik, Prussia; d. 1926;
the daughter of Adam Tytus Dzialynski (1796-1861) + Gryzelda Celestyna Zamoyski (1805-1883);
Anna was the sister of Jan Kanty (1828-1880) and of Cecylia.

Anna married Stanislaw Potocki.
Stanislaw Potocki (1837-1884), the son of Przemyslaw Potocki (1805-1847), + Dss Teresa Sapieha.

The great-grandparents:

Józef Potocki 1695-1764;
Stanislaw Lubomirski 1704-1793;
Franciszek Salezy Potocki 1700-1772;
Jerzy Wandalin August Mniszech 1715-1778;
Pelagia Potocka 1721-1794;
Ludwika Honorata Pociej 1726-1786;
Anna Potocka 1723-1772;
Maria Amelia Fryderyka Brühl 1736-1772.

The grandparents:

Józef Makary Potocki 1737-1816;
Ludwika Lubomirska 1750-1829;
Szczesny Stanislaw Feliks Potocki, 1751-1805;
Józefa Amelia Wandalin-Mniszech, 1752-1798.



Pierre-Augustin Caron / Beaumarchais, b. 1732, d. 1799, watchmaker, inventor, diplomat, spy [see BYSTRZANOWSKI and Tadeusz Kosciuszko in 1776], arms dealer, and revolutionary;
born to Andre-Charles Caron, a watchmaker from Meaux. The family had converted to Roman Catholicism. Beaumarchais in 1753, invented an escapement for watches that allowed them to be made substantially more accurate;

Jean-Antoine Lepine / L'Pine / Jean-Andre Lepaute, the royal clockmaker in France became interested his invention.

Jean-Antoine Lepine was born as Jean-Antoine Depigny, son of Philibert Depigny; beginning his horological career under the direction of Mr. Decroze, manufacturer of Saconnex watches, in the suburbs of Geneva (Switzerland).
He moved to Paris in 1744 serving as apprentice to Andre-Charles Caron (1698 - 1775), at that time clockmaker to Louis XV. In 1756 he married to Caron's daughter; 1762, he became master horologist and
he was teacher of Abraham-Louis Breguet, to whom he had a business relation over many years (by Wikipedia). Lepine's work influenced particularly Abraham Louis Breguet; Breguet almost always used Lepine calibres and then modified them. Along with Ferdinand Berthoud, Lepine was master of Breguet.

In 1747 Abraham-Louis Breguet was born, son of Jonas-Louis Breguet / John Louis (more inf. at my webpages!) and Suzanne-Marguerite Bolle in Neuchatel. 1758 died his father; his wife remarried in 1759 with a first cousin of her husband, Joseph Tattet, holding the watchmaking profession. Led by his stepfather, the young Abraham-Louis was introduced to watchmaking. 1762 Breguet arrived in France, began his apprenticeship with a clockmaker of Versailles; Breguet had two great masters: Ferdinand Berthoud and Jean-Antoine Lepine.

"...Ca. 1792 the Duke of Orleans went to England and met John Arnold, Europe's leading watch and clockmaker. The Duke showed Arnold a clock made by Breguet, who was so impressed that he immediately travelled to Paris and asked Breguet to accept his son as an apprentice.

As Breguet's fame gradually increased he became friendly with revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat, who also hailed from Neuchatel.

Salomons' biography records that Marat and Breguet were at the house of a mutual friend one day when an angry crowd gathered outside, shouting "Down with Marat!", but Breguet contrived their escape by disguising Marat as an old woman, and they left the house arm in arm, unmolested. In 1793 Marat discovered that Breguet was marked for the guillotine, possibly because of his friendship with Abbe Marie, and his association with the royal court; in return for his own earlier rescue, Marat arranged for a safe-pass that enabled
Breguet to escape to Switzerland, from where he travelled to England. He remained there for two years, during which time he worked for King George III. When the political scene in France stabilised, Breguet returned to Paris. In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris with many ideas for innovations in watch and clock making..."
[all above copyright by Wikipedia].

At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye (L'Abbaye is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne). It was founded by
Abraham-Louis Breguet in Paris in 1775.
Abraham-Louis Breguet or Bréguet b. 10 January 1747 and died on 17 September 1823, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Originally Prussian Abraham Louis Breguet began his career as a watchmaker but also a physicist.

His son Louis-Antoine Breguet. His ancestry was French but his family were Protestants so they fled to Switzerland after Edict of Nantes in 1685. Abraham Breguet met
Abraham-Louis Perrelet and Xavier Gide.

In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris.

Circa 1807 Breguet brought in his son, Louis-Antoine (born 1776) as a business partner, and from this point the firm became known as Breguet et Fils. He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker,
John Arnold.

Abraham-Louis Breguet died in 1823 and it was carried on by Louis-Antoine to 1833 (he died in 1858), and after the business continued under Abraham-Louis' grandson
Louis François Clément Breguet born on 22 Dec. 1804 in Paris.


And now you will finally see, after 200 years, on the ideological and personal connection between the Illuminati of Tadeusz Grabianka and the Konstantynowicz family from Moscow and Miezonka - Tallinn - Swolna.

So at the beginning of this discussion, let's go back to visit of Tadeusz Grabianka in London in 1785/1786, and see who he met with.
Then where did these people live and who they and their closest friends were.

Hindmarsh mentions the visit of Count Grabianka, who arrived in London on 7 December 1785. During his stay, lasting until the end of 1786, Grabianka became a visitor at DUCHE's Asylum in Theosophical Society.
Tadeusz Grabianka kept in touch with them until at least 1789, acc. to M. L. Danilewicz, ed. 1968. Grabianka "had his own Masonic Lodge". "Grabianka was affiliated with the revolutionary Masons in Avignon".

Robert Hindmarsh (1759-1835) was an English printer and the founder of Swedenborgianism.
"... His father, James Hindmarsh, was one of John Wesley's preachers, and was in 1777 under training by Wesley in London".

Robert Hindmarsh "got an apprenticeship as a printer in London, and he later opened his own print shop, setting up for himself at 32 Clerkenwell Close".

32 Clerkenwell Close is situated ca 400 metres north-west to The Priory Church of the Order of St John! The Crown Tavern of LENIN - 190 metres west to The Priory Church of the Order of St John, and 200 m. south to above Robert Hindmarsh shop!

The offices of the Lenin's Iskra were at 37a Clerkenwell Green, that is 250 m. south to 32 Clerkenwell Close.

Note:
James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from the Lenin's 'Iskra'), that is Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of the Lenin's 'Iskra'.
The BROWN family was living merely 70 m. south to named Robert Hindmarsh (1759-1835)!

"About 1781 Robert Hindmarsh met with one of Anthoinette Bourignon's works, and afterwards with those of Hans Engelbrecht; ... He first discovered Emanuel Swedenborg's theology when he read Heaven and Hell and Intercourse between the Soul and the Body in 1782. He was instantly converted.
In December 1783 Robert Hindmarsh formed a society (originally consisting of five members) for the purpose of studying Swedenborg's works. ... Peter Prow, William Bonington, and John August Tulk. They organized a public meeting ... on December 5, 1783 at the 'London Coffee House' on Ludgate Hill. They were joined by one other member, William Spence. ... were joined by Henry Pickitt and James Glen. ...
In January 1784 they formed 'The Theosophical Society' ... Rooms were taken for the society in New Court, Middle Temple. Among the members were John Flaxman, William Sharp, ... and Hindmarsh's father ... Hindmarsh printed for this society Swedenborg's Apocalypsis Explicata (1785-1789)
... and
in 1786 ... on 31 July sixteen worshippers met at the house of Thomas Wright, a watchmaker, in the Poultry.
... five, including Robert Hindmarsh, were baptised into the 'new church' ...".

Above
John Flaxman (1755 - 1826) was a British sculptor;
he worked as a modeller for Josiah Wedgwood's pottery. He spent several years in Rome, where he produced his first book illustrations.

And
William Sharp (1749 - 1824), was an English engraver and artist.

Hindmarsh printed Swedenborg's Apocalypsis Explicata (1785-1789), and in 1786 he issued his own abridgment of Bourignon's Light of the World.

Mentioned
Thomas Wright was a clockmaker and watchmaker; scientific instrument maker; active in 1770 - 1792. He was a close person in relation to John Arnold (1736 - 1799), an English watchmaker and inventor.

"John Arnold was the first to design a watch that was both practical and accurate, and also brought the term 'chronometer' into use in its modern sense, meaning a precision timekeeper. His technical advances enabled the quantity production of marine chronometers for use on board ships from around 1782. ...
he and Abraham Louis Breguet largely invented the modern mechanical watch.
Certainly one of his most important inventions, the overcoil balance spring is still to be found in most mechanical wristwatches to this day".

"... in 1783, Earnshaw - through another watchmaker, Thomas Wright - took out a patent that included Earnshaw's pattern of integral compensation balance and spring detent escapement in the multiple specification.
However, both of these were undeveloped and compared to Arnold's were of little use, the balance especially having to be redesigned. ... the Board of Longitude granted Earnshaw and Arnold awards for their improvements to chronometers. ... John Arnold's son, John Roger Arnold, received Ł1672. ... Earnshaw is also generally regarded as one of the pioneers of chronometer development ...".

"The important French watchmaker Abraham Louis Breguet became a great friend of Arnold. In 1792, the Duke of Orleans met Arnold in London and showed him one of Breguet's clocks. Arnold was so impressed that he immediately travelled to Paris and sought permission for Breguet to take on his son as his apprentice.
Arnold appears to have given Breguet carte blanche to incorporate or develop any of Arnold's inventions and techniques into his own watches
... Arnold's pattern first appeared in 1783, on the enamel dials Arnold designed for his small chronometers, and the proportions and layout of their figuring is identical to that of the classic 'Breguet' type of engine turned metal dials which appeared around 1800, and which were quite unlike anything else made in France or Switzerland at the time...".

The Breguet family cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood;
Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, died in 1896 in London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax);
d'Arlincourt (transmitter).

Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).

Note: Winnie Buller b. in Bacton, Norfolk, receives pilot's license from Breguet School at Douia, France.

Watch maker, William Brown

[compare: James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from the Lenin's 'Iskra'), that is Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of the Lenin's 'Iskra'
[compare the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Russia].
The BROWN family was living merely 70 m. south to named Robert Hindmarsh (1759-1835)]

was dad of Edward Brown (born abt 1829). He was a watch maker, too.

William Brown b. ca 1800, acc. to me; it was mistake - 1819. Elizabeth Brown maybe was a wife.

On the Clerkenwell district in London:

Izydor Jakub Gudak / Isadore Jacob Gudak / Irving John Good / I. J. or Jack Good b. 1916, a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing; from a Polish-Jewish family in London. His father Mosheh Oyved / Morris Edward Good or Moshe Oved alias Edward Good b. in Poland in 1885 - 1958, was a watchmaker, artist, sculptor (also from Jacob Epstein and Ben Uri; friend of John Ringling), the owner of a jewelry shop (Cameo Corner in Museum Street near the British Museum; on cameos, antique watches and clocks; Jewish ritual objects), poet, Zionist and the founder of the Ben Uri Society / Ben Uri Gallery / Museum in London, a Yiddish writer, a dealer in antique jewellery.
He learnt the trade of a watches ca 1900, but in 1902 or 1903 emigrated to England. Mother Sophia Polikoff. Mosheh Oved / Moshe Gudak in London set up an antique jewellery shop. Sophia Polikoff was born in Russia and came to London at age eight with her parents. Morris and Sophia met in London.

The Cameo Corner was founded in 1908 in New Oxford Street (No 1, close to Kingsway Str., and ca 1700 meters to west-south-west of Clerkenwell in London, by the Theobalds Road to the west) by Moshe Oved and in 1939 moved to its permanent home in Museum Street, Bloomsbury (1200 to 1400 meters to the west of Clerkenwell).
Cameo Corner was the principal centre for the sale of jewellery in London for the first half of the twentieth century.
On the other side of this mirror, in 1904 Sir Charles Hardinge, the British ambassador in St Petersburg, discovered that a servant had been offered 1000 pounds to steal the embassy's main cipher. And after 1917, the Okhrana became the first modern intelligence service to make one of its major prorities the theft of foreign ciphers. Dmitri Aleksandrovich Bystroletov, Hans or Andrei, born 1901, the son of a Kuban cossack mother and novelist Aleksei Tolstoy, conquest for the OGPU in Prague in 1927, a codenamed Laroche from the French embassy. Acc. to The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of ..., by Christopher Andrew, Vasili Mitrokhin.

In 1902, Vladimir Lenin moved the publication of the Iskra (Spark, issues 22 to 38) to London at 37a Clerkenwell Green. At that time Vladimir Lenin resided on Percy Circus, less than half a mile north of Clerkenwell Green. In 1903 the newspaper 'Iskra' / 'Iskry' was moved to Geneva.

In summer 1904 - Lenin and Krupskaya / Krupska left Geneva for longer holiday; Lenin and Krupskaya settled first in Lausanne, then changed it to Montreux in 1904 (Kropotkin, Konstantynowicz), the starting point of a multi-week trip to the mountains, chose the wildest trails, climbed into the wilderness, away from people; their journey was very interesting: from Montreux (with Clarens, here Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Rey, Duflon, Kropotkin, Bakst), Villeneuve, to Aigle - 11 km south of Villeneuve (Duflon), then tens of kilometers along the river Rhone (to south and south-east), stay in Loiche - les - Bains / Leukerbad - ca 29 / 34 km south-east of Gstaad, Saanen and Turbach (Fraucci or Frautchi - Artuzow), walk down through the Gemmipass - 28 km south-east of Gstaad, in the mountains of the Bernese canton - 30 to 40 km east of Saanen and Turbach (Frautchi), visit to the Jungfrau / Jungfraujoch - ca 55 to 60 km east of Saanen, again stay at Izentale (or Iseltwald) on Brienzersee - 60/70 km east-north of Saanen, next the way back into the Canton of Geneva (back home on west from Spiez, Saanen, Villeneuve, Montreux or from Chateau d'Oex, Montbovon, Les Avants to Montreux some on a railway.

The last of the Breguets, "... looked around for someone suitable to make a partner and continue the Firm after his time. He knew a first-class mechanician in Clerkenwell named Edward Brown, who was induced to go to Paris to look after the factory. Eventually he became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm. Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired, ... 1920.

Thus Monsieur Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm ... The general information I have gained by consulting certain books such as ... Mr. Hull, of the Firm of Messrs. Le Roy, in London, Mr. Henry Brown ... and his son, Mr. George Brown... Mr. Desoutter, of London, who has made a life- long study of Breguet's work...",
acc. to THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES, ,BREGUET 1747 - 1823', BY SIR DAVID LIONEL SALOMONS.

The Brown family and others in Clerkenwell:

James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from Lenin 'Iskra'), Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of Lenin 'Iskra').

The Baume Brothers, Importers of Geneva Watches, at 9, Ashley street, Northampton square, Clerkenwell, and at Aux Bois, Canton of Berne, Switzerland.

BROWN Sophia b. 1859 in Clerkenwell, London, parent James Brown.

Antoine-Louis Breguet drove the prestigious business into bankruptcy. "His son, Louis-Clement Breguet, eventually took over. He invented the first electric clocks but decided to leave and concentrate on electric telegraphs and telecommunications. The business was sold to the English watchmaker, Edward Brown".

Above
Thomas Wright, was the watchmaker to King George III.

In 1781 Thomas Earnshaw invented the spring detent escapement and Thomas Wright, watchmaker to King George III, agreed to pay.
Thomas Wright, Poultry, London, who was 'Watch-maker to the King'. Thomas Wright: 6 Poultry, London was admitted to the Clockmakers Company in 1770 as 'Maker to the King' signed on a bracket clock.

"Another inventor of improvements in the chronometer was Thomas Earnshaw, who was born at Ashton-under- Lyne in 1749. After serving his apprenticeship to a watchmaker, he came to London and worked for some time as a finisher of verge and cylinder watches; he also taught himself watch-jewelling and cylinder-escapement making, making use of ruby cylinders and steel wheels. Earnshaw worked for John Brockbank, Thomas Wright of the Poultry, and other makers, and in 1781 improved the chronometer ...
After showing a watch with his new device to Brockbank, it was agreed that Wright should patent it, but the latter kept the watch for a year to observe its going, and did not procure the patent till 1783. Meanwhile John Arnold had registered a patent specification claiming the device as his own invention ...
In 1795 Earnshaw set up in business for himself at 119, High Holborn, one door east of what is now Southampton Row. ...
He died at Chenies Street in 1829, but the business was carried on by his son Thomas in Holborn, and afterwards at 87, Fenchurch Street. There is a portrait of Earnshaw engraved by Bullin from a painting by Sir Martin Archer Shee...".

Hindmarsh was the founder of Theosophical Society in England.
Together with De Thome;
Count Cagliostro;
with the member Chastanier - he was also the member of "illumine d'Avignon"
[with H. JONES in England; Marquis de THOME in Avignon; Thomas Duche - the son of Jacob Duche in 1785/1786].

Chastanier was a supporter of a Plan for a Universal Society [with JACOB DUCHE] of SWEDENBORG [Richard Brothers, too].

Richard Brothers (1757 - 1824)
"was an early believer and teacher of British Israelism, a theory concerning the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Brothers was born in Port Kirwan, Newfoundland (earlier known as Admiral's Cove). He was educated in Woolwich, England. He entered the Royal Navy and served under Keppel and Rodney. ... He then travelled on the continent of Europe and later married Elizabeth Hassall in 1786. ...
Brothers believed that he could not serve the King as head of the Church of England. ...
Brothers claimed to hear the voice of an attending angel which proclaimed to him the fall of Babylon the Great, which was in fact London. ...

In 1793 Brothers declared himself to be the apostle of a new religion. He began to see himself as possessing a special role in the gathering of the Jews back into Palestine, in particular, the 'Jews' who were hidden amongst the population of Great Britain. In similarity to modern British Israelists, Brothers asserted that the 'hidden Israel' had no notion of its biological lineage and that part of his role would be to teach them of their true identity and lead them to the land of Canaan. Brothers proclaimed himself to be Prince of the Hebrews ...".

All this was declared in the first British Israelist publication in 1794.

Named above
Benedict Chastanier (1739 - ca 1816)
was a French surgeon.
"In 1767 he founded a lodge of Illumines Theosophes, based on the anonymous writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.
In 1774 he migrated to England. In 1775 Chastanier and the Marquis de Thorn joined the Philalethes, a Masonic society founded by Savalette de Langes in Paris.

In 1776 he founded Universal Society in London to disseminate Swedenborg's writing.

In 1782 Chastanier and Charles Rainsford reached out to kindred Illuminist groups in Berlin and Paris by publishing a brochure in French about degrees of the Universal Society.
Chastanier was in contact with the Illumines of Avignon".

Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (1743 - 1795) was the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo.

"Cagliostro was an Italian adventurer and self-styled magician. He became a glamorous figure associated with the royal courts of Europe where he pursued various occult arts, including psychic healing, alchemy and scrying. ... Cagliostro himself stated during the trial following the Affair of the Diamond Necklace that he had been born of Christians of noble birth but abandoned as an orphan upon the island of Malta. He claimed to have travelled as a child to Medina, Mecca, and Cairo and upon
return to Malta to have been admitted to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,
with whom he studied alchemy ...".

Giuseppe Balsamo "was born to a poor family in Albergheria, which was once the old Jewish Quarter of Palermo, Sicily. Despite his family's precarious financial situation, his grandfather and uncles made sure the young Giuseppe received a solid education: he was taught by a tutor and later
became a novice in the Catholic Order of St. John of God,
from which he was eventually expelled".

Mentioned several times above
'The New Church' (or Swedenborgianism)
is the name for ... a new religious movement, informed by the writings of scientist and Swedish Lutheran theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772).
Swedenborg claimed to have received a new revelation from Jesus Christ through continuous heavenly visions which he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years.
... The New Church doctrine is that each person must actively cooperate in repentance, reformation, and regeneration of one's life.
... At the time of Swedenborg's death, few efforts had been made to establish an organized church, but on
May 7, 1787, 15 years after Swedenborg's death, the New Church movement was founded in England.
It was a country Swedenborg had often visited and where he died. ... Swedenborg himself believed that the 'African race' was 'in greater enlightenment than others on this earth, since they are such that they think more interiorly, and so receive truths and acknowledge them' ...".

Let's go back to our compatriot Tadeusz Grabianka.

He was poisoned in the Russian prison in St Petersburg in 1807, after the Peace in TYLZA was signing. Jozef Sulkowski died in Egypt, probably killed on the orders of Napoleon Bonaparte - Sulkowski allegedly wanted to seize power in France, just as Grabianka planned to take power in Russia.

Hindmarsh was appointed in 1786 to Mason by Tadeusz Grabianka - recruited him as a Mason; Hindmarsh helped print a pamphlet of Tadeusz Grabianka in London in 1787.

Tadeusz Grabianka propagated prophecies of how European thrones would topple and that papal authority would end with Pius VI; he also predicted that a mass social movement would arise. Grabianka pointed to the French Revolution of 1789 as confirmation of these prophecies.

In London, Grabianka met with Louis - Claude de Saint-MARTIN - who had come in 1785 to England; Saint-Martin collaborated with Goran Ulrik Silverhjelm, Swedenborg's nephew, in 1790-1792.

Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronski, was the wife of named Tadeusz Grabianka. they owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice at Podole / Podolia.
Named Stanislaw Stadnicki was the son of
Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka. Husband of Martyna Stadnicka. Brother of Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki. Above JAN: died in 1740, the son of
Mikolaj Franciszek Stadnicki. Above MIKOLAJ: died in 1714, the son of
Franciszek Stadnicki.

Compare:

Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski, Count, MP in 1787, owner of Chorun, Bobolice, Niegowa, Mzurow, Lgota, Zarki, Gorzkow, Naglowice, Lyskornia, Slecin, Chelm, Granica, Ogorzelniki, Tomaszowice, Zdow, Trzebniow, Przybynow, Postaszowice, Zaborze, Zawady, Jaroszow, MP in 1768, officer in Ostrzeszow in 1767, born 1740, d. 1796. His parents:
Wojciech Mecinski of Radom, 1691-1752 [his grandfather was Wojciech Kazimierz Mecinski of Wielun, 1630-1670] and Marianna Mecinska b. 1700.

Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski m. Aniela Stadnicka
with

1. Ewa Lanckoronska (born Mecinska) born in 1789 / 1790, to Aniela Mecinska (born Stadnicka). Ewa married Antoni Lanckoronski, born in 1777 [see SZYMANOWSKI and BRZEZINSKI], with 6 children: Tekla Celestyna Eleonora Radolinska (born Lanckoronska), Julianna Nepomucena Fryderyka Rejswicz (born Lanckoronska) and 4 other children;

2. Magdalena Miaczynska (born Mecinska),

3. Anna Magdalena Teresa Miaczynska (born Mecinska),

4.
Franciszka Bobrowska, Szafraniec - Bystrzanowska, born Mecinska in 1775, to Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski and Aniela Mecinska (born Stadnicka).
She m. Franciszek Ksawery Szafraniec - Bystrzanowski in 1809; Franciszek was born in 1767.
Franciszka married Joachim Bobrowski in 1810, with one daughter:
Aleksandra Klara Stadnicka (born Bobrowska).

5. Jan Nepomucen Mecinski.

6. Wojciech Mecinski (1760 - 1839 in Cracow).

Characteristics of Grabianka and his St. Petersburg supporters left Muromcew, who met him personally in 1807 and was a witness to his arrest. The grandmother of Muromcew - E. D. Wolkowa received the "master" in her home, and sent him a letter from Aunt Ozierow-Dierzawin.

Tadeusz GRABIANKA died on October 6, 1807, in a prison cell, after the conclusion of the Russian-French peace treaty in Tylza on July 7. Officially due to apoplexy.
It was widely suspected, however, that he was poisoned.
He was buried in a Catholic Church. The money was given by the Committee for Public Safety, and the funeral was headed by the Franciscan bishop Franciszek Mackiewicz (1765-1842).
The pretender to the Polish crown was buried next to the last monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.


Jozef Sulkowski, b. 1770 or 1773, died 1798.

Eve Grzeda is the author of the monograph 'You will show of your sons graves with the pride...' and writes that consolidate and disseminate the myth Sulkowski contributed Polish and foreign literature; he was the hero of Stefan Zeromski and Roman Brandstaetter works. 'General Sulkowski life and historical memoirs...', issued in Poznan 1864, according to French edition; H. Saint Albin, Memoires historiques; A. Skałkowski, Les Polonais en Egypte. 1798- 1801, 1910 edition.

Joseph Sulkowski was one of those people on whom Napoleon could completely rely on. He was killed during the expedition of Bonaparte to Egypt on October 22, 1798; was the hero of the unfinished opera of Michal Oginski. A parentage of Joseph Sulkowski is a tangle of secrets. Alexander Joseph Sulkowski, as a natural son of Polish King Augustus II the Strong, held many important positions during the reign of his successor Augustus III. He became the founder of the princely line of Sulkowski.

Jozef Sulkowski's father was Franciszek SULKOWSKI, prince 1733 - 1812.

JOZEF SULKOWSKI / Joseph, was regarded as the son of the Austrian Colonel Theodore Sulkowski. Mother Julia Quelisk was of Hungarian origin. In 1779/1782 he met General of Legions, Michael Sokolnicki. The boy was taken into the care of a wealthy uncle, the Duke Casimir Augustus Sulkowski. August fancied himself that Jozef is an adoptive son; Duke took him on nearly 3-years tour in Europe. Joseph Sulkowski was taken to the highest courts. Particular sympathy to him showed the queen of France, Marie Antoinette. According to the chroniclers, made him a page to her; Prince August died in 1786;
Joseph Sulkowski took part in the Polish-Russian War in 1792. And as one of the first was awarded the newly established Order of Military Virtue for bravery shown during the defense of the bridge at Zelwa. He emigrated to France 1793.
He returned during the Kosciuszko Uprising 1794. In 1794 he was supporter of the Jacobins. After the uprising, he went to France 1795, where he joined the republican army. Participant in the Italian campaign (1796- 1797), distinguished himself in the battles of Castiglione and San Giorgio. Appointed adjutant general of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Already the first wave of Polish refugees who came to Istanbul in the years 1795 - 1796, had hopes of organizing Polish Legion. Poles considered Turkey as a natural Polish ally.

The first Polish draft on the Polish Legion with the Turkish army, was launched in Venice and handed over to the French on 1.I.1795; the first comprehensive draft was proposed by Joseph Sulkowski; Sulkowski in 1797 wrote a study entitled 'An outline of the ... Ottoman Empire and some comments on the measures to prevent it from falling', if (Polish + French) we manage to reform of Turkey, Sulkowski entrusts its task of support insurrection in Poland and uprisings Tartars, the Caucasian tribes and the Don Cossacks.

In 1797 the Highlanders of Caucasus first appeared in the Polish projects and were there over almost the whole of the next century.

Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt:
the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne;
Captain, was wounded at the Battle of Arcole in November 1796 between French and Austrian forces, southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars; shortly before his death, he married one of the daughters of Venture de Paradis, an old military interpreter on the Egyptian expedition; in 1798 in Cairo were murdered General Dupuy, and the Bonaparte's Aide-de-camp Joseph Sulkowski.

Józef Sulkowski gave an accurate description of the attack on the bridge at Arcole in one of his letters, written in French from Italy to a friend in Paris.
The letters were addressed to a Pole, probably Peter / PIOTR Maleszewski, although it seems strange that they did not mention on General Dabrowski in 1797; the last letter is dated from Sulkowski on August 7, 1797, and informed of the need for a truce with Austria in Leoben; Sulkowski with Maleszewski, known for hostility to Dabrowski and Bonaparte;
his letters are just such a "chronicle of war", his last known letter was sent one month before his murder. Sulkowski arrived in Italy in mid-1796. At first, he was assigned captain; then was one of the five aides of Bonaparte. With him were appointed aides of Bonaparte: Muiron - battalion chief, who was killed at Arcole, and Cpt. Duroc, later General, duc de Friuli and the grand marshal of the palace. From previous nominations were aides: Bonaparte's brother Louis, who later became the King of the Netherlands and the father of Napoleon III, and Marmont, who later became marshal, Duc de Ragusa. The famous company. Reinhard writes in the epilogue of his book about the future of Sulkowski, on his reluctance to gen. Dabrowski and friendship with Maleszewski, based largely on the work of Simon Askenazy. Does not explain the circumstances of the death of Sulkowski in Egypt, maybe not intentionally Bonaparte sent Sulkowski to death.

Pierr Maleszewski / Piotr MALESZEWSKI / Peter Maleszewski had a special trust of gen. Bernadotte and when Bernadotte on July 3, 1799 was appointed Minister of War, Maleszewski was his secretary. Bernadotte was close to the Jacobins. When Bernadotte on September 14, 1799 was removed from the Ministry of War, Bonaparte was then in Egypt and returned to France, on October 9, 1799;
Zeromski wrote that when riots broke out in Cairo, Bonaparte had only two aides, Croisier and Sulkowski.

Sulkowski come out first. His friend, Venture, tries to stop it; Venture said he looked at Bonaparte's face, at his eyes. Sulkowski: Bad eyes? ... Do not care about me ... Venture: It's not enough. ... Bonaparte ... made by hand ... a secret character. ... This gesture is an absolute command. It is a sign. Acc. to S. Kirkor.


Abraham-Louis Breguet died in 1823 and the family company was carried on by Louis-Antoine BREGUET to 1833 (he died in 1858), and after the business continued under Abraham-Louis' grandson Louis François Clément Breguet born on 22 Dec. 1804 in Paris. Breguet, Louis François Clément b. Paris, 1804; d. Paris, 1883.

Louis BREGUET b. 1691 from Jonas BREGUET d. 1711, and his wife Suzanne BOLLE; he married in 1713 in Les Verrieres, at the Canton de Neuchatel to Julienne MEURON with a son:

Jonas Louis BREGUET 1719-1758 m. to Suzanne Marguerite BOLLE with

a.
Abraham-Louis BREGUET 1747-1823 + Cécile L'HUILLIER 1752-1781
with:
Antoine Louis BREGUET, watchmaker 1776-1858;
b.
Henri-François BREGUET 1748-1750,
c. Suzanne Marie BREGUET 1750,
d. Henri BREGUET 1752,
e. Henriette,
f. Charlotte BREGUET 1756-1840,
g.
Marie Louise BREGUET 1759-1797 m. at the Canton de Neuchâtel David LASSIEUR 1759-1796 with son Jonas Louis LASSIEUR 1785-1850.

Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813
married to a.
1st to Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI / PIOTR Maleszewski,
with children
Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;

b.
m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:

A.
Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889
with children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930
[Louise BREGUET 1847-1930 married in 1868, Paris to Ludovic HALÉVY 1834-1908 with:
Élie HALÉVY 1870-1937 and
Daniel HALÉVY 1872-1962],

Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882

[Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 married to Marie Eugénie DUBOIS 1858-1903 with:
Madeleine BREGUET 1878-1900,
Louis BREGUET (Aviation) 1880-1955,
Jacques BREGUET 1881-1939],

Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877
[Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877 married Jules Antoine Charles TASCHEREAU 1843-1918 with: Henriette TASCHEREAU 1873-1955];

B.
Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

In 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet [Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883] transferred the leadership of the company to Edward Brown;
he collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel, and he met Alexander Graham Bell and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market.

Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 had one son

Antoine b. 1851 [Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882] and
he was grandfather of
Louis BREGUET 1880-1955 = Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.

Louis Charles Bréguet, 1880 - 1955, was a famous French aviator, airplane designer, and industrialist, engineer, pilot.

In 1905, Louis / Louis Charles Breguet, his brother Jacques BREGUET and Charles Robert Richet began construction of a gyroplane - prototype helicopter. In 1907 the prototype made its first vertical take-off the pilot to a height of 50 cm. In 1905, Louis Charles Breguet received an engineering degree, and the brothers began working in the family business for the production of electric motors and dynamos machines.

But already Louis Clement [Breguet, Louis François Clément b. Paris, 1804; d. Paris, 1883] decided to switch to the telegraph and communications.

Antoine Louis Breguet, Ecole Polytechnique, was the specialist of an electric motors, led the Breguet House, rue Didot. Louis-Antoine BREGUET was the chief of the family company to 1833 (he died in 1858)
[Abraham-Louis BREGUET 1747-1823 + Cécile L'HUILLIER 1752-1781 had the son - Antoine Louis BREGUET, watchmaker 1776-1858].

Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882, died very young, when
Louis Charles Bréguet, 1880 - 1955,
was only two years. Louis Breguet, an engineer at the Douai plant of Breguet House, interested in flying machines, assisted by Professor Charles Richet, a friend of his father, and by his brother Jacques, born in 1882 [Louis / Louis Charles Breguet, his brother Jacques BREGUET and Charles Robert Richet began construction of a gyroplane - prototype helicopter].

Louis Charles Breguet went to work at the electrical engineering firm of his father Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882. Louis Charles Breguet was the chief engineer of the Breguet House; in 1909, he learned to fly himself. In 1905 he was working gyroplane on a project.

Above named
Louis Charles Breguet, b. 1880 in Paris died 1955,
was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers. In 1902, Louis married Nelly Girardet, the daughter of
painter Eugene Girardet.
In 1905, with his brother Jacques, and Charles Richet, he began work on a gyroplane / helicopter. In 1912, Breguet constructed his first hydroplane.

Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 had one son
Antoine b. 1851 [Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882]
and he was grandfather of Louis BREGUET 1880-1955 = Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.

Louis-Clement's grandsons, Louis / Louis Charles Breguet, and Jacques Breguet, were France's aircraft pioneers, from the 1917 'Breguet 14' fighter-bomber helped turn the tide of war on the western front. Louis Breguet was one of the co-founders of Air France in 1933.


Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to
a.
Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI [see Poniatowski - Bystrzanowski: Rozana, Berezyna, Lubuszany] with children

Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;

b.
married 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET, 1776 - 1858, with children:

A. Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889
B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

Antoine Louis Breguet

[Antoine Louis BREGUET, 1776 - 1858, ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge. Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis BREGUET / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet]

had the son

Little Louis = Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer. On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.

LOUIS BREGUET realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia [1842/1843, winter] temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.

Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.
In 1833, Louis BREGUET married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin. Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise BREGUET LASSIEUR - a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
Named Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR BREGUET, 1815 - 1889, had children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877.

Above Anthony / Antoine Breguet worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.

Louis François Clément
(b. Paris, Frances, 22 December 1804; d. Paris, 27 October 1883).

His grandfather, Abraham, from Neuchatel, was one of the best-known clockmakers of Paris; his shop was established in 1775. Louis's father, Antoine, became Abraham's partner in 1807. LOUIS was living in Neuchatel, with his godfather, then with Perrelet, in Versailles, for two years, and then joined his father and grandfather.
From 1824 to 1827 he worked with Barral in Geneva.
Then again in Paris, Louis worked on naval chronometers.
In 1833, the enterprise was organized into a company and turned over to Louis Breguet and two other partners, one of whom was a cousin.

After 1830 Louis Breguet turned to making electrical instruments; his first electric clocks date from 1839. In 1840 he devised a thermometer that registered temperature electrically, and recorded a temperature of -42° at Kazan, Russia. Work on induced currents with Antoine Masson in 1842.
In 1843 Breguet created, for François Arago, an apparatus with a revolving mirror, used in Fizeau's experiments.

In 1873 LOUISE's son, Antoine, became his partner, and the Breguets turned to electrotechnics, produced Daniell and Leclanche batteries, arc lamps, and Gramme dynamos. Metal thermometers, barometers, and manometers.

An aluminum helicopters for Antoine Penaud, a pioneer in aeronautics. In 1876 Cornelius Roosevelt, representing Bell in Paris, put the Breguet firm in charge of setting up the French telephone system.

Before his death Antoine BREGUET collaborated with Charles Richet.

In RUSSIA were two chronometric expeditions in 1843 and 1844: from Pulkovo to Altona and from Altona to Greenwich. In May 1843 an expedition under F. G. W. Struve;

during its travels the group obtained chronometers from A. L. Breguet;
acted here A. P. SZYDLOWSKI / Shidlovskii.

Abraham Luis Breguet (1747-1823) provided chronometers to the French fleet; he was a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. In 1843, Struve must have obtained the device from Breguet's firm. In 1844, Struve once again was thinking about a chronometric expedition from Altona to Greenwich.

Nikolai P. Shipov {b. ca 1830 ?} / Nikolai Shipov, JUNIOR, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV, junior, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators. Nikolai Smirnov, P., and Nikolai Shipov traveled together.
PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother, Sergei Shipov b. 1790.
Sergei Shipov, b. in 1790, was descended from a well-to-do gentry family in Kostroma province. In 1832 he served Ministry of War.
In 1841 - 1846 the governor of KAZAN
- compare DEMONSI and Wasyl Konstantynowicz + Breguet in KAZAN + V. A. KOKOREV in KAZAN ca 1843 {1844 tax reform note on farms; near LIKHACHEV before 1844; 1843-1844 he had two farms close to Kazan}.

SERGEI born 1790, had youngers brothers
[the textile manufacturing - see also ARMAND: DMITRII P. Shipov - a governor; and Pavel born ca 1795/1800; and maybe the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire in 1813 until 1844].
Nikolai P. Shipov owned to 1903 the Ostashevo estate (his son Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov b. on 14 May 1851 - d. 14 January 1920). His brother Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. And Demonsi / Demontet family ran in Moscow and in KAZAN a sales of these French wines.

When Paul Armand married [ca 1783 / 1785], he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand in MOSCOW, was trading house of DEMONSI / Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
Demontet / Demonsi / Demonets, Kazan ca 1835 - 1839.

Demonsi Carl, the son of a Frenchman, a native of Moscow, he studied at the Kazan univ. 1837, was prof. at the Kharkov Univ., died in 1867.

Demonsi was in 1864 a Moscow merchant 1st guild and a shareholder of a plants in the Urals.

Barbara Karlovna Armand from the Demonsi family was wife of Evgeny Armand.


I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America.
See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.


At this same year, 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence. KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in 1803 in Praszka, west of Czestochowa; he was son of Joachim Konarski. That is maybe Rajmund Konarski (1783 - 1863) / Rajmund Joachim Konarski (Rajmund Konarski was son of Józef Konarski and Tekla Laskowska / Tekla Kunegunda Laskowska; and was brother of Tomasz Konarski (General) 1792 - 1878; Jan Konarski and Feliks Konarski; probably father of Samuel Aleksander Konarski).

Alexander Samuel or KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel was wine merchant in England, like Paul Armand who opened in Moscow own wine shop. Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski married to Harriet Fraser Lucas; he was transcribed as 'Alexander Kowaraki'.
She come from the Irish family, Philip Monoux was the West India and Colombia merchant, plantation owner and slave-factor.
Philip Monoux Lucas was a partner in a number of companies and resided in the West Indies between about 1802 and 1810, acted in the Lang, Chauncy & Lucas (address: at 39 Wilson Street Finsbury Square in 1834). Monoux Lucas died in 1830. Emma, the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872. "James Mad Lucas" or "The Hermit of Hertfordshire", was son of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah nee Beesly.
Above Nathaniel Snell Chauncy, 1789 - 1856, son of Charles Snell Chauncy ne Snell, who died in 1809, and brother of Charles Snell Chauncy. West India merchant, partner with Philip Monoux Lucas and Charles Porcher Lang in Chauncy, Lucas & Lang until Lucas's death in 1830.
Harriet Fraser Lucas / Harriet Fraser Konarska was daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah and she was one of the "heirs of Philip Monoux Lucas" identified as a beneficiary of his estate. She married above mentioned Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski at St Pancras in London, 1839. Died in 9 Bedford Place, Brighton in 1871.
Children of Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski / Samuel Konarski / Konasski / Alexander Kowaraki:
a. Samuel Philip Lucas Konarski b. 1843,
b. Marie Konarska b. 1853 / Maria Alexandrina Stuart Konarski or Marian Alexandrina Stuart died 1926, in 1845 living in Kensington, 1846 court against George Lucas;
c. Georgina Augusta Konarska b. 1855 / Georgina Augustus Kell nee Konarski;
d. Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (1847-1933) daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, (inf. of 1895) m. in 1870 to Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney / Valentine MacSwiney / Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY
(son of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom / Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 who married 1st Margaret Cremen, m. 2nd to Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903)
b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897;
her son Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII
(Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938, he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1828 or 1829 and Amelia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852; and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children:
Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard').
Acc. to: A representation of North Paraiba in the House of Representatives of Brasil, 1821 to 1900; LEGISLATURE 1857 - 1860, district - Areias, copyright by Carlos Eduardo Barata.
Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born in 1828 in Mill Keys Farm, in Paraiba; baptized 1829, in Gurinhem, died 1899, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. He was son of Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, of Nazareth, Pernambuco, and Angela Sofia Teotonia; degree of Pernambuco Univ. in 1851. He was the District Attorney of the District of Areias in Paraiba. In 1871, in Rio de Janeiro, m. to Amelia Machado de Castro Coelho, born 1852, Rio de Janeiro, died 1946, Viscountess Cavalcanti, daughter of Dr. Constantine Machado Coelho de Castro and Mariana Barbosa de Assis Ferreira; her children:
1. Velho Fernando Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born 1873, in Rio de Janeiro. Civil engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, 1899;
2. mentioned above Maria Estela Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Marchioness of Marchesini, for your 2nd wedding.

Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski was died on 14 January 1893 in Nice, France; was a doctor, emigrated to England.
We know also on Thomas / Tomasz Paschalis Seweryn Konarski / KONARSKI Tomasz Paschalis (1792-1878) General 1830-1831, from Zarczyce close to Malogoszcz; in Zarczyce Duze in 1700 was born Stanislaw Konarski actual name Hieronim Konarski; died 1878 - Auxerre. His father lieutenant of the Austrian Army born 1742. Grandfather 1699-1756. Tomasz Konarski married two times: in 1822, Warszawa, and in France.
Marie Melanie Edwige KONARSKA 1855-1940 m. 1880, Auxerre to Isidore ROZE 1848-1934 with Marie Therese Eleonore ROZE 1881-1971 m. 1899 to Henri LIONS with Hedwige LIONS b. 1900.

Auxerre - half way from Paris to Dijon.
We know also that Samuel Alexander Konarski played at roulette in the casino in Monte Carlo with high luck; a surgeon by profession, a participant of November Uprising 1830 - 1831, during which he was wounded, awarded the Golden Cross of the Virtue Military;
after the uprising, he emigrated to England, where he was occupied at large scale in wine trade, thanks to help of Treasury (see below a note).
He spend the winter in warmer corners of Europe, including Monte Carlo, Nice, Monaco.
He left a considerable wealth, for which his daughter Emma bought a large collection of art. Unfortunately, after her death, none of this collection was provided to Polish museums, but only to the collections of the Vatican Museum, the Museum of Cluny in Paris and the City Museum in Pau (France).
Explanation!
1. Emma was the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872.
2. Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney m. in 1870 to Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (Emma KONARSKA 1847-1933).
Her son Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945) was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII.
We know on the copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom married Margaret Cremen
(or Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 m. Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903, her parents John MAC LEOD ca 1774-1839 and Honora RIORDAN; under copyright by Yves GOBILLIARD):
his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938,
he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1829 and Amélia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852;
and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children: Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard')
and who was only son of Valentine MacSwiney (Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897) by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, inf. in 1895.

This MacSwiney family come also from Mashanaglass.
3. Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers (b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of Count Alexander Konarski) Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.


Illuminati [Garran + Maleszewski] - Tadeusz Grabianka - Kalinowski of Lgota Murowana [Trubecki + Konstantynowicz] - Bystrzanowski - Tadeusz Kosciuszko [+ Jefferson]:

Tadeusz Grabianka was a member of the secret society Academi des Vrais Macons.
Controversial kabbalistic guru, Count Thaddeus Grabianka, a wealthy Polish nobleman, had received a magical book from the heir of 'an old Cabalon'. Tadeusz Grabianka, leader of the Illuminati, born in Rajkowice in Podolia, son of a magnate with great affinities, died in mysterious circumstances.
Tadeusz Grabianka, pseudonym Comte Ostap, Comte Polonais (born on January 8, 1740 in Rajkowce, died on October 6, 1807 in St. Petersburg) - Polish alchemist and iluminat;
the precursor of Polish messianism and PROMETHEISM.

Propagator of the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. The leader of the Avignon Illuminati Association, constituting the activities of the Bavarian Illuminati. By 1785, the Illuminati was banned and all of the Bavarian lodges of the Grand Orient were closed down. Around the same time, Mayer Rothschild moved with his family to a five story house in Frankfurt, which he shared with the Schiff family.

PERNETTY about the year 1760 established at Avignon his Rite of Illuminati.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744 - 1812) was also a financial advisor of Landgrave of Hesse Hanau - Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747 - 1837). Landgrave was born as the youngest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (the future Landgrave Frederick II - see below) and Princess Mary of Great Britain. He was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain.
Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of [mentioned above] George II King of England.

The Rectified Scottish Rite, "also known as Order of Knights Beneficent of the Holy City is a Christian Masonic rite founded in Lyon (France) in 1778". It is derived from the Rite of Strict Observance erected in 1754, the foundation of which was attributed to Baron von Hund; it propounded a theory that freemasonry was developed directly from the Crusading Templars;
the Rite was mainly elaborated by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, including some items coming from the Elect Cohen Order and denying the Templar legacy.
The Elect Cohens, or the Ordre des Chevelier Macons Elus Cohen de L'Univers / Order of Knight-Masons Elect Priests of the Universe / The Martinist Order of the Elect-Cohens, which issued from the Traditional Martinist Order i.e. of the Elus Cohen of Martinez de Pasqually, and of the Order of the Rose-Croix of the Orient;
the Elect Cohens, were a society of Cabbalists, organised on 'Scottish' Masonic lines, who were influenced by the Spanish Alumbrados / Sufi;
"...they were the first group to be called the Illumines, or Illuminati, though their relatively conservative views were diametrically opposite to the Bavarian Illuminati ... founded in 1765 by the Freemason Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually, of Grenoble, France, the Order was initially only open to Master Masons, but later became more open".

General Rainsford was affiliated with the Illuminati through the lodge of Amis Reunis at Paris, which corresponded with the Bavarian Masons.
Whether the Illuminati affair had a role in the history of the Order of Knights Templar in England is difficult to determine,
but by 1791 the latter had decided to end their quasi-separate status and put themselves under the direction of a leading figure within the Grand Lodge. This was Thomas Dunckerley, the provincial grand Master [see Br. Bystrzanowski + George Washington].

Jean-Philippe Garran / Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon / Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON and a conspiracy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - 1789 / 1845:
"... Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote in 1845:
The revolutionary movement which began in 1789 with the Cercle Social, whose main representatives were to be Leclerc and Roux, and which ended in Babeuf's conspiracy, gave birth to the communist idea which Buonarotti, friend of Babeuf, reintroduced into France after the Revolution of 1830.
This Social Circle aka Cercle Social was an organization founded in Paris in 1789, located at rue du Theatre Francois, No 4.
It was in the mold of a masonic lodge whose founder - Bonneville - claimed he was carrying on the mission of the Bavarian Illuminati. Bonneville in 1791 wrote in reference to Mirabeau's 1788 defense of the Bavarian Illuminati, and then Bonneville claimed he was carrying on the Bavarian Illuminati program in France:
"... This project (of the Illuminati) continues. Mr. Mirabeau was beautiful, noble and great; and since the very instant when [electoral] districts were summoned in May 1789 [for the Estates General], The Mouth of Iron, persevered with all its might their noble intentions, and never has abandoned the principles and promises of THOSE WHOSE NAME IS CURSED BY POSTERITY [i.e., the Illuminati]. ...".
The reputable specialist on the French Revolution, Mathiez, comments on this passage: 'Bonneville considered himself the heir who carried on the thought and work of Weishaupt'.
As Billington noted, 'Nicholas Bonneville was ... the decisive channel of Illuminist influence'.
... Besides the Jacobins, the Cercle Social (Social Cercle) influenced the French Revolution. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels even credit the Social Cercle with the birth of the communist movement. ...
Other writers for the Social Cercle were
Claude Fauchet,
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre,
J. Ph. Garran de Coulon,
Groupil de Prefelne,
Chabroux,
and Restif.

We back to Tadeusz Grabianka / Grabianko:

he was the son of the Latyczow official - Józef Kajetan Grabianka and Marianna Kalinowski of RAJKOWCE.
Thanks to the efforts of the mother from the youngest years, he grew up in France. He spent his childhood in Lorraine at the court of King Stanisław Leszczynski. He studied in Paris. There probably for the first time he met with esoteric associations and freemasonry.
His father
Józef GRABIANKA, married Marianna Kalinowska the daughter of Ludwik KALINOWSKI, the Winnica official; she was the granddaughter of the Kamieniec official [see Bystrzanowski] (1712-1738).
Tadeusz Grabianka was living in the Latyczow county, in Rajkowce and Sutkowce.
Above named
[the 1st source] LUDWIK Kalinowski married twice: 1st to unknown Potocka; 2nd to Elzbieta Poninska with children of the 1st marriage: unknown 2 daughters - that is Marianna Kalinowska + Józef GRABIANKA.
Ludwik Kalinowski was the son of
Marcin Kalinowski and Anna Tarnowska;
grandson of
Walenty Kalinowski + Eufrozyna Bydlowska and unknown TARNOWSKI.
The great-grandson of
Jakób Kalinowski married Jadwiga Smiotanczanka.
The great-great-grandson of
Walentyn Kalinowski, senior, married Ewa Dworzycka.

We back to LUDWIK KALINOWSKI:

Note about Ludwik Kalinowski and Ignacy Kalinowski:
they were living in Lgota Murowana: 14 km north-east of Zawiercie, south-east of Czestochowa, and south of Lelow.

The branch of Walenty Kalinowski b. ca 1615 + Eufrozyna Bydlowska b. ca 1610 - his son:
Marcin Kalinowski 1640-1738 + Anna Katarzyna Tarnawska / Tarnowska b. ca 1640 with son
Ludwik Kalinowski b. ca 1680 + Zofia Potocka b. ca 1670 or ca 1700 [Kalinowska, Puzyna] + 2nd in 1723 to Elzbieta Poninska b. 1690, with daughters:
Marianna Kalinowska b. ca 1700 married GRABIANKA,
Tekla Kalinowska b. ca 1700 married to Antoni Bielski died in 1789

(with daughters Julianna Bielska + Dominik Herakliusz Dzieduszycki 1727-1804, Elzbieta Bielska and Aniela Bielska),

and Barbara Kalinowska born circa 1725

(Tomasz Ulinski 1620 - 1658, son of Jan Ulinski senior and Katarzyna; husband of Anna; father of Michal Ulinski; half brother of Jerzy Ulinski. Michal Ulinski b. 1650.
Augustyn Ulinski b. 1720 / 1728, m. Barbara Kalinowska b. 1725 / 1730, he was son of Jan Ulinski, of Podolia; Count in Austria in 1779;
Jan Ulinski b. ca 1690 and died in 1761, Colonel, Kamieniec Podolski 1714-1751, MP 1728, 1729 - 1732 and 1733, m. 2nd in 1720 with son Augustyn Ulinski).

The family of above Marcin Kalinowski 1640-1738:

Aleksander Kalinowski b. ca 1640 + Elzbieta Strzemeska,
Klara Kalinowska b. ca 1640 + Pawel Chamiec,
Antoni Kalinowski born ca 1640 + Ludwika Gidzinska Gierowska,
and Józef Jan Kalinowski 1650-1728 + Anna Lanckoronska b. ca 1660,
with children:
Adam Kalinowski b. ca 1690 + Marianna Boryszewska
(with son Józef Kalinowski b. ca 1720, junior),
Ignacy Kalinowski b. ca 1710 + Justyna Borzecka b. ca 1720
with children:
1. Agnieszka Kalinowska b. ca 1750,
2. Franciszka Kalinowska b. ca 1760/1765 + Olszewski / OLSZOWSKI,
3. Justyna Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Józef Soltyk [see Bystrzanowski] + Tomasz Piasecki,
4. Józefa Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Jan Sadel Sadlo + 2nd time to Glogowski,
5. Antonina Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Ludwik Walewski [see Wola Pszczolecka],
6. Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 + Elzbieta Bielska.

Mentioned above
Ignacy Kalinowski b. ca 1710 (ca 1730 !?) + Justyna Borzecka b. ca 1720 (b. ca 1735 ?) daughter of
Franciszek Borzecki b. ca 1695 - son of Antoni BORZECKI and Justyna Winnicka -
and Marianna Pociej b. ca 1700, daughter of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej, commander-in-chief of the Lithuania Army in 1709, with his second wife Emercjanna Warszycka - daughter of Stanislaw Warszycki - she was 2nd time married to Duke Montmorency (his 1st wife was Aniela Katarzyna Zahorowska, daughter of Stefan).

Emerencjanna Emercjanna Pociej, de Bours de Montmorency, nee Warszycka was born ca 1692, to Stanislaw Warszycki and Marianna of Zakliczyn nee Jordan. Stanislaw was born in 1666. Marianna was born in 1670.
Emerencjanna married Ludwik Konstanty Pociej in 1717; Ludwik was born in 1664, in Kietowiszki. They had daughter Ludwika Marianna Borzecka nee Pociej.

Emerencjanna married 2nd to Józef Aleksander de Bours de Montmorency in 1730; Józef de Montmorency, chevalier seigneur de Bours, was born in 1690 / 1700. Emerencjanna died in 1730.

Justyna Borzecka's children:

1. Agnieszka Kalinowska b. ca 1750,

2. Franciszka Kalinowska + MARCELI Olszewski / Olszowski

[Antoni Jan Olszowski was born 1732, to Stanislaw Olszowski and Zofia Nekanda-Trepka.
Stanislaw was born in 1705. Zofia was born in 1700.
Antoni had brother Jan Nepomucen Olszowski;
Antoni married Katarzyna in 1756; they had one daughter Franciszka Zaluskowski;
Antoni Jan Olszowski m. to Katarzyna Niemojowska b. 1730, with son
Marceli Olszowski 1767-1837,
grandson Andrzej Olszowski 1801-1879 m. in 1837 to Emilia Czarzewska / Czazewska 1818-1885;
great-grandson Ludwik Olszowski 1836-1911 married Julia Szembek 1836-1928. Ludwik was owner of Torzyniec, died in Breslau / Wroclaw, the marriage in 1866.
Julia was daughter of Wincenty Szembek and Emilia de Becu / Emilia Becu;
Julia nee Szembek was born 1836 or ca 1838 in the Siemianice parish, died in Wroclaw.

Above Andrzej Olszowski was son of Marceli OLSZOWSKI and Franciszka Kalinowska - she was born ca 1760 (before 1765 ?).

Franciszka Kalinowska m. MARCELI Olszewski / Olszowski in ca 1800.

The Ludwik Olszowski branch come from Walerian and his son Mikolaj who was born in 1619 in Olszowo / Olszowa, the Ujazd parish. Olszowo - 15 km north-west of Ujazd in the Slask province (Schlesien, Silesia)],

3. Justyna Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Józef Soltyk + Tomasz Piasecki,

4. Józefa Kalinowska + Jan Sadel Sadlo + Glogowski,

5. Antonina Kalinowska b. ca 1750 / 1760 + Ludwik Walewski, with son Karol Franciszek Walewski,

6. Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 d. after 1790 + Elzbieta Bielska b. ca 1760, d. ca 1809, owner of Petlikowce Stare 1799 - 1809,
daughter of Jozef Bielski 1730 - 1774 -
son of Boguslaw Bielski and Anna Szeptycka -
and Jozefa Ostrorog b. ca 1730 1st wife;
with children:
a.
Ignacy Franciszek Antoni Kalinowski b. ca 1790 / 1795 d. before 1846 + Hortensja Karsnicka 1800-1881 owner of Kurzany, daughter of Antoni Karsnicki 1779-1844 owner of Bakowiec and Hrehorow son of Walenty Karsnicki and Elzbieta Paczynska, and mother of Hortensja: Julia Glogowska b. 1760 ?;

Hortensja had husbands:
1 m. Ignacy Franciszek Antoni Kalinowski 1795 - before 1846,
2 m. Ludwik Jablonowski 1795 - 1846, son of Ludwik Stanislaw Jablonowski (1773-1825) and Lucja Glogowska,
3 m. Józef Jakubowicz (1820 - 1883) owner of Zochatyn close to Sanok, Kurzany, Podwysokie, Wólka, Huciska, Demna, son of Dominik Jakubowicz (1784 - 1887).

Child of above Hortensja:
Wladyslaw Kalinowski (1831 - 1893) m. Cecylia Szeliska b. ca 1835, daughter of Józef Kalasanty Szeliski and Emilia Pietruska / Postruska;

b.
Justyna Kalinowska 1790-1876 in Paris owner of Petlikowce + 1st in 1809 to Józef Tomasz Russocki Count 1785-1862
the son of Magdalena Dobinska daughter of Zygmunt DOBINSKI of Brzeziny d. 1759, + 2nd to Jozef Oechsner b. 1790.

c.
Józef Kalinowski ca 1790-1825 owner of Kamionka Wielka, Machnowka, Lubar, Udnow + Emilia Potocka b. ca 1791 in Guzow;
the daughter of Prot Antoni Potocki 1761-1801 owner of Machnowka in the Berdyczow county, and her mother was
Marianna Maria Lubomirska d. 1810 1st m. to Prot Antoni Potocki, 2nd to General Walerian Zubow, 3rd to General Teodor Uwarow / Uvarov
(see a note below);
she was daughter of Kacper Lubomirski d. 1780, and Barbara Lubomirska b. 1745 daughter of Jerzy Ignacy b. 1687

(acc. to http://myszkowscy.pl/ by Andrzej Wcislo - Barbara m. to Sollohub, Kacper Lubomirski, Kalikst Poninski, and Aleksander Winnicki):
with children:
Józefina Kalinowska + Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski,
Olga Kalinowska + Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski,
Seweryna Kalinowska,
and
Maria Kalinowska m. Trubecka / Duke Trubecki. That is married to Grigory Troubetzkoy b. 1802 and died 11 January 1874, who was son of Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy b. 18 November 1773.

We remember that named Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.
1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi:
May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin / Plautyn and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. And Olga Kalynovska / Kalinowska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt.

Nestor Troubetzkoy (with nickname Nester Kalinowski) had a sister Maria. His sister's name would be given by the mother Maria of the Kalinowski house: Mary Kalinowski who had affinities with family of Oginski; in turn, this family was associated with the Radziwills and then with the Konstantynowiczs in Miezonki.
Maria Trubeckoi / Duchess Maria Troubetzkoy / Mary Trubecki was born 1835 / 1840 / 1850. Duchess Maria Troubeckoy married Konstantinovich
- genealogical research go towards demonstrating that her husband's name was Vasily / Wasyl; Wasilij or Vasily Konstantynowicz was born about 1840.

Therefore, we have strong links between the 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Zaporozhya / Zaporoze / Alexandrovsk and with Estonia, including Tallinn, Viljandi and Parnu. These relations also apply Miezonki, Lodz, the secret Pilsudski movement in Belarus and Estonia and the smuggling of weapons from Russia to Galicia by Lodz.

Two families: Kalinowski and Paszkowski, has a lot connections.
Count Joseph Kalinowski fought in the Polish Legions, among others between 1806 and 1807 - Silesia, Westphalia, etc. Similarly, the colonel and then general Franciszek Paszkowski. Both participated in the Napoleonic wars, years 1812-1813. Returned to the country in 1814. Then Paszkowski, and Kalinowski, have made a Free City of Krakow (ca 1819) and established families. Their children were born just after 1816. Both have completed military service in the rank of general. Both family came from south of the former Poland, after in the Russian zone, and also in the Austrian partition, but had a relationships with families living in Russia.

Nestor Troubetzkoy had father:
Grigory Troubetzkoy b. 1802 and died 11 January 1874;
grandfather -
Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy b. 18 November 1773 - died 16 November 1801.

And mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski was Countess Maria Kalinowska. Probably she was born (after 1805) ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski.

We back to
Lgota Murowana:
14 km north-east of Zawiercie, south-east of Czestochowa, and 19 km south of Lelow
[4 km south to KROCZYCE; 16 km south-east to NIEGOWA; 14 km south-east to MIROW; 20 km south to BYSTRZANOWICE !].

Above
Marianna Grabianka (born Kalinowska) was born to Ludwik Kalinowski and Zofia Korwin-Kossakowska / Smigielska / Puzyna / Potocka [see above on Ludwik Kalinowski twice married].

Tadeusz Grabianka
returned [1770 ?] to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after his father's death in 1759. He inherited a significant estate, which consisted of three noble residences (Ostapkowce, Rajkowce, Sutkowce), tenement houses in Lviv and Kamenec Podolsky and 14 villages. In 1771 he married Teresa Stadnicki.
His sister Tekla Grabianka (1740-1805) married a poet and General major, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735 - 1799). The sister was an intermediary in the finalization of his marriage, in 1771, with a cousin Teresa Stadnicka (1749-1826). The spouses were married in the village of Ostapkowce at Podolia. 1771 - 1772 they stopped in the papal Avignon, then the center of the Freemasonry esoterics. They returned to Podole after the clashes with the Bar confederates in 1772.
In 1778, in Warsaw, he met with stories about the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati and with the TEMPLARS.
Tadeusz Grabianka in 1779, in Berlin, established contact with
Antoni Józef Perneta
[Antoine-Joseph Pernety, known as Dom Pernety - "... he was a Benedictine, and librarian of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Together with the Polish Count Tadeusz Grabianka, also influenced by the Christian mysticism of Swedenborg he founded in 1760 the secret society of 'Rite hermetique' or Illuminati of Avignon. ... 1767-1783 Pernety moved to Berlin. ... In 1779-1793 he became a member of Illumines of Avignon. In 1780 the oracle "la Sainte Parole" began to advise the Illumines of Avignon to leave Berlin to establish elsewhere the foundations of a new Sion"]
and Ludwik Józef Morveau

[Louis-Joseph-Philibert Guyton de Morveau - Louis Joseph Bernard Philibert Guyton de Morveau, called Brumore (1738-1786), the alchemist. His brother: Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) was born on January 4, 1737, at Dijon, France, the eldest son of Marguerite Desaulle and Antoine Guyton, a lawyer and professor of French law at the Universite de Dijon. His father was descendent from Beaune and Autun that included many surgeons, lawyers, and military officers. Louis-Bernard's younger brother, Philibert, was born in 1738 and, as was the custom, took the habits and devoted himself to counselling and writing. Louis-Bernard Guyton, Baron de Morveau, also Louis-Bernard Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution; born in 1737. Guyton de Morveau served on the Committee of Public Safety from 6 April 1793 to 10 July 1793].

Tadeusz Grabianka soon came to this order, he went through all the levels of initiation, and he began to play the leading role in it.
For several years he spent time traveling between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Commonwealth of the Two Nations [compare Sulkowski].
During his stay in Warsaw (before 1779) Tadeusz Grabianka suffered illumination and decided to devote his life to secret teachings and search for higher wisdom. During a trip to Berlin in the winter of 1779, he met there with a benedictine from the congregation of St. Maur and the librarian of King Frederick II (1712-1786) Antoine Josep Pernety, known as Perneta's House (1716-1796) - erudite, researcher of ancient mythology, who are under the influence of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) and Louis C. de Saint-Martin (1743-1803). Around Pernety was New Jerusalem - a religious group.

Tadeusz Grabianka received the title of the King of the New Israel.

In 1784, Tadeusz Grabianka split his wife. He left the Commonwealth and acted for the Illuminati Order in Germany and France.

From his marriage to Teresa Stadnicka, daughter of the Stanisław Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronska, Grabianka had three children:
Anna Grabianka RACIBOROWSKA (born 1773), m. Ludwik Raciborowski;
Antoni Grabianka (born 1775), the Ploskirow official, married to Honorata Stadnicka (d. 1881);
and Erasmus Grabianka (born 1777), married to Helena Skrocki.

Tadeusz Grabianka settled in Avignon, where he founded the New Israel.

In 1785, Tadeusz Grabianka went to Avignon to the Avignon Illuminati Association and the alchemical laboratory created by Pernety. He thought that - as the ruler of the New Israel - after taking control of the tsar's state and occupying Jerusalem - would become the Polish king.
"... He soon reorganized the sect under the new name (Kingdom of the New Israel), changing its structure, degrees, dignities, rites, ceremonies and rules, which gave him full power over it.
Most of the followers were French, but there were also several Germans, Italians, Spaniards, two Englishmen and a Swede (Reuterholm, who in 1790 visited Grabianka, later king of Sweden, Karl XIII)".

In the circle of the King of New Israel, were:
1.
the daughter of Izabela Czartoryska (1746-1835) - Maria Czartoryska Wurttemberg (1768-1854) with her husband, Ludwig Friedrich Alexander von Württemberg (1756 in Trzebiatow - 1817);
2.
and Russians:
captain (then admiral) Sergei I. Pleszczew (1752-1802) with wife Natalia Fiedotowna;

Piotr I. Ozierow-Dierzawin (1778 ? -1843);

Nikolaj W. Repnin (1734-1801); Pleszczew and Repnin were to leave the sect after about two years.

Grabianka tried to expand the influence of the sect through contacts with the European believers of Swedenborg, during a trip to London in 1786 and in May 1787 in Paris.
The Avignon Illuminati Association survived the period of persecution from the Inquisition.
During 1795-1799 period, the initiation hierarchy was established, and the temple of the Avinion Illuminati was modeled on the Solomon Temple.
In 1799, Tadeusz Grabianka left France and he went to Galicia for a short time, and then to Russia in St Petersburg. There he entered the circle of aristocracy; in the autumn of 1804, Grabianka found himself in Tulczyn with Stanisław Szczesny Potocki (born 1751).

In 1805, the next protector of the "master" Tadeusz Grabianka, became Count August Ilinski (1766-1844), at whose invitation he arrived in St. Petersburg in August 1805.

Józef August Iliński born in 1766, General, the owner of Zytomierz until 1796, supporter of IGNACY POTOCKI; the son of Jan Kajetan Benedykt Iliński;
Jozef August Ilinski married to Antonina Leonora Komorowska 1770-1838, the daughter of Jakub Bartłomiej Komorowski 1724-1781 and Antonina Brygitta Pawłowska; the granddaughter of Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660/1670

{Antoni Piotr Józef Komorowski / Antoni Piotr Józef Kajetan Jan Walenty Adam Komorowski b. 1769 in Sushno, was son of Jakub Bartłomiej Komorowski 1697 - 1781, who was son of Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 / 1670, and grandson of Jan Komorowski b. ca 1640 - 1700, who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.
Above Michal Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 also had son Jan Komorowski junior b. ca 1680 [m. Zofia Polanska] [see President Bronislaw Komorowski].
Michał Józef Komorowski b. ca 1660 [1670 ?], was son of Jan Komorowski senior b. ca 1640 - 1700, who came from Stefan Komorowski and Katarzyna.
Above Stefan had also son Adam Komorowski b. ca 1640 [?] who had son Jan Komorowski d. 1719 - the 3rd.
Ignacy Komorowski of Chelm, 1710-1760 was son of above named Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670-1719 and
Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska
[Jan's next son was Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski of Belz, 1699-1750].
Jan Komorowski the 3rd of Nowogródek, 1670-1719 married to Konstancja Katarzyna Sulimierska b. ca 1670, daughter of
Mikolaj Stefan Sulimierski and Teofila Gluzicka;
they had all 4 sons: above Stefan Aleksander Mamert Komorowski; above named Ignacy Komorowski; Adam Ignacy Komorowski b. 1699, d. 1759 in Skierniewice; and Piotr d. 1747}.

The first on JAN Potocki:

in 1785, Jan Potocki in Warsaw married Julia (1767-1794), the daughter of Izabela Lubomirski and the cousin to Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861). They moved home to Paris for 2 years. 1786, was born Alfred (1786-1862).
Potocki make friends with Lady de Staël.
1787, was born Artur POTOCKI (1787-1832), the TEMPLAR.

Jan Potocki come to Spa, with Anna Teresa and Lady de Genlis [see below]. Potocki stayed in Antwerpia, then in England; back to Paris.
1788 - he met Stanislaw August the King.
Moved to Ukraina; met Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki; he, in Lublin, met Seweryn Potocki.
In Poznan and Sroda - he is elected a Great Poland deputy.
JAN Potocki corresponds with his brother-in-law, Ignacy Potocki; Jan inherited together with Seweryn Potocki the property of Józef Potocki and Wincenty Potocki in Ukraine. In November, a political club with 150 members was founded in Warsaw.

Remember - Aleksandra Potocka, with nick-name Aleksandryna

(1818-1892, born in St Petersburg, the daughter of Stanislaw Septym Potocki;
the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki 1751-1805;
the great-granddaughter of Franciszek Salezy Potocki, 1700-1772,
who was the son of Józef Potocki (died 1723), and grandson of Feliks Kazimierz "Szczesny" Potocki (1630-1702), the great-grandson of Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki, 1589-1667),

married her cousin August Potocki

(= August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778; the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755; the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720; the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki).

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice [I had explained incorrect inf. on Jerzy Dunin-Wasowicz of the 18th century].

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs; she died in 1892] to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze; the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor - Andrzej Potocki.

We back to
Tadeusz Grabianka:

Among the enthusiasts of the Nation of God and of Tadeusz Grabianka there was a real adviser to the state,
Fiodor P. Lubianowski (1777-1869), former adjutant of Nikolaj W. Repnin (1734-1801);
Aleksandr F. Labzin (1766-1825);
and the leader of the circle of Rosaryans, Aleksandr A. Leniwcew (died 1818).

Also later Minister of Education, Aleksandr N. Golicyn (1773-1844);
and Maria Czetwertynska, m. Dymitr Naryszkin (1779-1854).

The Grabianka Movement have met with the immediate reaction of the state authorities. Tadeusz Grabianka was accused for preparing a coup and spying for France. In 1807 he was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. There he died a few months later without the trial.

In 1809-1817, J. Ujejski found the footsteps of St. Petersburg's "avignoners" of Tadeusz Grabianka.
Grabianka's activity also inspired Polish Masons gathered in Saint Petersburg's Lodge - the White Eagle - whose great master was Józef Oleszkiewicz (1777-1830). Grabianka was mentioned in May 1842 in the lectures at the College de France by Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855). Tadeusz Grabianka also inspired the messianist Andrzej Towianski (1799-1878).

TOWIANSKI:

Towianski Andrzej in 1832 went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianka,
but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
The St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life.
Towianski also met General Skrzynecki.

Br. Bystrzanowski, Thomas Dunckerley and Ebenezer Sibly - Illuminati and the Templars in UK, France and America - Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton:

Thomas Dunckerley, acted in the Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, held at the Castle-Inn, Marlborough (1769) - at half way from Bristol to Reading.
William Wonnacott suggests Sibly may have first become acquainted with his future masonic patron Thomas Dunckerley (1720 - 1795) in Portsmouth.
Thomas Dunckerley known in 1766 and 1767 Chesterfield; also he known Sir Edward Walpole - early in the construction on his new identity - to support Dunckerley's attempt to be recognized as GEORGE II's son.

Ebenezer Sibly was deeply involved in occult, but his brother Manoah SIBLY was the member of the Swedenborgian Theosophical Society; and was living in London like Swedenborgian minister.

Manoah SIBLY thus provided a tangible connection between Ebenezer SIBLY / Ebenezer Sibley, and the Swedenborgian enthusiasts Philippe de LOUTHERBOURG, Peter Lambert de LINTOT and Charles RAINSFORD - and in ca 1776 to CAGLIOSTRO.
Above acc. to Susan Mitchell Sommers.

"... Likewise, we have given up presenting even less well-known but not uninteresting Masonic Brothers like Peter Lambert of Lintot, Ebenezer Sibley or Charles Rainsford because of a somewhat marginal aspect of their activity ('fringe masonry')...".

Thomas Dunckerley, a natural son of George II, was initiated into Masonry, in January 1754.
Acc. to 'HISTORY OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND - 1723-60':
"... The first meeting of this Lodge, of which a record is preserved, took place, December 28, 1732. Present, the Master and Wardens, and seven 'members'.
No other titles are used. Among the 'members' were George Rainsford and Johnson Robinson, the former of whom is described as Master, and the latter as Pass'd Master, in the minutes of May 18, 1733.
It is possible, to put it no higher, that these distinctive terms were employed because some of the members had graduated under the Grand Lodge system, whilst others had been admitted or passed to their degrees, according to the more homely usage which preceded it. The degree seems, however, to have become fairly well established by 1738, as the Constitutions of that year inform us that there were then eleven Masters' Lodges in the metropolis".

We back to the Bystrzanowski family:

Franciszka Bobrowska, Bystrzanowska, born Mecinska in 1775, to Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski and Aniela Mecinska Stadnicka. She m. Franciszek Ksawery Bystrzanowski in 1809; Franciszek was born in 1767.
Franciszek's parents:
Count Kajetan Bystrzanowski, the Podole official; 1730-1807 and Marianna Marcjanna Mlodzianowska 1730-1796.
Grandparents:
Karol Bystrzanowski Szafraniec, the Checiny official; born ca 1692 or ca 1700/1710-1752 and Apolonia Misiowska.

KAROL's children:
1.
Kajetan Bystrzanowski the official of Podole (1760 - compare on Brody in Podole - Paszkowski), in Radom (1765); MP, Count in 1801, the Busk official (1785-1786), in Malogoszcz (1786-1795), in Piotrków (1761) and Radom (1784); 1730-1807 + Marianna Marcjanna Mlodzianowska; 2nd to Katarzyna Grodzicka.
2.
Sebastian Bystrzanowski, of the Checiny (1774-1783) official; again in Checiny (1757 and 1765); 1730-1795 + Magdalena Soltyk [note - Kiedrzynski and Paszkowski].
3.
Kamilia Bystrzanowski or Domicela Szafraniec-Bystrzonowska born ca 1730 / 1735; m. Michal Czarnocki; 2nd married to Feliks de Valois Skorupka. Her granddaughter [great-granddaughter ?] Anna / Antonila or Antonilia Czarnocka 2nd, died in Paris 1899 and she writes his wealth on the foundations of the Hotel Lambert in Paris.
4.
Klemens Bystrzonowski, the Checiny official (1764), b. 1730 - 1774 + Antonila Czarnocka 1st, b. ca 1735 {maybe his unknown son after 1774 / 1776 in France and in August 1776 in USA ??}.
5.
Michal Bystrzonowski at the Royal court (1761); b. 1740/1742-1798 + Katarzyna Borzyslawska b. ca 1730/1740 - with the son:
Kazimierz Szafraniec-Bystrzanowski, 1764-1840 married ca 1795/1796, Anna Russocka 1775/1780-1844 with:
Ludwik Tadeusz Bystrzanowski, 1797-1878;
Liberata Bystrzanowska b. 1800;
Kamila Szafraniec-Bystrzanowska b. ca 1800.


The line of Pradzynski - Kiedrzynski - Madalinski [CONSPIRATORS and ILLUMIATI]:

I.

Note on ZERKOW [18 km east to BOGUSZYN; and 27 km north-east to MCHY]:

Kiedrzynski, Jakub, died on 4 February 1798 and his wife Brygida Bardzka had 3 daughters:

Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. in 1770

[Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770 {in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ}];

Franciszka BAJKOWSKA b. ca 1768; and

Petronela Kiedrzynska

[Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain]. PETRONELA Kiedrzynska m. in 1791 to MELCHIOR Pradzynski who was born in Mrowino, the Greater Poland Province in 1753 and died in 1797.
Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.

Melchior's brother was Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army].

PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski -
with the son Andrzej Pradzynski 1794-1872

{born in KOWALEW / Kowalewo close to Pleszew, and 5 km east to ORPISZEWEK; close to Lutynia, Fabianow and KOTLIN. Died in 1872 in Zerkowo / ZERKOW close to Nowe Miasto by the WARTA river, and north to Jarocin, north-west to PLESZEW}.

ANDRZEJ Pradzynski married 1st Apolonia Szulc {with son Józef Antoni Pradzynski b. 1832, married to Maria Barbara Leokadia Drzenska in 1867 / 1868 in Szemborowo close to Wrzesnia}
and 2nd to unknown, with the son
Maksymilian Pradzynski.

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka. Melchior's brother was Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847 [note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790
[see below !] - it was her second marriage ca 1825.

II.

The Pradzynski family and Wola Wiazowa - Wilkowo Polskie:

Aleksander Madalinski owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow close to Sieradz, married in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska born ca 1695, the daughter of Ewa nee Kozuchowski, Walknowska, b. ca 1670 ? [2nd wife ?] + ANDRZEJ WALKNOWSKI 1645-1708,
with:
A.
Kontancja Madalinska, m. in 1757 to Dominik Zelislawski d. 1772, 2 voto to mentioned above
Maksymilian Pradzynski,
the son of Teresa nee Malachowski- Pradzynska;

B.
Mentioned
Kajetan MADALINSKI d. 1784, owner of Raczkow, Upuszczow, m. Dorota Kiedrzynska, the daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowska.
Dorota was 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski, the son of Stefan Grabinski, 2 voto Tomasz Psarski, died 1807, owner of Wola Dzierlinska.

III.

Andrzej Madalinski, senior, born in 1650, in Bobrowniki, died in 1720, official of WIELUN; he married in 1684/1685 to
Marianna Grabianka, born ca 1660 - she died bef. 1720,
not in 1721.

Andrzej MADALINSKI died bef. 1704 - the landlord in the OSTRZESZOW county, married Marjanna Grabianka widowed bef. 1704.

Ca 1705, Marianna Grabianka Madalinska, 2nd married Samuel Rudzinski of CZERSK.

Marianna had children:
1.
Aleksander, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow + WALKNOWSKA; and
Aleksander Madalinski had the son

Kajetan Madalinski, inf. in 1772 on his wife Dorota Kiedrzynska.

2.
Stanislaw Madalinski, of Leczyca;
Kazimierz;
Wladyslaw;
Jan;
Andrzej Madalinski junior.
3.
Franciszek Madalinski + Petronella Doruchowski, 2nd married Julianna Zajdlic.

Andrzej Madalinski, senior, had a brother Jan Madalinski + Konstancja SIEMIENSKA; with son Aleksander Madalinski; and 2 daughters.
Andrzej SENIOR, was the son of Aleksander Madalinski, senior, of Wielun, + JADWIGA TARNOWSKA !

{we know on Maryanna Grabianka, b. ca 1660, married [ca 1705] Samuel Rudzinski, governor of CZERSK;

Maryanna Grabianka b. ca 1660, was the sister of Wojciech Grabionka b. ca 1650 + Barbara Biejkowska,
the daughter of Abraham Biejkowski.

Wojciech GRABIANKA, b. ca 1650, had 2 daughters:
Helena + Antoni Karczewski; and
Zofia b. ca 1670 + Wojciech Lopacki;
Zofia had 4 brothers:
1. Jozef who had daughter Katarzyna + Franciszek Polanowski;
2. Antoni, official in Czersk + Teresa Biekierska with 5 sons;
3. BERNARD Grabianka, b. ca 1680, official in HALICZ, and in Trembowla + Helena KAMINSKA,
with the son,
JOZEF KAJETAN GRABIANKA [compare the ILLUMIATI and the TEMPLARS in 1778];
4. Kazimierz Grabianka married KOMOROWSKA}.

IV.

Andrzej MADALINSKI was the son of Aleksander Madalinski and Tarnowska;
Andrzej Madalinski was the husband of Marianna Grabianka / Grabionka / Grabiowie;
Andrzej took land from hands of priest Jan Stanislaw Borzyslawski of Wloclawek, and from
Marcin Borzyslawski - the relative of above priest and the son of a sister of named Andrzej Madalinski - in 1685, that is Zarzecze in the OSTRZESZOW county.

Marianna, was widowed bef. 1704, and in named Ostrzeszow, she had case with Wawrzyniec Godurowski. Mariannna died bef. 1720 or in 1720, not in 1721 - inf. Kalisz. Boniecki inf. about 7 sons of above named Marianna Madalinska Grabianka. Among others her sons: Aleksander Madalinski and Franciszek Madalinski.

Above named
Aleksander Madalinski,
the son of Andrzej and Grabianka, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow;
in 1725 he married Barbara Walknowski - Walichnowski = Franciszka, the daughter of Andrzej WALKNOWSKI. Barbara Madalinska in 1755 in Biezdrowo was a godmother. Aleksander and Barbara died bef. 1772.

They had a son Kajetan Madalinski.

Kajetan Madalinski, the son of Aleksander MADALINSKI and Walknowska, in 1772 he wrote his annuity for his wife
Dorota Kiedrzynska Madalinska, the daughter of Andrzej KIEDRZYNSKI and Franciszka Jackowska.

Dorota Madalinska was widowed after a death of her two husbands - Bartlomiej Grabienski and Tomasz Psarski.


Brümer = Ludwik Józef Filibert de = Brumore / Louis-Joseph-Bernard-Philibert de Morveau / Louis Joseph Bernard Philibert Guyton de Morveau.

The translator; co-operated in Berlin with Perneta / Antoine Joseph Parnety.
In BERLIN in 1778 a group was formed as the Illuminati Order and soon the group came under the control of Louis Joseph Bernard Philibert Guyton de Morveau, called Brumore (1738-1786). His brother was Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816).

Guyton de Morveau, called Brumore (1738-1786) acted together woith Antoine Joseph Pernety / Dom Pernety, born in France in 1716, died in 1796.

PERNETY considered Illuminism; "chrysopheia" or the Universal Medicine, the Stone of the Wise; Alchemy; "... learned native medicine in the Falkland Islands off South America; created the Rite Hermetique consisting of the 3 Blue Lodge degrees, and first 6, then 7 addition degrees. The 4th was The Knight of the Golden Key with Alchemical symbolism, and the 7th was the Knight of the Sun,
later adapted for the 27th and 28th degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.
... PERNETY evolved into the Rite Ecossais philosophique (the Rite of the Scottish Philosophers), 1776, which developed the 8th True Mason. In this he seems influenced by the Elus Cohens of Freemasonry and
then he influenced the Martinists ..."
- see TRUBECKI
in Russia and Kalinowski.

"... when Saint-Martin returned to Lyon, with J. Willermoz, he founded the Lyonnaise Harmonial Society. He was among those who believed that the fluidist theory was inadequate to account for the observed phenomena and ... it could lead to materialism. ... Saint-Martin brought an occult flavor.
From the founder of Martinism, Jacques Martines de Pasqually (ca 1715-1779), he had learned of the evil influence of "astral intelligences."

Pasqually was founder of the Order of the Elect Cohens, after the Hebrew word for priest, who practiced ceremonial magic. Martinism like its contemporary the Avignon Society preached cabalism, Talmudic tradition, and a mystic Catholicism
... Pasqually died in 1779; among his chief disciples was J. Willermoz, who then went over to the Rite of Strict Observance. ...
Along with
Barberin, men like
J. Willermoz,
Jean-Andre Perisse Du Luc (b. 1738),
Bernard de Turckheim, and
Rodophe Saltzmann of La Candeurwere
all united by Masonic ties, and they were also involved in the Lyonnaise Harmonial Society, called La Concorde.

J. Willermoz, a Lyon silk merchant, was the most respected figure in French mystical Masonry, a chief disciple of Pasqually and member of the Order of the Elect Cohens. With his fraternal colleagues at Lyon, he initially concentrated on mesmerism as a healing technique. ... Pernety was deeply influenced by works like L'Histoire de la philosophic hermetique (1742) by the Abbe Nicholas Langlet Dufresnoy (1674-1755). In 1758, Pernety penned Les Fables egyptiennes etgrecques ... popular expositions of occult wisdom ... Pernety claimed to draw on secret Greek and Egyptian sources in formulating
the rite of the Chevalier du Soleil, later divided to form the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth degrees of the Scottish rite
... However Avignon was papal territory, where the papal bull forbidding Masonic practices was enforceable. Pernety moved to Berlin, where for a time he worked at the Prussian court, enjoying the protection of Frederic II's brother Prince Henry (1726-1802), who was deeply interested in occult mysteries.

Pernety brought in others like
the French priest Guyton de Morveau, known as Brumore,
along with Morinval,
Melle Bruchier,
Countess Stadniska
[STADNICKA - maybe on Teresa Stadnicka Grabianka, 1749-1826 - see below!],
the Count and Countess Jean Tarnowski
[JAN TARNOWSKI - see below on Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and his wife Tekla Grabianka Tarnowska from Pankracewice (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county],
and others.

In 1778 or in 1779, with the arrival of Count Tadeusz Grabianka, the Illumines were formally constituted
(acc. to Garrett in 1975, p. 101; and to Harrison in 1979, p. 70)" in BERLIN.

"Count" Tadeusz Grabianka,
"not really a count but a very wealthy Polish nobleman, was largely responsible for introducing a millenarian emphasis into what had heretofore been mainly a thaumaturgic society and Masonic lodge. In his youth, he had frequented fortune tellers; through contact with Sabbatean Jews in his native region of Podolia, he became familiar with the apocalyptic prophecies of the seventeenth-century "Messiah", of Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676). Nursing a desire to succeed to the elective Polish throne, an honor that was to be denied to him, he became increasingly convinced that the millennium was approaching and that he would in due course be placed upon the throne of Israel as well, another dream never to be realized.

Grabianka, with his own grandiose aspirations, was a significant precursor to the apocalyptic Englishman Richard Brothers (1757-1824) in his wish to establish an Isrealite kingdom.

In Warsaw, Tadeusz Grabianka had joined the reformed order of "Templars" or "Strict Observance" Masons, founded around 1760 by Baron Charley Hund (d. 1776)
and, through that connection, he met Pernety in Berlin in 1778
(acc. to Scholem, 1961, 287-296; Garrett in 1975, p. 102).

The Illumines practiced the "true science of numbers" and posec questions to a divine intelligence whom they called "Sainte-Parole" ... The Illumines had frequent contact with Strasbourg. Each member had an occult number. Pernety's being no. 135.
When consulted by Brumore concerning Grabianka, known as "Dear King 1.3.9,"
Sainte-Parole intoned: "Oh my son, his heart is pure. Do not fear to mix your incense with his, because one day he will become seven times greater than you!" (acc. to Bricaud 1927, 46; see also 43; Harrison in 1979, p. 71).

Bricaud writes that Pernety believed he was guided by an angel called Assadai ...
In 1782, he issued a divine command that the society should be relocated from Berlin. Ironically, Avignon, the place of the greatest schism of medieval Christianity, was chosen wherefrom to proclaim their message of unity. ...
Through Pernety's friendship with the Marquis de Vaucroze (d. 1786), the society was installed on his Avignon estate.
Among the prominent Illumines were
the Chevalier Marie Daniel Bourree de Corberon (1748­1810);
Dr. Bouge;
Jean Pierre Moët (1721-1806), the Marquis de Thomé;
and Esprit Calvert, a professor of physiology at the Avignon medical faculty

... Now established as a freemasons' lodge with the grandiose title LAcademie des Illuminés Philosophes, they soon attracted seekers from all over Europe. Their , doctrines have been described as a blend of Swedenborgianism and Roman Catholicism, salted with occultism ...".

The group in BERLIN worked under the control of Louis Joseph Bernard Philibert Guyton de Morveau, called Brumore (1738-1786);
the alchemist and former Benedictine Dom Antoine Joseph Pernety (1716-1796);
and the Polish count Tadeusz Grabianka financed the alchemical experiments of the sect.

Brumore / Louis-Joseph-Philibert de Morveau, 1738-1786, known as Abbe de Brumore, born in Dijon, 1738; 1773 - at Langres.
1774 - he is, according to ALICE JOLY, lector of the wife of the heir to the French throne, dauphine Marie Antoinette, at Versailles;
the lector of the abbey of VERMOND. Librarian of Prince HENRI of PRUSSIA.

Frederick Henry Louis / Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig, 1726 - 1802, commonly known as Henry (Heinrich), was a Prince of Prussia and the younger brother of Frederick the Great.

BRUMORE lives in REINSBERG, at the prince's castle. Before 1784 as Mrs. BRUMORE. Brümer / Ludwik Józef Filibert de Morveau, known as Brumore. He was the younger brother of Louis Bernard Guyton de.

Above Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816)
was born at Dijon, France, "... the eldest son of Marguerite Desaulle and Antoine Guyton, a lawyer and professor of French law at the Universite de Dijon. His father was descendent from the family of Beaune and Autun that included many surgeons, lawyers, and military officers. Louis-Bernard's younger brother, Philibert, was born in 1738 and, took the habits and devoted himself to counselling and writing. ...".
Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) "was a French chemist and politician. ... In 1783, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and in 1788 a Fellow of the Royal Society. ...
During the Revolution, Guyton de Morveau (then styled Guyton-Morveau) served as Procureur general syndic of the Cote-d'Or departement in 1790, was elected a deputy to the Legislative Assembly in 1792, and then to the National Convention.
Guyton de Morveau served on the Committee of Public Safety from 6 April 1793 to 10 July 1793".

Note 1 -
to Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and his wife Tekla Grabianka from Pankracewice TARNOWSKA (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county:

CONSPIRATOR of 1821
- Colonel Marcin Tarnowski / Count Marcin Amor Tarnowski, born in 1778 in Kozin.

Kozin / Kozyn, in the ROWNO county, close to Radziwillow. The estate belonged to Hojski / Gojski; Firlej; and to Tarnowski - that is Jan Amor Tarnowski met here, in the palace, King Stanislaw August, in 1787 on the way to Kaniów to the Empress Catherine II. And belonged to Kajetan Amor Tarnowski - inf. of 1738. After the partitions, the Kozin commune was in the Volhynia Province.

CONSPIRATOR - Colonel Marcin Tarnowski, d. 1862; he served the 16th Cavalry Regiment of the Warsaw Duchy, and the 3rd Horse Rifles of the Congress Kingdom - the Galician campaign when the Tarnowskis formed an regiment; the campaign of 1812 under General Latour-Maubourde [Rohaczow, Smolensk, Dubrowna, Mozajsk, Kaluga and Borysow], and the campaign in 1813.

Marcin Tarnowski was the President of the Volhynia Province, 1821 to arrest in 1826, of the Patriotic Society. The Marshal of the nobility of the Krzemieniec county.

Marcin Tarnowski died in Zator, the Polish military commander under Kosciuszko in 1794,

son of mentioned

Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and Tekla Grabianka from Pankracewice near Leszczyce (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county.

Note 2:

Tadeusz Grabianka
returned [1770 ?] to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after his father's death in 1759. He inherited a significant estate, which consisted of three noble residences (Ostapkowce, Rajkowce, Sutkowce), tenement houses in Lviv and Kamenec Podolsky and 14 villages.

In 1771 he married Teresa Stadnicki.

His sister Tekla Grabianka (1740-1805) married a poet and General major, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735 - 1799).

The sister was an intermediary in the finalization of his marriage, in 1771, with a cousin Teresa Stadnicka (1749-1826). The spouses were married in the village of Ostapkowce at Podolia.

1771 - 1772 they stopped in the papal Avignon, then the center of the Freemasonry esoterics.
They returned to Podole after the clashes with the Bar confederates in 1772.
In 1778, in Warsaw, he met with stories about the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati and met the TEMPLARS.

Tadeusz Grabianka:

the grandparents - Bernard Grabianka of Halicz, b. ca 1680; Helena Kamińska;
and the mother's side - Zofia Potocka of Winnica, died in 1729
[married KALINOWSKA and PUZYNA; the daughter of Andrzej Jerzy Potocki and the granddaughter of Bogusław Potocki; the great-granddaughter of Jan Teodoryk Potocki died 1664; from Andrzej Potocki d. 1609, who was the son of Mikołaj Potocki died in CRACOW in 1572. Come from Jakub Potocki b. ca 1481, d. in Potok, in 1551];

the parents - Józef Kajetan Grabianka + Marianna Kalinowski;

the wife - Teresa Stadnicki.

Children:
A.
Anna Grabianka Raciborowska

[Anna's new aspirant, promoted by Piotr Stadnicki {Piotr Kajetan Stadnicki died in 1791, the Lieutenant of the 5 Brigade. the son of Franciszek Ksawery STADNICKI}, namely Leon Raciborowski of BRZEZANY [or Ludwik Raciborowski ?], was later her husband.
The first child was Anna Grabianka, born 1772, as NANETA = ZANETA Grabianka = Anna GRABIANKA. She had 2 brothers.
In 1781 her father moved to Europe from Rajkowice / Rajkowce; Rajkowce took Onufry Morski the son of Antoni. They moved home to Ostapkowce; Anna's mother was very activ in Kamieniec Podolski in 1782. In 1786 Anna's mother took letters from the King Poniatowski.
Anna had private tutor Ms Blanche; and priest Korzeniowski, of Jarmoliniec.
In 1784 Anna and her father Tadeusz Grabianka journeyed to Lwów, Berlin and to Paris; in 1785 to Avignon / Awinion, met PERNETY / Pernetti, Bruner, La Richardiere, Delhome, Feryere, engineer Larosiere;
that is
God's nation or New Jerusalem, headed by Tadeusz Grabianka since 1785.
Anna take part in these breathtaking mystic exercises, maybe - the Russian source.
She returned to the country at the beginning of 1787. Her relative - Duchess Jabłonowska of Wiślica, the wife of Roch JABLONOWSKI of Bukovina, took Anna Grabianka to Paryż / PARIS; back to Lwow. Anna = Naneta Grabianka wrote on this trip, June 1787 - Dec. 1788. Met with young Jadwiga Mysłowska of Widawa.
She visited sometimes Puławy, Ciecierzyn of Podhorodeński; and
Kock of Duchess Jabłonowska + Duke Józef Jabłonowski.
In 1788 Anna Grabianka moved to Sławuta to Duke Sanguszka / Sanguszko
- see the TEMPLARS];

B.
Antoni Grabianka + Honorata Stadnicka with:
1. Stanisław Jan Paweł Grabianka b. 1809 + Stefania Susczański-Proskura. 2. Martyna Grabianka + Florian Czarnecki. 3. Andrzej Fakund Grabianka 1823-1884 + Stefania Susczański-Proskura;
C.
Erazm Grabianka + Helena Skrocka, with:
Martyna Grabianka b. 1820 + Aleksander Zaleski.


STADNICKI:

Anna Grabianka Raciborowska

[Anna's new aspirant, promoted by Piotr Stadnicki

{Piotr Kajetan Stadnicki died in 1791, the Lieutenant of the 5 Brigade. the son of Franciszek Ksawery STADNICKI, d. 1775},

namely Leon Raciborowski of BRZEZANY [or Ludwik Raciborowski ?], was later her husband.
Anna Grabianka, born 1772, as NANETA = ZANETA Grabianka = Anna GRABIANKA. She had 2 brothers.
In 1781 her father TADEUSZ GRABIANKA moved to Europe from Rajkowice / Rajkowce; Rajkowce took Onufry Morski the son of Antoni. They moved home to Ostapkowce; Anna's mother was very activ in Kamieniec Podolski in 1782. In 1786 Anna's mother took letters from the King Poniatowski].

Above
Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, the Latyczow official, and in Podolia; MP. He was the son of
Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Pepłowska

[remember - Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronski, was the wife of named Tadeusz Grabianka; they owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice at Podole / Podolia. Named Stanislaw Stadnicki was the son of Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka].

Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, had a siblings:
Zofia + Michał Jełowicki, the Luck and Bracław official;
Małgorzata; Teresa; Fryderyk Stanisław Stadnicki;
Adam Stadnicki;
Aleksander Stadnicki of Kiev;
Stanisław Stadnicki, the Kamieniec Podolski official; the Latyczow clark, acted in Podolia;
Mikołaj Maciej Stadnicki, the governor of Kamieniec Podolski.

Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, married Jadwiga Kumanowska, with 7 children:
Eleonora + Franciszek Markowski;
Salomea;
Piotr Stadnicki;
Rozalia Szumlańska, Chrzanowska;
Balbina + Jan Lipski;
Jan Tomasz Stadnicki, the Latyczow official;
Ignacy Stadnicki, the Latyczow official.

Franciszek Stadnicki / Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, military, bef. 1747 as Lieutenant; MP in 1746, and in 1750 the Latyczow official; 1754 in Kamieniec Podolski; 1757 - Colonel.
1758 and 1761, MP; also in 1764 and in 1775.

Above
Katarzyna Stadnicki born Pepłowski, in 1690, to Wawrzyniec Stanisław Pepłowski and Barbara Czołhański. Wawrzyniec was born in 1670. Katarzyna married Jan Stadnicki born in 1690. They had son Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki.

In London, Tadeusz Grabianka met with Louis Claude de Saint-MARTIN - who had come in 1785 to England; Saint-Martin collaborated with Goran Ulrik Silverhjelm, Swedenborg's nephew, in 1790-1792.

Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Martyna = Marta Lanckoronski, was the wife of named Tadeusz Grabianka. they owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice at Podole / Podolia.
Named Stanislaw Stadnicki was the son of
Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka.
Stanislaw was the brother of Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki.

Above JAN: died in 1740, the son of
Mikolaj Franciszek Stadnicki. Above MIKOLAJ: died in 1714, the son of
Franciszek Stadnicki.

Fortunat Stadnicki:
b. 1818 in Zbydniow, d. 1872 in Roztoka, CONSPIRATOR.
His father - Józef Stadnicki 1790-1819 + Antonina Otwinowska b. 1799 - she married Jan Odrzywolski, too. Fortunat married to Korona Berska 1 voto Głębocka.

JOZEF's grandfather - Antoni Stadnicki, the Ostrzeszów official, 1710-1777.

See:
Mecinski / ADAM, 1740-1796, m. Aniela Stadnicka, the daughter of named Antoni Stadnicki!

Conspirators:

In 1834, the Polish Coalition was founded - Hugo Wiśniowski, Franciszek Smolka and some of the members of the Friends of the People's Association were active there.
In 1835, the Association of the Polish People was established, whose founders were: Seweryn Goszczyński, Lesław Łukaszewicz, Januszewicz, Zienkowicz, Bobiński, and Wiktoryn Bogusz. In 1837, the Universal Confederation of the Polish Nation was formed. It was attended by Stanisław Malinowski, Jan Szczepanowski, Aleksander Wężyk, Stefan Mułkowski, Stanisław Marynowski, Fortunat Stadnicki, Leon Zaleski.

Note 1:

Brzezie close to Wloclawek [+ Badkowo] and the LANCKORONSKI family [Brzezie + Jedlno, Wola Pszczolecka]:

Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski / ADAM Mecinski, 1740-1796, m. Aniela Stadnicka, with daughter Ewa Mecinska b. 1789 / 1790 {maybe ca 1780}.

Mecinski / ADAM, 1740-1796, m. Aniela Stadnicka. Aniela Stadnicka b. ca 1740, the daughter of Antoni Stadnicki who married three times; Antoni was the Ostrzeszów official, 1710-1777 + Teresa Potocka b. ca 1710. ANTONI, the official in Ostrzeszów, Czernihów, and Wyszogród, the owner of Kobyle; Rożnow; Zbyszyce; named Zbyszyce - south to ROZNOW - north to Nowy Sacz.

Antoni's father -
Władysław Józef Stadnicki [Wladyslaw Stadnicki had 2 brothers: 1668-1745 and 1671-1721] b. ca 1670 - 1737;
he was the son of
Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Kowieska.

Wladyslaw was the Czernihów official, lived 1670-1737.

Jan Stadnicki, b. 1636, married Katarzyna Kowieska: STADNICKI Jan Franciszek d. 1713, the owner of MOGILNO, the Volhynia governor, m. in 1664 to Katarzyna, born 1636.

Jan's father:
Piotr Stadnicki, b. 1598, died in 1636, and Elżbieta Jordan b. ca 1610
- Elżbieta Stadnicki of Lichwin, was married 3 times. Jordan was the owner of Zakliczyn. 1558 Stanisław Stadnicki bought the part of Zakliczyn - his scion Piotr Stadnicki m. Elżbieta Jordan of Zakliczyn.

Note 2:

In London, Tadeusz Grabianka met with Louis - Claude de Saint-MARTIN - who had come in 1785 to England; Saint-Martin collaborated with Goran Ulrik Silverhjelm, Swedenborg's nephew, in 1790-1792.

Tadeusz Grabianka married Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronski. Tadeusz Grabianka and Teresa owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice at Podole / Podolia.

Named Stanislaw Stadnicki b. 1710/1720, was the son of Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka. Husband of Martyna Stadnicka. Brother of Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki.

Above JAN STADNICKI: b. maybe ca 1690, died in 1740, the son of

Mikolaj Franciszek Stadnicki. Above MIKOLAJ: b. ca 1660 ?, died in 1714, the son of

Franciszek Stadnicki b. ca 1620/1640 or ca 1637. Franciszek Stadnicki b. ca 1637, was maybe the son of above
PIOTR Stadnicki, b. 1598 and above ELZBIETA JORDAN.


Raciborowski:

Raciborowski, in the Oswiecim Duchy - Marcin Raciborowski in 1648, married to Zofia Trzebinska.
His brother Aleksander Raciborowski, had a son Szymon Raciborowski and Szymon married Barbara Pieniazek, the daughter of the Sieradz governor; Barbara had a daughter Maryanna m. 1st Michal Szamowski; 2nd to Stanislaw / Józef Jezierski, the Lukow official.

Józef Raciborowski b. 1689, d. 1756, m. ca 1730 to Marianna Libiszowska b. ca 1700,
with:
Wojciech Raciborowski, the Latyczów official, 1734-1798, + Agnieszka Grocholska + Dominika Lipinska;
with children:
1.
Ludwik Raciborowski b. 1762 + 2nd Css Aleksandra Brzostowska, 1780-1864 [and 1st Anna Grabianka]
with Ludwika Raciborowska 1805-1866.
2. Pius Raciborowski 1767-1821 + Antonina Pawsza.

Wojciech Raciborowski in 1778 was the Czerwonogrod official. His son LUDWIK or LEON Raciborowski in 1788 married 1st Anna GRABIANKA. Ludwik m. 2nd ca 1800 to Aleksandra Brzostowska, the daughter of Count Aleksander Brzostowski, 1750-1820, + Anna Maria Wodzinska.

Above Aleksandra Brzostowska, 1780-1864:
her grandparents -
Adam Brzostowski 1722-1792; Dss Genowefa Oginska 1725-1792; Mikolaj Wodzinski of Liw; Godlewska.
The great-grandparents:
Konstanty Benedykt Brzostowski the Lithuania official, 1682-1722;
Duke Józef Tadeusz Oginski 1693-1736;
Teresa Wojna-Jasienicka 1695-1743; and Dss Anna Wisniowiecka, 1695-1732.

Mentioned Józef Tadeusz Oginski, 1693-1736

[the son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski;

grandson of Jan Jacek Oginski, of MSCISLAW. Duke Jan Jacek Oginski (1619 - 1684 in Cracow), the governor of Polock; the Lithuanian field commander-in-chief, 1682-1684.

Szymon Karol Oginski, the Witebsk official in 1654, the governor of Mscislaw (1682-1685), 1621-1699, was the brother of JAN JACEK OGINSKI.

Prince Jan Jacek Oginski / Jonas Jackus Oginskis, 1619 - February 1684) "was a nobleman, commander and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was also known as Jan Samuelewicz Oginski. ...".
The youngest of Jan's four sons, was Grzegorz Antoni Oginski.

Szymon Karol Oginski
- died in 1699, the son of Samuelis Levas Oginskis and Zofia.
Husband of Ticja; Teodora Oginska and Teresa Woynianka-Jasieniecka. Father of Zofia Oginska; Krystyna Tyszkiewicz; Jerzy Oginski; Boguslaw Kazimierz Oginski; Marcin Michal Oginski. Brother of JAN / Johan Oginsky; Regina Korff Pociej; Krystyna Oginska; Helena Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska; Prakseda]

had children:

Teodora Oginska, 1723-1750;
Augusta Oginska, 1724-1791 + Konstanty Ludwik Plater, the governor of Mscislaw (1758-1770), 1722-1778;
Genowefa Oginska, 1725-1792 + Adam Brzostowski, 1722-1792;
Katarzyna Oginska + Antoni Przezdziecki, 1718-1772;
Michal Kazimierz Oginski, MP, general major (1748), the governor of Wilno (1764-1768), 1728-1800 + Aleksandra Czartoryska, 1730-1798;
Kazimiera Oginska, b. 1729 + Michal Brzostowski, general-lieutenant, 1722-1784;
Elzbieta Oginska, 1731-1771 + Michal Wielhorski;
Honorata Oginska, 1732-1750.

Named Michal Kazimierz Oginski, b. 1728 / 1731; poet; the cousin of Andrzej Ignacy who was the father of Michal Kleofas Oginski.

Above Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 in Guzow; was the son of
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski + Paula Szembek.
Grandson of
Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski + Izabella Radziwill.
Great-grandson of
Marcjan Michal Oginski

[the son of Szymon Karol OGINSKI, ca 1620-ca 1699 + Teodora KORSAK.

SZYMON Oginski / Symeon Oginski was the brother of above JAN JACEK OGINSKI, 1621-1699.

Regina Pociej nee Oginska, b. circa 1624, died ca 1700, was daughter of Samuel Leon Oginski b. 1593 in TROKI, and Zofia Billewicz born ca 1600. She was sister of Jan Oginski born 1619 or ca 1620/1621; Szymon Karol = Symeon Oginski b. ca 1620, and Helena Tyszkiewicz. Above Samuel Leon Oginski b. ca 1593, d. 1657]

and Teresa Brzostowska.

Mentioned Ludwik Raciborowski b. 1762; the son of Wojciech Raciborowski the official in Latyczów, 1734-1798 + Dominika Lipinska.
The grandparents:
Józef Raciborowski, the Owrucz official, 1689-1756 + Marianna Libiszowska.

Note 1:
Anzelm Raciborski, the Kujawy official.

Note 2:
Katarzyna Mielzynska, 1828-1899, married Stanislaw Broel-Plater, Count, born in 1822 in PARIS - died in 1890 in Warsaw, son of
Stanislaw Broel-Plater 1784-1851 senior, the grandson of
Kazimierz Konstanty Plater 1746-1807 and Izabela Ludwika Borch 1752-1813;
the great-grandson of Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778, Jan Andrzej Józef Borch 1713-1780 and
Augusta Oginska 1724- 1791.

AUGUSTA [Augusta Oginska 1724-1791] was the daughter of Duke Józef Tadeusz Oginski 1693- 1736.

Józef Oginski b. 1693, was the son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski, Duke, and Eleonora WOJNA.

Kazimierz Dominik Oginski, ca 1664 - 1733, was the son of JAN OGINSKI / Jan Jacek Oginski, b. 1619 in Mstislavl, and grandson of
SAMUEL LEON Oginski.

Regina Pociej nee Oginska, b. circa 1624, died ca 1700, was daughter of
Samuel Leon Oginski b. 1593 in TROKI, and Zofia Billewicz born ca 1600.
She was sister of Jan Oginski born 1619 or ca 1620; Szymon Karol Symeon Oginski, and Helena Tyszkiewicz.

Above Samuel Leon Oginski b. ca 1593, d. 1657.


"The Swedenborg Rite or Rite of Swedenborg was an order modeled on Freemasonry and based upon the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. ... It was created in Avignon in 1773 by the Marquis de Thorn. It was initially a political organization ... Starting in the 1870s, the Rite was resurrected as an hermetic organization. This version faded out sometime around 1908 ...".

"... By the end of the Eighteenth Century numerous enthusiasts for Swedenborg's reported experiences, and for some of his ideas, were to be found in England and in continental Europe. ... e.g. Benedict Chastanier and Count Tadeusz Grabianka, fell into the New Church only to fall rapidly out of it, others, Jacob Duche and General Rainsford, for example, kept their distance while maintaining their enthusiasm. ... Richard Brothers, who had taken up Swedenborgian doctrines at Avignon with the Abbe Pernety, and Count Grabianka.
Both Brothers and Grabianka attended meetings in London at the home of the Revd. Jacob Duche
who, while studiously avoiding a commitment to the New Church, encouraged the study of both Swedenborg and Jacob Boehme, the German mystic ...
Pernety established his Hermetic Rite of Freemasonry at Avignon in 1766,
but it did not contain Swedenborgian elements until Pernety returned from Berlin in 1785 and transformed his Rite into the Illumines d'Avignon.
They were joined by Count Grabianka, a confirmed Swedenborgian, who attempted to bring Pernety's Rite to London. Here he might have expected support from a fellow mason and Swedenborgian, Benedict Chastanier
..." - above under copyright by Robert A. Gilbert published in Things Heard and Seen, the Newsletter of the Swedenborg Society, London, No. 15 (Autumn 2004) pp. 44-51.

The Reverend Jacob Duche (1737-1798) was a Rector of Christ Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and
the first chaplain to the Continental Congress.
Duche was born in Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Colonel Jacob Duche, Sr., later mayor of Philadelphia (1761-1762) and grandson of Anthony Duche, a French Huguenot. Duche first came to the attention of the First Continental Congress in September 1774, when he was summoned to Carpenters' Hall to lead the opening prayers.


The Tarnowski - Grabianka - Kalinowski branch [Illuminati - Tadeusz Grabianka - Kalinowski of Lgota Murowana - Bystrzanowski]:

Jan Amor Tarnowski 1735 - 1799, was the son of Kajetan Amor Tarnowski 1706-1748, and Anastazja Anna.
Husband of Tekla [Tekla Grabianka (1740-1805) married a poet and General major, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735 - 1799)].
Father of Marcin Tarnowski the famous conspirator.

The Kosciuszko Mound - Presidents of the Committee since 1820 in CRACOW - the TEMPLARS:

1820 - 1856 General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski
[name Ksawery was mistake ! - see Armand and Konstantynowicz in Moscow];

1856 - 1878 Piotr Moszynski [TEMPLARS in Volhynia - compare CONSPIRATOR, MARCIN TARNOWSKI];

1878 - 1883 Franciszek Wladyslaw Paszkowski;

1884 - 1917 Stanislaw Tarnowski / Stanislaw Kostka Tarnowski;
nickname - Edward Rembowski, Swiatowid;
the son of Jan Bogdan TARNOWSKI 1805-1850, and Gabriela Malachowski;
the grandson of Jan Feliks Tarnowski;
the great-grandson of Jan Jacek Tarnowski, who was the son of
Józef Mateusz Amor Tarnowski 1705/1710-1744.

Named Jan Bogdan was also great-grandson of Kajetan Amor Tarnowski 1706-1748 [compare here about MARCIN TARNOWSKI, CONSPIRATOR - the SCYTHEMEN and the TEMPLARS].

Stanislaw Tarnowski was jailed 1863 as associate in CONSPIRACY with General Zygmunt Jordan b. 1824, the son of JORDAN, General, b. 1790.

1917 - 1926 Franciszek Paszkowski.

Note about Ludwik Kalinowski and Ignacy Kalinowski:
they were living in Lgota Murowana: 14 km north-east of Zawiercie, south-east of Czestochowa, and south of Lelow.

The branch of Walenty Kalinowski b. ca 1615 + Eufrozyna Bydlowska b. ca 1610 - his son:
Marcin Kalinowski 1640-1738 + Anna Katarzyna Tarnawska / Anna Tarnowska b. ca 1640 with son
Ludwik Kalinowski b. ca 1680/1690 + Zofia Potocka b. ca [not ca 1670, KALINOWSKA - PUZYNA] 1700 + 2nd in 1723 to Elzbieta Poninska b. 1690/1700,
with daughters:
Marianna Kalinowska b. ca 1720 [not ca 1700 - she was the daughter of named above ZOFIA POTOCKA Kalinowska] married GRABIANKA

[Józef Kajetan Grabianka born ca 1710; the official in LATYCZOW in 1740-1744
{Jozef was the son of Bernard Grabianka and Helena Kaminski. Bernard was born in 1680}.
Marianna had a son Tadeusz Grabianka 1740-1807, the ILLUMINATI and the daughter Tekla Grabianka + Jan Amor Tarnowski, 1735-1799],

Tekla Kalinowska b. ca 1700/1720 married to Antoni Bielski died in 1789
(with daughters Julianna Bielska + Dominik Herakliusz Dzieduszycki 1727-1804, Elzbieta Bielska and Aniela Bielska),
and Barbara Kalinowska born circa 1725/1727.

Tadeusz Grabianka
returned [1770 ?] to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after his father's death in 1759. He inherited a significant estate, which consisted of three noble residences (Ostapkowce, Rajkowce, Sutkowce), tenement houses in Lviv and Kamenec Podolsky and 14 villages. In 1771 he married Teresa Stadnicki.

His sister Tekla Grabianka (1740-1805) married a poet and General major, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735 - 1799).
The sister was an intermediary in the finalization of his marriage, in 1771, with a cousin Teresa Stadnicka (1749- 1826). The spouses were married in the village of Ostapkowce at Podolia. 1771 - 1772 they stopped in the papal Avignon, then the center of the Freemasonry esoterics. They returned to Podole after the clashes with the Bar confederates in 1772.
In 1778, in Warsaw, he met with stories about the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati. Tadeusz Grabianka in 1779, in Berlin, established contact with Antoni Józef Perneta / Pernetty / Pernety.

Above
Kajetan Amor Tarnowski b. 1706 in Tarnów, d. 1748. Son of Aleksander Dominik Amor Tarnowski and Marianna.

The branch of Walenty Kalinowski b. ca 1615 + Eufrozyna Bydlowska b. ca 1610 - his son:
Marcin Kalinowski 1640-1738 + Anna Katarzyna Tarnawska / Tarnowska b. ca 1640 with son
Ludwik Kalinowski b. ca 1680 + Zofia Potocka, Kalinowska, Puzyna + 2nd in 1723 to Elzbieta Poninska b. 1700, with daughters:
Marianna Kalinowska;
Tekla Kalinowska married to Antoni Bielski died in 1789 (with daughters Julianna Bielska + Dominik Herakliusz Dzieduszycki 1727-1804, Elzbieta Bielska and Aniela Bielska),
and Barbara Kalinowska born circa 1725
(Tomasz Ulinski 1620 - 1658, son of Jan Ulinski senior and Katarzyna; husband of Anna; father of Michal Ulinski; half brother of Jerzy Ulinski. Michal Ulinski b. 1650. Augustyn Ulinski b. 1720 / 1728, m. Barbara Kalinowska b. 1725 / 1730, he was son of Jan Ulinski, of Podolia; Count in Austria in 1779; Jan Ulinski b. ca 1690 and died in 1761, Colonel, Kamieniec Podolski 1714-1751, MP 1728, 1729 - 1732 and 1733, m. 2nd in 1720 with son Augustyn Ulinski).

CONSPIRATOR - Colonel Marcin Tarnowski / Count Marcin Amor Tarnowski, born in 1778 in Kozin.

Kozin / Kozyn, in the ROWNO county, close to Radziwillow. The estate belonged to Hojski / Gojski; Firlej; and to Tarnowski - that is Jan Amor Tarnowski met here, in the palace, King Stanislaw August, in 1787 on the way to Kaniów to the Empress Catherine II. And belonged to Kajetan Amor Tarnowski - inf. of 1738. After the partitions, the Kozin commune was in the Volhynia Province.

CONSPIRATOR - Colonel Marcin Tarnowski, d. 1862; he served the 16th Cavalry Regiment of the Warsaw Duchy, and the 3rd Horse Rifles of the Congress Kingdom - the Galician campaign when the Tarnowskis formed an regiment; the campaign of 1812 under General Latour-Maubourde [Rohaczow, Smolensk, Dubrowna, Mozajsk, Kaluga and Borysow], and the campaign in 1813.
Marcin Tarnowski was the President of the Volhynia Province, 1821 to arrest in 1826, of the Patriotic Society. The Marshal of the nobility of the Krzemieniec county.

Marcin Tarnowski died in Zator, the Polish military commander under Kosciuszko in 1794, son of mentioned Jan Amor Tarnowski, general of the Crown troops, and Tekla Grabianki from Pankracewice near Leszczyce (1740-1805) - the Vinnytsia county.
He started the military service as an adjutant of Tomasz Wawrzecki in 1794; took part in the battles in defense of Warsaw, he also fought against the Suvorov near the Warsaw Praga. In June 1809 he became the head of the insurgent horse unit in Podolia: in Tarnopol with Piotr Strzyzewski; in Stryj and Sambor; Wieniawka; Grzymalow, Chorostkow, Brzezany, Adamówka and Zaleszczyki. In 1813 fighting for Hellensdorf, Königstein, and Peterswelde, Pirna, Sere and Dresden. He was taken prisoner (November 8); the army of the Kingdom of Poland, on January 20, 1815, he commanded the 3rd Rifle Division of the Kingdom of Poland. However, he resigned on December 9, 1815. He settled in Wolyn, where he was active member of the Patriotic Society, 1821, as the head of the Volhynia province, as its president, he was also the vice-president of the central committee for the Kiev, Podolia and Wolyn provinces, whose formal president was KAROL PROZOR; Marcin Tarnowski knew about the contacts of the Society's emissaries with the Russian decembrists.

MARCIN TARNOWSKI was arrested in 1826; transfered several times to the prisons of Warsaw and St. Petersburg (here he sat in the Pietropavlovsk Fortress). He tried to suicide in prison (1827); his wife Zofia Tarnowska fell into oblivion.
Finally sentenced to a month of fortress and year of police supervision. In 1829 he returned to Wolyn; on the eve of the November Uprising in 1831, he was taken back to Russia, he was sent to Skier; released after a few years, he settled in his Podberezka palace in the village of Berezka near Krzemieniec in Ukraine; in 1854 he supported the plans of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. He became the marshal of the nobility in Krzemieniec.

Shortly before his death he came to Krakow [compare the TEMPLARS and General Franciszek Paszkowski !]. He died on November 20/21 or 22, 1862 in CRACOW.

The Scytheman's society = KOSYNIERZY, headed by Denerowski, with senior officers of the Polish army, such as Mielzynski and Uminski, Marcin Tarnowski from Wolyn, Lukasinski. Olizar in his Memoirs called the Patriotic Society - as the Society of Kosynierzy = SCYTHEMAN. The Russians suggested that the Poles join in a conspiracy against the imperial family; the Poles replied that they fought for the freedom of the country, but do not want to make secret conspiracies against the regime of the state in Russia.
The commanders in 1807 were recently Jacobins' conspirators in Galicia: Kazimierz Rozwadowski; Gabriel Rzyszczewski; Colonel Marcin Tarnowski.

Above named Jan Amor Tarnowski born in 1735 in Krasnobród, died ca 1799, General major of the Crown troops, captain of the National Cavalry of 1775-1783, count, poet and philosopher, was

the father of mentioned above Marcin TARNOWSKI.

JAN Amor Tarnowski [+ Tekla Grabianka (1740-1805; see ILLUMINATI) married a poet and General major, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735 - ca 1799)]
was the son of KAJETAN AMOR TARNOWSKI b. ca 1700/1706, died in 1748 + Anastazja Anna Bogusz.

Jan Amor, Count Tarnowski, lived also in Markuszewa / Markuszów / Markuszew - a settlement in Poland, in the Pulawy district.

Kajetan Amor Tarnowski was the son of
Aleksander Dominik Tarnowski 1668-1707 + Marianna Dzieduszycka d. 1711;
the grandson of
Jan Stanislaw Amor Tarnowski 1642-1689 + Zofia Firlej;
the great-grandson of
Michal Stanislaw Tarnowski ca 1590-1654/1655 + Anna Czobor;
the great-great-grandson of
Stanislaw Tarnowski ca 1541-1618 + 1568 to Zofia Ocieska.

August 1821 in Berdyczow:
Colonel Marcin Tarnowski of the Union of Scythemen from the Posen province [see Mielzynski];
in Podolia acted Ludwik Sobanski,
in Kiev -
Antoni Czarkowski, Anzelm Iwaszkiewicz, Stanislaw Joteyko;
others in the Patriotic Society:
Mikolaj Worcell, Atanazy Grodecki, Aleksander PROZOR [see Malkiewicz] and KAROL PROZOR.

We can look now at the Tarnowski - Martynov line:

Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich b. 1774, d. 1839 or after 1840; his wife was Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska, d. 1851; the daughter of Mikhail Vasilyevich Tarnowski; her children:
Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich 1815 / 1816 - 1875 / 1876 who in 1841 killed Lermontov in a duel, his family related to Kolirovsky and Romeiko - Hurko (Polish); Michael Solomonovich 1814-60; Ekaterina Martynova Solomonovna married Rzewska (Polish) / Rzhevskij Michal; Dmitry Martynov Solomonovich b. 1824 and died 1909; Elizabeth; Natalia b. 1819; Julia married Gagarin, b. 1821; also Pawel and Peter Solomonovich Martynov - friends of Stefan Drzewiecki [see below], Polish nobleman but about Pawel and Peter no any inf.

Sofia Katenin d. 1908, married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov b. 1858 d. 1915 - his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816 and his grandparents: Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783.

Martynov Dmitry Michajlovich b. 1760, Captain (or Major?) had the brother Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich b. 1774, d. 1839 or after 1840; a wife of above Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich: Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska, b. 1783, d. 1851.
Mentioned Elzbieta Tarnowska was the daughter of Mikhail Vasilyevich Tarnowski; a wife of Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich; Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska b. 1783, d. 1851; according to Russian sources in 2015, Maria Tarnowska came from the Ukrainian Cossacks:

Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin or Colonel Mikhail Andreivitch Katenin, married to Countess Nadejda Vasilievna, the second daughter of General Count Vasili Vasilievitch Orlov-Denissov.
They had daughters:
1. Mary or Maria / Princess Maria Mikhailovna Katenin married in 1868 to Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski b. 7th August 1844, Governor of Vilno 1899 and Vice-Governor 1896 - 1899; he d. 1916, having two sons and four daughters.
2. Sofia KATENIN d. 1908, married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov / Wiktor Martynow b. 1858 d. 1915 - his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816, and his grandparents: Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783.

Martynov / Martynov Dmitry M. born 1760, had brother Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich b. 1774, d. 1839 or after 1840;
a wife of above Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich was above named Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska - Polish (1783 - 1851),
the daughter of Major and State Councilor Mikhail Vasilyevich Tarnowski (1759 - ?).

Above Mikhail Vasilyevich Tarnowski born 1759, was the son of Wasyl Tarnowski / Vasily Tarnowski.

Vasily Tarnowski (? b. ca 1720) was son of Jan Tarnowski / Ivan Grigorevich Tarnavskiy died 1761 (? Jan Tarnowski was born ca 1680/1690/1700); Vasily was Cossak, captain of Poltava regiment.
Jerzy Tarnowski / Grigorij TARNOWSKI (? born ca 1650/1660) was son of Jan Tarnowski b. ca 1610/1630, and grandson of Jozef Tarnowski b. ca 1580/1590.

Note on Madalinski - Grabianka branch:

Madalinski Aleksander owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow in the Sieradz county, m. in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska; Aleksander Madalinski [born ca 1690 - died before 1773] owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow close to Sieradz, was from BOBROWNIKI by PROSNA.
Son of Andrzej Madalinski born in 1650, in Bobrowniki, died in 1720, official of WIELUN; he married in 1690 to Marianna Grabianka, 1660 - 1721.
They had one son Aleksander Madalinski b. ca 1690.

Andrzej MADALINSKI of BOBROWNIKI, m. Marianna Grabianka, and he taken from Marcin Borzyslawski and Stanislaw Borzyslawski, in 1685, village Zarzecze and Debicza in the Ostrzeszow county. His successors were the sons:
Andrzej and Franciszek [Bobrowniki, Hanobry, Kolebki]; Franciszek married twice: Petronela Doruchowska, then in 1728 to Julianna Zajdlicz. He died in 1738; his son Ignacy (1707 - 1777), died in Bobrowniki; in 1777 his brother JAN MADALINSKI inherited Bobrowniki, and he was also the guardian of the children of his cousin Kajetan MADALINSKI.


The Kiedrzynski - GRABIANKA - Madalinski + Walknowski Walichnowski + Jadwiga TARNOWSKA branch and
the line: Kalinowski - Grabianka - Stadnicki - Tarnowski [Illuminati and the TEMPLARS]:

Andrzej MADALINSKI was the son of Aleksander Madalinski and Tarnowska;
Andrzej Madalinski was the husband of Marianna Grabianka / Grabionka / Grabiowie;
Andrzej took land from hands of priest Jan Stanislaw Borzyslawski of Wloclawek, and from Marcin Borzyslawski - the relative of above priest and the son of a sister of named Andrzej Madalinski - in 1685, that is Zarzecze in the OSTRZESZOW county.

Marianna, was widowed bef. 1704, and in named Ostrzeszow, she had case with Wawrzyniec Godurowski. Mariannna died bef. 1720 or in 1720, not in 1721 - inf. Kalisz. Boniecki inf. about 7 sons of above named Marianna Madalinska Grabianka. Among others her sons: Aleksander Madalinski and Franciszek Madalinski.
a.
Aleksander Madalinski,
the son of Andrzej and Grabianka, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow; in 1725 he married Barbara Walknowski - Walichnowski = Franciszka, the daughter of Andrzej WALKNOWSKI. Barbara Madalinska in 1755 in Biezdrowo was a godmother. Aleksander and Barbara died bef. 1772.
they had a son Kajetan Madalinski.

Kajetan Madalinski, the son of Aleksander MADALINSKI and Walknowska, in 1772 he wrote his annuity with for his wife
Dorota Kiedrzynska Madalinska, the daughter of Andrzej KIEDRZYNSKI and Franciszka Jackowska. Dorota Madalinska was widowed after a death of her two husbands - Bartlomiej Grabienski and Tomasz Psarski.
Next annuity in 1773. Kajetan Madalinski was the owner of named Raczkow and Upuszczow. They together were the owners of Strzegowa - 18 km south-east to Lgota Murowana [see KALINOWSKI] - hereditary village of Grabienski; also they took Zielecin - her land, and next this estate belonged to Melchior Koszutski. Kajetan died 1781/1784.
Dorota Kiedrzynska Madalinska, the daughter of Andrzej KIEDRZYNSKI and Franciszka Jackowska, died 1777/1784 - Gostyczyna. Dorota had children born in Strzegowa.
The sons:
Wawrzyniec Józef Kajetan Antoni Madalinski, in 1774;
Hiacynt Jakub Madalinski, in 1775;
Michal Stanislaw Kostka Madalinski in 1776.
And daughters:
Anna, b. ca 1768, died in 1772;
Julianna, b. 1775;
Waleria Józefa, bpt. 1778 in Gostyczyna, 10 km south to KALISZ.
In 1784 lived only Józef; Jakub; and Julianna,
under care of Jakub Kiedrzynski, the official in KALISZ, and Pawel Wargawski. Józef, Jakub and Julianna Madalinski were the owners of Raczkow and Upuszczow - but Jakub Kiedrzynski - guardian - in 1786 leased the estates to Sebastian Zablocki. In 1787 above three children took 7.500 'zloty' from a guardian Jan Madalinski, the owner of Bobrowniki.

Jakub Kiedrzynski, now was a judge in KALISZ, and Antoni Psarski on behalf of these teenagers, i.e. the half-siblings of Psarski, inherited the estate in 1792: Strzegowa of Andrzej Grabienski.

Above Józef Madalinski in 1809, as Captain, a husband of Julianna Bogdanski, 1 voto Kiedrzynska; she died in Orpiszewek in 1809 - the Lutynia parish [Orpiszewek - not Orpiszew - 3 km north-east to Lutynia; Lutynia - 5 km north-east ot DOBRZYCA, 6 km south to Kotlin];
Jakub Madalinski married Honorata Psarska.
b.
Franciszek Madalinski, the son of mentioned Andrzej Madalinski and Grabianka;
Franciszek 1st married Petronella Doruchowski, 2nd time married Julianna Zajdlic, the daughter of Florian ZAJDLIC and Barbara Eleonora Herman. Julianna in 1727, took from her mother a legacy and Julianna died as widow, in 1737.
Petronella Doruchowski Madalinski had a son Ignacy Madalinski and daughters: Teresa and Ludwika.
Julianna Zajdlic Madalinska had sons:
Jan Madalinski and Ludwik Madalinski - died after 1781. Teresa d. 1787 in Kolebki, the part of the estate Bobrowniki - see the Doruchów parish. Ludwika in 1735 was the wife of Józef Stanislawski.

Mentioned Madalinski Aleksander, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow, m. 1725 to Barbara Walknowska - Walichnowska,
with children:
A. Kontancja m. in 1757 to Dominik Zelislawski, 2nd time married to Maksymilian Pradzynski son of Michal Pradzynski and Teresa Malachowska;

B. Kajetan Madalinski
d. ca 1784, owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow, m. Dorota Kiedrzynska, the daughter of Andrzej KIEDRZYNSKI, and Franciszka Jackowska; Dorota Madalinska was the owner of Wola Dzierlinska; children of Kajetan Madalinski:
1. Michal Stanislaw Kostka b. 1776,
2. Anna;
3. Julianna b. 1775,
4. Waleria Józefa b. 1778;

5. Józef Wawrzyniec Kajetan Madalinski b. 1774, Captain, owner of Kraszyn and Chodaki, m. Julianna Bogdanska, 1 voto Jakub Kiedrzynski;
with children:
a) Kunegunda b. ca 1809 in Orpiszewek (of the Kiedrzynskis), m. 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Józef CHRZANOWSKI;
b) Sebastian Fabian Madalinski;

6. Jakub Hiacynt Madalinski b. 1775, m. Honorata Psarska daughter of Jan Kanty Psarski;
with children:
a) Anna Madalinska, b. 1797, m. in 1821 to Józef Julian Walewski son of Andrzej WALEWSKI and Antonina Czartkowska, owner of Wola Balucka; she m. 2nd to (??) Jan Kanty Psarski, owner of Wielgie,
b) Eliza 1800-29, m. Grzegorz Chrzanowski,
c) Pulcheria Anna Magdalena b. 1795 in Parcice,
d) Ludwik Józef Augustyn Madalinski b. ca 1803, d. 1854, landowner of Koscielec and Madalinow, m. in 1829 in Restarzew, to Pelagia Krystyna Józefa Wegierska b. ca 1810, daughter of Petronela nee Psarska, Wegierska;
with son
Stanislaw Madalinski, b. ca 1835, lived Iwanowice, m. in 1857 in Biala, to Felicja Malgorzata Sylwestra Szeliga Potocka, b. ca 1838 in Stypuly.

DOROTA PSARSKA - MADALINSKA born ca 1740 / 1750, died in 1784.

Dorota was 1st married (1768 / 1769 ?) to Wawrzyniec Grabinski / Wawrzyniec Bartlomiej Grabinski who d. before 1769
[his father Stefan Grabinski d. 1742, mother Konstancja Lubiatowska d. 1763; his brothers: Jan Grabinski, Andrzej Grabinski, Bartlomiej Grabinski d. 1787; his step-father Szymon Czarniecki d. 1744];
Dorota m. 2nd to Tomasz Psarski born ca 1750, died ca 1807; Tomasz was owner of Wola Dzierlinska bought in 1786.
Dorota m. 3rd to Kajetan Madalinski 1740-1784, with son Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809.

Wilkowo Polskie of Zamoyska-Kiedrzynska, 28 km north to Jezierzyce KOSCIELNE of BILEWICZ.

Mentioned above
Kiedrzynski, Jakub, died on 4 February 1798. His wife Brygida Bardzka - marriage in 1767, died in 1786

[BRYGIDA's 1st husband Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski,
with children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski junior, b. 1766 [not in 1769]; and
Teresa Wierusz Walknowska.

OWIDIUSZ'S brother -
Franciszek Wierusz-Walknowski, senior, b. ca 1710, official in Kalisz, died in 1778 or in 1783
{Franciszek's sons:
1.
Antoni Wierusz-Walknowski m. Urszula Mielzynska;
2. Józef Wierusz-Walknowski b. 1754}.

Inf. about named Franciszek WALKNOWSKI:
in 1769, Józef Wierusz Walknowski, son of Franciszek WALKNOWSKI, the official in Kalisz, a court case about Bieczyny - close to Koscian and 7 km north to Czempin. BIECZYNY - with Srocko Wielkie, belonged to Kwilecki in 1846].

Kiedrzynski, Jakub, died on 4 February 1798 and his wife Brygida Bardzka had 3 daughters:

Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. in 1770

[Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770
{in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ}];

Franciszka BAJKOWSKA b. ca 1768; and

Petronela Kiedrzynska

[Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain]. PETRONELA Kiedrzynska m. in 1791 to MELCHIOR Pradzynski who was born in Mrowino, the Greater Poland Province in 1753 and died in 1797.

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.

Melchior's brother was named Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.

Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847

[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{Urszula Wierusz-Walknowska MIELZYNSKA, died in 1743; URSZULA Walknowska Mielzynska was the half-sister of ANNA GORZYCKA.

Urszula was the mother of Owidiusz Wierusz-Walknowski - the husband of BRYGIDA BARDZKA

[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770]

- see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:
Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].

Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family].

And JAKUB Kiedrzynski died on 4 February 1798, with his wife Brygida Bardzka had the son
Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. ca 1770, married to Css Kreska of the Baranow parish.
Franciszek Kiedrzynski was the brother of Franciszka Kiedrzynska - a daughter of Jakub Kiedrzynski, junior; she m. in 1785 / 1791 to Michal Bajkowski.

Jakub Kiedrzynski / Jakób, born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798, had son Józef Kiedrzynski - inf. in the Kingdom of Poland in 1837.

JAKUB's brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski !

The Pradzynski family and Wola Wiazowa - Wilkowo Polskie:

Aleksander Madalinski owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow close to Sieradz, married in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska born ca 1695, the daughter of Ewa nee Kozuchowski, Walknowska, b. ca 1670 ? [2nd wife ?] + ANDRZEJ WALKNOWSKI 1645-1708,
with:
A.
Kontancja Madalinska m. in 1757 to Dominik Zelislawski d. 1772, 2 voto Maksymilian Pradzynski, the son of Teresa nee Malachowski- Pradzynska;
B.
Mentioned Kajetan MADALINSKI d. 1784, owner of Raczkow, Upuszczow, m. Dorota Kiedrzynska, the daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowska. Dorota was 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski, the son of Stefan Grabinski, 2 voto Tomasz Psarski, died 1807, owner of Wola Dzierlinska.

The Kozuchowski family come from Karsy.

Note to KARSY [in 2018]:
we have two villages KARSY, but inf. on Kiedrzynski applies to
the village 3 km east to Zychlin, 13 km north-east to BIEGANIN, 17 km north-west to KALISZ!
Not [my mistake in 2013] a village Karsy - 10 km south-east of DMENIN and 11 km west of Wielgomlyny.

Florian / Floryan Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1730 / 1740, owner of Noskowo - inf. 1776, 16 km east of Koszkowo and 27 km east of Kunowo. The same Florian Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 (1740 ?), married in 1759, his wife was living 1730- 1786.
His son Leon Kiedrzynski b. ca 1760.

His uncle was Kazimierz Kiedrzynski m. Katarzyna Swierczkowska.

Above Florian Kiedrzynski's father was
Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1700 ? - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska;

brothers of FLORIAN:
Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski 1738 - d. ?;
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski ? - 1774;
Pawel Kiedrzynski;
Józef Kiedrzynski;
and sister Bona Kiedrzynska from KARSY, married Kiedrzynska.

We back to Aleksander Madalinski,
the son of Andrzej and Grabianka, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow; in 1725 he married Barbara Walknowski - Walichnowski = Franciszka, the daughter of Andrzej WALKNOWSKI [b. ca 1660, see below !]. Barbara Madalinska in 1755 in Biezdrowo was a godmother. Aleksander and Barbara died bef. 1772. they had a son Kajetan Madalinski.

Stanislaw Andrzej Wierusz Walknowski, b. ca 1645 / 1650, died in 1708, had a brothers:
Stefan Wierusz Walknowski and
ANDRZEJ WALKNOWSKI b. ca 1660.

The 1st wife of Stanislaw Andrzej Walknowski, in 1673, was Dorota Zawadzka, from Cielcze. They had a son Antoni Wierusz Walknowski.

The Walknowskis were the owners of Kuklinów / Kuklinowo - 12 km north-west to KROTOSZYN [see Mielzynski]. The first was Mikolaj Walknowski, the judge in OSTRZESZOW. Mikolaj bought Kuklinów ca 1660; in 1662 here was married Ms Helena Szetlewska, to Jan from Krotoszyn. Franciszek Mielzynski, priest from Poznan, gave them a wedding at the church.
Mikolaj Walknowski had a son Stanislaw Andrzej Walknowski, the owner of KUKLINOW, m. in 1673 to Dorota Zawadzka.
Stanislaw Andrzej Walknowski in 1686 was a godfather to a son of Jakób Wilkotarski, the official in Kalisz, and Anna Naramowska of Konarzew / Konarzewo.

ANDRZEJ Stanislaw Walknowski, was the governor of Wielun. He had 5 sons: Rafal Walknowski took Kuklinów, d. 1711.
His brother Jan.
In 1758 Kuklinow owned Józef Walknowski.
In 1789, or before, Kuklinow belonged to Celestyn Sokolnicki, MP, the Poznan official [Celestyn Wojciech Sokolnicki b. 1752, the son of Kazimierz Sokolnicki and Katarzyna Walknowska. The owner of Jarogniewice and Borowo in the KOSCIAN county. Count in 1817], m. to Golinska.

1711, Rafal Wierusz Walknowski died. His family come from Kobylin.
In 1743, in Kuklinow, Urszula Walknowska died and she was buried in Kobylin.

1701, Stanislaw Wierusz Walknowski, the official of Ostrzeszow and in Wielun, with the witness Andrzej Wierusz Walknowski, in Ostrzeszow offered sum of money, 3000 'florens' to a church in Wieruszow, from the estate in Laszczyn, in the Poznan province.

Mentioned Andrzej Wierusz Walknowski, was a treasurer in Wielun, August 1698, until April 1718.

Above Antoni Wierusz-Walknowski died ca 1732. Son of Stanislaw Walknowski and Dorota. Husband of Urszula. Father of Franciszka Bogucka and
Owidiusz Wierusz-Walknowski.
Brother of Petronela Borucka and Marianna Zakrzewska.

Now on TARNOWSKI - Grabianka line:

Marcin Tarnowski, 1778-1862, the Conspirator, had a parents:
Jan Amor Tarnowski, 1735-1799 + Tekla Grabianka, 1740-1805;
grandparents:
Kajetan Amor Tarnowski, 1706-1748;
Anastazja Anna Bogusz, 1710-1796;
JOZEF GRABIANKA, the Wenden official, b. ca 1710.

Mentioned Józef GRABIANKA, married Marianna Kalinowska, the daughter of Ludwik KALINOWSKI, the Winnica official; she was the granddaughter of the Kamieniec official [see Bystrzanowski] (1712-1738).
Jozef's son - Tadeusz Grabianka was living in the Latyczow county, in Rajkowce and Sutkowce.

LUDWIK Kalinowski married twice:
1st to unknown Potocka;
2nd to Elzbieta Poninska, with children of the 1st marriage:
2 daughters - that is Marianna Kalinowska + Józef GRABIANKA.

The branch of Walenty Kalinowski b. ca 1615 + Eufrozyna Bydlowska b. ca 1610 - his son:
Marcin Kalinowski 1640-1738 + Anna Katarzyna Tarnawska / Anna Tarnowska b. ca 1640 with son
Ludwik Kalinowski b. ca 1680 + Zofia Potocka b. ca 1670 or ca 1700 [Kalinowska, Puzyna] + 2nd in 1723 to Elzbieta Poninska b. 1690,
with daughters:
Marianna Kalinowska b. ca 1700/1710, married GRABIANKA,
Tekla Kalinowska b. ca 1700/1715, married to Antoni Bielski died in 1789
(with daughters Julianna Bielska + Dominik Herakliusz Dzieduszycki 1727-1804, Elzbieta Bielska and Aniela Bielska),
and Barbara Kalinowska born circa 1725.

Marcin Tarnowski, 1778-1862, had great-grandparents:
Stanislaw Bogusz;
Bernard Grabianka of Halicz, b. 1680;
Aleksandra Odrzechowska;
Helena Kaminska;
Zofia Potocka, died 1729.

Named above Bernard Grabianka of Halicz, married Helena Kaminska.

Compare:
Madalinski Aleksander, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow in the Sieradz county, m. in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska.
Son of Andrzej Madalinski born in 1650, in Bobrowniki, died in 1720, official of WIELUN; Andrzej married in 1690 to Marianna Grabianka, b. 1660 - died bef. 1720 not in 1721.
Note:
Bernard Grabianka was the official in Halicz, and in Trembowla;
had a father
Wojciech Leszczyc Grabianka / Wojciech Grabionka / Wojciech Grabianka, born ca 1650, + Barbara Biejkowska.

Wojciech Grabianka = Franciszek Wojciech Grabianka, b. ca 1650, had daughter
Zofia Grabianka; and the son
Bernard Grabianka

[remember -

Andrzej Madalinski senior, born in 1650, in Bobrowniki, died in 1720, official of WIELUN; he married in 1684/1685 to Marianna Grabianka, 1660 - bef. 1720 not in 1721.
Andrzej died bef. 1704 - the landlord in the OSTRZESZOW county, married Marjanna Grabianka widowed bef. 1704.
Ca 1705, Marianna Grabianka Madalinska, 2nd married Samuel Rudzinski of CZERSK.

Marianna had children:
1.
Aleksander, the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow + WALKNOWSKA; and Aleksander Madalinski had the son
Kajetan Madalinski, inf. in 1772 on his wife Dorota Kiedrzynska.
2.
Stanislaw Madalinski, of Leczyca;
Kazimierz; Wladyslaw; Jan;
Andrzej Madalinski junior.
3.
Franciszek Madalinski + Petronella Doruchowski, 2nd married Julianna Zajdlic.

Andrzej Madalinski, senior, had a brother Jan Madalinski + Konstancja SIEMIENSKA; with son Aleksander Madalinski; and 2 daughters.

Andrzej was the son of Aleksander Madalinski, senior, of Wielun, + JADWIGA TARNOWSKA !

{we know on Maryanna Grabianka, b. ca 1660, married [ca 1705] Samuel Rudzinski, governor of CZERSK;
Maryanna Grabianka was the sister of Wojciech Grabionka b. ca 1650 + Barbara Biejkowska,
the daughter of Abraham Biejkowski.

Wojciech GRABIANKA, b. ca 1650, had 2 daughters:
Helena + Antoni Karczewski; and
Zofia b. ca 1670 + Wojciech Lopacki;
Zofia had 4 brothers:
1. Jozef who had daughter Katarzyna + Franciszek Polanowski;
2. Antoni, official in Czersk + Teresa Biekierska with 5 sons;
3. BERNARD Grabianka, b. ca 1680, official in HALICZ, and in Trembowla + Helena KAMINSKA,
with 1 son,
JOZEF KAJETAN GRABIANKA;
4. Kazimierz Grabianka married KOMOROWSKA}].

Wojciech Grabianka was the son of Bartlomiej Grabianka junior, b. ca 1600; inf. 1631; the owner of KOLBIEL, the official in CZERSK; m. Anna Gliniecka, with Maryanna RUDZINSKA, and Zofia RADZICKA, and Jan; Stanislaw; Wojciech Grabianka + Barbara Biejkowska.

Bartlomiej Grabianka junior, b. ca 1600, was the son of Bartlomiej Grabianka senior [+ Zofia Brzeska with Maryanna b. ca 1600, m. Piotr Zabicki; Elzbieta Turowska; Jan; Marcyan + Zofia Stamirowska; Bartlomiej junior] b. ca 1570;

the grandson of Jedrzej / Andrzej Grabionka / Grabianka, born ca 1550.

Above
JOZEF KAJETAN GRABIANKA had the son
Grabianka Tadeusz Laurenty, 1740 - 1807, the Templar in Warsaw in 1778, and the chief of the Illuminati in Berlin in 1779, Avignon and in London. The precursor of Polish messianism, as Comte Ostap, Sutkowski, Comte Polonais.

Grabianka Tadeusz Laurenty mystic and alchemist;
his mother, Marianna Kalinowska, brought a large dowry to the Grabianki house (including valuables estimated at 250.000 'zlotys'). In addition the castle houses in Rajkowce and Sutkowce, and Felsztyn and 15 villages in the area of ​​Uszyca.

FELSZTYN:

In the 18th century, when Felsztyn belonged to the Grabianka family, Marianna Kalinowska Grabianka, started to build it. She was an extraordinary woman, founded the church, together with the school and hospital, managed the castle in neighboring Rajkowce.
Marianna's husband, Józef Kajetan Grabianka, had a son Tadeusz Grabianka, the future LIW governor, and a well-known mystic on a European scale. Thanks to his mother, he spent his childhood and youth in France, and returned home only after his father's death in 1759. In 1781, Tadeusz Grabianka gave half of Felsztyn and Rajkowce to the governor of Kamieniec Podolski, Onufry MORSKI, and after three years he divorced his wife Teresa Stadnicki. Later, he left Poland and settled in French Avignon, where he set up his own "New Israel" Order.

In 1782, Tadeusz Grabianka in LIW built a baroque mansion that was burnt down in the middle of the 19th century, as the headquarters of his office and court.

The popularity of the Avignon Illuminati was so great that it allowed to avoid the persecution of the Inquisition and, even, the Jacobins. Tadeusz Grabianka to leave France in 1799, stayed in Galicia for some time, then he moved to St. Petersburg.

The Illuminati ideas revived in the 70s of the 19th century, and at the beginning of the 20th century, with the person of Theodor Reuss.
Albert Karl Theodor Reuss b. 1855, was an Anglo-German freemason, the police agent, and the head of Ordo Templi Orientis. Theodor Reuss was the son of an innkeeper Franz Xavier Reuss and his wife Eva Barbara Margaret Wagner at Augsburg. He was a professional singer of Ludwig II of Bavaria, in 1873.

Above Onufry Morski b. 1752, died in 1789, the chamberlain of Stanisław August Poniatowski in 1774; served the 1st National Cavalry Brigade in 1789. Onufry Morski was the son of Antoni Morski and Anna Siemińska.
Onufry's daughter:
Józefa Zofia Karolina Ostrowska b. 1789, was the wife of Antoni Jan Ostrowski - the son of Tomasz Ostrowski, who died 1817.
Mother of Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski.

Above Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski - insurgent in 1831, poet.

Above Antoni Jan Ostrowski b. 1782, d. 1845 in Les Maderes in France; Count in 1798/1820, General.

Young Tadeusz Grabianka was educated at the Polish school in Lunéville, ca 1750, under the care of the king Stanisław Leszczynski (1677-1766).
In 1756 he came back to his family home, and he returned to Lorraine. In the country he reappeared at his father's funeral in October 1759.

1760, the spring, he went to France, where he lived mainly in Paris, he stayed here until 1769. Probably thanks to the support of Jeanne A. Poisson, the marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), he came into the court of Louis XV (1710-1774 ) and probably already
became an active freemason; he obtained a high degree of initiation - the Knight of Rose Croix.

Rose-Croix, is the Scottish Rite, one of several Rites of Freemasonry. "Within the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite concordant body of Freemasonry, the Eighteenth Degree is specifically concerned with the rose cross and confers the title of "Knight Rose Croix". Of one version of the degree, Albert Pike wrote in 1871."

Compare:

Franciszek Majewski, 1781 - after 1837; Captain and the Freemason in 1809 in France, founder of the Society of Templars [in Poland: in 1819 in Warsaw]. He was the son of Stanisław MAJEWSKI and Barbara Żabiński;
born in Kaski in the Minsk goverment
- here, I have to explain my mistake [June 2018]; applies to KASKI; Majewski was not born west of Warsaw, near the Oginski estate, like Guzow. The Templar Majewski was born in the Minsk province of Belarus.
He joined the Polish army in 1806. 1811 - POW Camp in Somerset in England. Here, Majewski Franciszek was affiliated with the Lodge of masonic prisoners of war - the French. After transferring him to Scotland (Bigar), he joined the Scottish Rite lodge and received the Rosicrucian (Rose Croix) degree and the right to give lower Masonic degrees. Through the same lodge he received from the Edynburg Chapter, the right to give higher degrees and to set up new lodges.

Tadeusz Grabianka returned to Poland in 1770, after the death of his mother and the marriage of Tekla - sister (1740-1805), to the poet and philosopher, General Major of the Crown Army, Jan Amor Tarnowski (1735-1799).

Tadeusz in 1771, married to a cousin Teresa Stadnicki (1749-1826).
They went on a romantic journey to France. Up to 1772, they stopped in the papal Avignon, then the center of the Freemasonry esoterics. They returned to Podole after the clashes with the Bar confederates in 1772.

The decisive significance for his further fate was a trip to Berlin in the winter of 1779. He met there with a benedictine from the congregation of St. Maur and the librarian of King Frederick II (1712-1786), Antoine Josep Pernety, known as Perneta's House (1716-1796) - erudite, researcher of ancient mythology, as well as alchemist and esoteric, who are under the influence of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772 );
and he met Louis C. de Saint-Martin (1743-1803).

Around Pernety was New Jerusalem - a religious group.

After the initiation, Grabianka received the title of the King of the New Israel. He financed the alchemical experiments of the sect, which Brumore (Louis-Joseph-Philibert de Morveau [1738-1786] really did) and his friend Miss Bruchie (or Bruchier) carried out.

In May 1779 he returned to Podole with the mission of converting his family and friends.

Andrzej Grabianka came from a noble family of his grandfather, Tadeusz Grabianka (1740-1807).
Tadeusz's children and grandchildren were far less prominent figures. About
Andrzej's father, Antoni Grabianka (died 1830), we know little, belonged to him, the estate Gielotynce (Geletynce, Heletine) in the Ploskirow county.

Andrzej Fakund Grabianka was born on November 27, 1823 (baptism in Gródek in Podolia). In 1843 he graduated from the Kiev University.
Grabianka married Stefania Proskura.
Stefania m. 2nd to a brother of Andrzej - Stanislaw Grabianka, participant of the plot of Szymon Konarski in 1838, initially sentenced to death in 1839, eventually converted to the exile.

Andrzej Grabianka died in 1883 in   Kamieniec Podolski.

Mentioned Tadeusz Grabianka, a Polish count, established in 1786 at Avignon a freemasons' lodge.

Brief explanation:

Aleksander MADALINSKI, owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow close to Sieradz, m. in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska, daughter of Ewa nee Kozuchowska Walknowska.

Barbara Walknowska / Walichnowski, daughter of Andrzej Walknowski - Barbara was known as Franciszka. Barbara was the godmother in 1755 in Biezdrowo. They died before 1772, left son Kajetan Madalinski.

Kajetan MADALINSKI 1740 - d. ca 1784, landlord of Raczkow and Upuszczow, m. before 1773 to Dorota Kiedrzynska (1740-1784), daughter of Andrzej and Franciszka nee Jackowska, 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski (b. ca 1730) son of Stefan Grabinski, 2 voto Tomasz Psarski, (1740-1770 ?) (b. 1807 ??), owner of Wola Dzierlinska;
with children:
1.
Jakub Madalinski 1775 - 1833 m. Honorata Psarska 1770-1831
with daughter

Pulcheria Anna Magdalena Madalinska m. to Józef Julian Kazimierz Walewski b. 1787;

2.
Józef Wawrzyniec Kajetan Madalinski b. 1774, Captain, owner of Kraszyn, and Chodaki m. Julianna Bogdanska, 1 voto Jakub Kiedrzynski, d. 1809,
with a daughter Kunegunda Madalinska, b. before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to
Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Zofia Tymienicki.

RESTARZEW - at way from Widawa to Szczercow.

Acc. to Dworzaczek:

Aleksander MADALINSKI, son of Andrzej Madalinski and Grabianka, was the owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow; in 1725 m. to Barbara Walknowska / Walichnowski. Left son Kajetan Madalinski. Kajetan MADALINSKI, in 1772 signed a document with wife Dorota Kiedrzynska, daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowska;
Dorota and Kajetan Madalinski were both owners of Strzegow, the village of Grabienski [Strzegowa in the Gostyn parish; see Kunowo and Koszkowo - the Kiedrzynski estates];
they were landowners of Zielecin [north-west to KOSCIAN or Zielecin 10 km north-west to Sulmierzyce, close to RZASNIA !], which village they leased Melchior Koszutski.

Kajetan Madalinski died in 1781 / 1784;
Dorota Kiedrzynska-Madalinska died in 1777 / 1784 - in
Gostyczyna
[close to Zydow and Chotow; 10/13 km south to KALISZ.
In the 17th cent. owned by Domiechowski and in the first half of the 17th century belonged to SZOLDRSKI -
Jan Szoldrski bought Gostyczyna in 1594 - until 1715 or after 1715;
1651 to Roscieski; in 1793-1806 and in 1815 to Prussia].

Ewa Franciszka Agnieszka Rokossowska married 1st Bonawentura Wierusz-Walknowski.
Mentioned
Bonawentura Wierusz-Walknowski b. 1720, was the son of
Antoni WALKNOWSKI and Urszula Mielzynska !

Kalisz in 1776:
Józef Wierusz Walknowski, b. ca 1720/1730, the son of Franciszek Walknowski, judge in KALISZ, and Marianna Bilinski, 1 voto;
named Jozef Walknowski was a nephew to above Antoni Walknowski b. ca 1680/1690.

Named Jozef Walknowski signed to Ms Katarzyna Sulerzyski, b. ca 1750/1755, in future she was wife of named Jozef Walknowski; she was the daughter of
Antoni SULERZYSKI and Aleksandra Przybyslawski [1st].
Katarzyna was nephew - next of kin to Jan Sulerzyski and Golinska.

Konin - 1792:
Katarzyna Sulerzycka, the daughter of Antoni Sulerzyski, and Aleksandra Przybyslawski, the wife of Józef Walknowski, the official in Kalisz; the court case with witnesses: Kasper Slawinski the son of Jan and Apolonia Przybyslawski;
Jozef was the son of Franciszek Walknowski, the judge in Kalisz;
his wife:
Marjanna Bielinski 1voto.

Antoni Walknowski married Urszula Mielzynski [2nd ?].
Inf. in 1777: mentioned above JOZEF Walknowski, was the owner of Slesin and Piotrkowice.
Slesin - 20 km north to KONIN;
Piotrkowice - 5 km south-east to SLESIN.

1792 - Elzbieta Grodzicka with a children, after a death of her husband Michal Chrzanowski, returned money to Józef Wierusz Walknowski, official in Kalisz.

In KALISZ in 1750:
Bonawentura Wierusz Walknowski, the son of named Antoni Walknowski, official in Wielun + Urszula Mielzynski; married Ewa Rokossowska, the daughter of Karol Rokossowski and Marianna Grodzicki.

In Kobierno, 7 km north-east to KROTOSZYN the city - see Mielzynski ! - in 1709: Rozalja Klara, was born - the daughter of Stefan Kobierzycki + Anna; godparents: Antoni Wiktor Walknowski official in Wielun; and Anna Uminska.

Marianna Madalinska (born Grabianka) was born in 1660. Marianna married Andrzej Madalinski in 1690. Andrzej was born in 1650, in Bobrowniki. They had the son, Aleksander Madalinski.

Marianna Grabianka (born Kalinowska) was born to Ludwik Kalinowski and Zofia Korwin-Kossakowska / Smigielska / Puzyna / Potocka [see on Ludwik Kalinowski twice married].

We back to Tadeusz Grabianka / Grabianko:
he was the son of the Latyczow official - Józef Kajetan Grabianka and Marianna Kalinowski of RAJKOWCE. Thanks to the efforts of the mother from the youngest years, he grew up in France. He spent his childhood in Lorraine at the court of King Stanislaw Leszczynski. He studied in Paris. There probably for the first time he met with esoteric associations and freemasonry.
His father
Józef GRABIANKA, married Marianna Kalinowska the daughter of Ludwik KALINOWSKI.


This "sect" of Tadeusz Grabianka [1778/1779], or The Order of Illuminati, is a Polish intelligence network created during the collapse of the Polish-Lithuanian State and it is a secretive intelligence and political organization working to rebuild independent Poland in conditions when the entire territory of the country was occupied by three hostile neighbors.



National Treasure, the immigration funds collected in order to promote the fight against invaders on the country, used to promote Polish foreign affairs. The idea of the creation of the National Treasury in exile after the fall of the January Uprising already gone back to Agaton Giller.

The base of this treasure was a gift of Louis Michalski residing in Switzerland; in 1887 Sigmund Milkowski edited the famous book 'The thing about the active defense and on the National Treasury', where he outlined the idea of creating a fund.
Agaton Giller b. 1831 in Opatówek, was a Polish journalist and writer, conspirator and independence activist, a member of the National Government; brother of Stefan Giller.
Ludwik Michalski born Louis Matyasek / Ludwik Maciaszek, b. 1836 in Krakow, d. 1888 in Hilfikon in Switzerland, was Polish-Swiss engineer and entrepreneur, a participant of the January Uprising.
Milkowski in 1859 thought on the idea of national permanent Insurgency, and as Z. F. M. wrote 'Rzecz o obronie czynnej i o skarbie Narodowym', ed. in Paris, 1887; expanded ed. Krakow, 1912: Polish question, so-called 'Polish Intrigue' should be most important for Europe.
He also reminded all the time, on the pattern of Ireland, on the establishment of the National Treasury, with the national voluntary Taxation;
in August 1887 (? 1886) Milkowski / Jez moved to the castle Hilfikon in Switzerland, where he studied with Ludwik Michalski, the Polish emigrant, Maximilian Hertl from Paris, and the curator of the Ossolinski library in Lviv - Dr. Alexander Hirszberg who met Polish Democrats in Lviv, especially the Director of the Lemberger Savings Bank, insurgent of 1863, Fr. Zima, and the Warsaw patriots, to organize a democratic society with a centralization at the top, and the result of those deliberations was the Polish League.
In Switzerland in 1887, by a group of former participants of the January Uprising living in the Prussian and Austrian partitions, as well as abroad, Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez, Maximilian Hertel and Alexander Hirschberg at Hilfikon castle near Zurich, was established the Polish League.

Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824 in the village Saracei in Podolia, d. 1915 in Lausanne, Polish writer, was the son of an noblemen, Joseph, was a Napoleonic officer; the gymnasium in Niemirow; he was graduated from Richelieu high school in Odessa 1843 - 1846, then the University of Kiev 1847; 1848 he went to Hungary via Galicia and served in the Polish Legion during the Hungarian campaign of 1848-1849, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant.
Since the time of the Hungarian uprising was in the sphere of influence of Stanisław Worcell b. 1799, Heltman Victor b. 1796, Darasz Wojciech b. 1808, and Limanowski Boleslaw b. 1835.
He emigrated to Turkey where he was interned for a year,
1850 he left for England, where, while he was working in a factory producing printing blocks for wallpaper patterns, he joined the Polish Democratic Society.
In 1851 he went to Moldavia as an agent of the Central Committee of European Democracy. During the Crimean War he was on the Balkan Peninsula, and was also an observer attached to the Turkish army. He stayed in Walachia then left for Serbia, Bulgaria, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople,
then in 1858 he returned to London.
After the outbreak of the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, he became commander of the army in Ruthenia and was appointed colonel by the National Central Committee. He organised an insurgent troop in Tulcza, which was to enter Russia through the territory of Romania. 1864-1866 he stayed in Belgrade, then he moved to Brussels, Lausanne and Geneva. Towards the end of his life he settled in Lausanne.
In 1866 he initiated the establishment of the National Treasury to fund future insurgent actions and develop Polish propaganda abroad.
Darasz was the editor of Polish Democrat, a member of the Centralization - Polish Democratic Society and a member of the Revolutionary Committee of the Centralization of Europe.
Heltman was one of the ideologues of Polish Democratic Society and European activist, with
Jastrzębowski Wojciech Bogumil b. 1799, who can safely be called the first theorist of a United Europe; the National Guard soldier, battles at Wawer and Olszynka Grochowska in 1831; his ideas about Europe were echoed in the views of Massini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Ledru - Rollin and Ruge Anolda b. 1802.
Massini fought with MONARCHS EUROPE, already in 1832 he founded YOUNG ITALY, helped organize the YOUNG GERMANY and Young POLAND. These were the steps involved in creating YOUNG EUROPE because he believed that only the young generation could rebuild Europe's monarchs in Europe of Nations.

We back to Milkowski, who was sent back to England 1850 (again 1858); active involvement in the Polish Democratic Society, closer to the international revolutionary circles. Since then, he was theorist of the European revolution.
The Central Committee of European Democracy commissioned colonel Zygmunt Miłkowski task of forming a resistance movement in Russia; detailed instructions on this matter received from the German revolutionary Arnold Ruge; besides Miłkowski, to Galicia was sent Louis Jastrzebski.
Milkowski with a passport in the name of Williams Smith went (1851) to the east, had letters of recommendation from Massini and Bratianu Dmitri; this mission was a tragedy for his family, his brothers Joseph and Felix in Romania were arrested and handed in 1853; Joseph, as the tsarist officer was shot in Izmaiłow; Felix sent to Orenburg. The third brother John was killed in a battle with the Turks at Oltenica. The mission of the European Democracy agents was thwarted by the church and the aristocracy, because some European Democracy activists were Freemasons;
the European Democracy top members:
Giuseppe Mazzini, Ledru-Rollin, Arnold Ruge, Darasz Wojciech and Dimitrie (1818-1892); they shared a need to organize a European revolution. Massini though Mason was the believer man; Arnold Ruge was a atheist. Darasz and Rollin were radicals.
Colonel Sigmund Milkowski did not agree with the policy of Czartoryski, who financed the trip to America, for former insurgents 1863; Society of the Third of May led by Adam Czartoryski also called the Hotel Lambert and the Society for Military of gen. Rybinski Maciej deprived to participate in the fight against the aggressors.
But the League of Liberty and Peace was established in 1867 in Geneva. At the Congress in Lausanne, speech in defense of Polish affairs gave Colonel Zygmunt Milkowski in 1872; the congress was attended by representatives of the Poles, French, Germans and other nationalities. "Almost all the congresses of the League felt the spirit of the EUROPE of NATIONS ... by the inspiration of Charles Lemonnier, at the Congress in Lausanne, Polish independence was considered as a prerequisite for peace in Europe".
Milkowski was one of the founders of the Polish National League, which was transformed into the National Democracy Party.
Also with Louis Matyasek Michalski, an engineer, who opened his castle Hiltikon for this meeting; he was born in a family of teachers. 1863 he joined the January Uprising under Kopernicki Francis (1824-1892). After the uprising got to Switzerland, Sumatra, and back to Switzerland; provided financial support for Polish initiatives.
Hertel was also an engineer, poet, worked for the Ministry of Roads and Transport in Paris. He had a big impact on the French Polonia.
Dr. Hirschberg, historian, the history of diplomacy and Polish-Russian relations. The source of the new organization were manifestos of the POLISH DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (1832-1862), with the reconstruction of Poland from 1772, but with the right of minorities to autonomy.
Milkowski was also the President of the Supervisory Council of the National Treasury, a member of the Board of the Polish Emigrant Union and of the Executive Board of the Polish National Museum in Rapperswill. In 1900 he made a journey to the USA; he died in Lausanne on 11 January 1915.
Above data under copyright by Dr Marek Adamiec.
On his initiative Zygmunt Balicki came to Warsaw, and founded a secret Polish Youth Union modeled on Freemasonry, at the turn of 1886-1887, among university students; fought on the independence of Poland.

Interesting notes on wine commerce:

1. Trading House "Heirs of A. F. Poklewski-Koziell" / Pakleuski Kozell - the Company founder was Alfons Fomich Poklevskii-Kozell / Alfons Koziell Poklewski who in 1869 bought a large estate in Kurgan, built here a stone wine warehouse.
2. The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably). The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.

After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.
When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.
In 1811 in Moscow lived:
Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767.
Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.
Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes.

3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).

4. On July 30th Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America.
On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Pilsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and foreign-made wines later. In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Pilsudski.

5. GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Oura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.
6.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara and Elizabeth Sophie. John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was husband of Marie Camille and father of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara. Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist. Camille Alfred O'Meara was father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot.
Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889. Acc. to http://gw.geneanet.org: parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Why James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool.


The creation of a secret society (the Round Table of Milner) had been planning for more than seventeen years. "Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890".
According to Carroll Quigley, "...Rhodes embraced the ideas of Stead much earlier than they actually have met (on 4 April 1889), and then they jointly set up their secret society for the establishment of the Anglo-American Union ... in 1891, February 5. Stead continues: The conception in those day (1880) was confined to few, but nowadays the parties led by Lord Rosebery and Lord Salisbury would vie with each other in asserting their readiness to recognize the European Concert as the germ of the United States of Europe, and to develop the concerted action of six Powers in relation to the question of the East into a Federated Union of all the European States...".
This is not a joke on the readers of this website, that 100 years and 1 day later, the general Kiszczak also closed the debate of his Round Table.
This Round Table that are negotiations conducted to April 5, 1989 by the representatives of the People's Republic of Poland in Magdalenka near Warsaw.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man.
Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.


In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that
an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war.

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time
a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).


On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to http://foxmulder2.blogspot.com/2014/06/najwieksze-sekrety-kryptonim.html by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis;
"...accessible records do not explain what role, if any, Artamonov had in the plot. To make matters murkier still, just before his execution by his own government at Salonika in June 1917, after being accused of involvement in yet another plot, this time against his own leaders, Dimitrijevic boasted in writing of his role behind the Sarajevo plot and admitted that Artamonov funded the terrorist operation, something that Yugoslavia's Communists revealed in 1953 to discredit the royal regime that preceded them in power in Belgrade. As Artamonov died in exile in 1942 without fully explaining his role in the assassination... something undertaken by direction from St. Petersburg. ... Given that Russian radio intelligence was able to read Austro-Hungarian diplomatic ciphers before the war, it seems likely that St. Petersburg was aware of what Vienna's probable reaction to the assassination would be and, as Sean Meekin has recently observed, the Russians subsequently acted as if they have something to hide: 'gaps in the record strongly suggest a good deal of purging took place after 1914', to cover whatever tracks Artamonov left behind. The attaché conveniently managed to be out of Belgrade on the day of the assassination, yet it was well known in Serbian military circles that, in the weeks before the assassination, he and Apis saw each other almost daily. A Serbian colonel who was close to Apis conceded that Artamonov had encouraged the plot... it seems very likely that St. Petersburg knew more about the plot that it later proved politic to admit...".
And "...Serbian military intelligence, whose chief, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević, colloquially known as Apis (The Bull), was a violent conspirator with impressive credentials even by high regional standards", copyright by http://20committee.com/

Apis ordered the murder of Franz Ferdinand, and he said that the Russian military attache Artamonov promised protection of Russia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Serbia's intelligence operations will be disclosed, and that Russia has financed the killing. In an interview, Artamonov categorically denied any involvement of Russia in this case. Artamonov said that at this time he was on vacation in Italy, leaving only military assistant of Attache Alexander Verkhovsky; and although he had the daily contact with Apis, he learned about the role of Apis only at the end of the war, acc. to Albertini.
Verkhovskii / Alexander Verkhovsky first admitted involvement of the Attache Office, and then completely stopped talking about it.
There is evidence that on June 14, 1914 Russia was at least aware of the plans of terrorists.
Shelking wrote: '...01 (14) June 1914, Emperor Nicholas had a conversation with King Charles in Constanta in Romania. I was there at the time ... as far as I could tell from my conversation with the members of his entourage (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov) he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) will go in the direction of peace in Europe will not be threatened'.

Mentioned above
Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Верхо́вский / Verkhovsky, Alexander / Aleksander Wierchowski - b. 1886, St. Petersburg, d. August 19, 1938; nobility.
In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional view expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent in Manchuria, was the gunner; awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors, the 3rd Light division in Finland, 1909 lieutenant. Graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911); 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. 1911 staff-captain, 1913 - Captain. 1911-1913 he commanded a company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in Finland. 1913 the senior aide of Staff of the 3rd Finnish Infantry Brigade.
He was sent to Serbia (1914) to study the experiences of participation of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars.
Since the beginning of the First World War he returned to Russia, participated in the battles in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff to the 22nd Corps on the South-Western Front; at the headquarters of 7th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, he was assistant of the security section of the Russia's representative at the headquarters; he arrived in Petrograd and wrote: 'Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience...', acc. to '...From the diary of a marching 1914-1918', Moscow.
In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff of the Chernomorskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 he participated in the meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government.
On August 30, 1917 Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky the Military Minister;
on Sept. 1st, 1917 introduced him to the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General;
on Sep 7, 1917 Verkhovsky made a presentation on the reorganization of the army;
on Sep 8, 1917 appointed to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee;
on October 20, 1917 the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Committee Defense and Foreign Affairs - Verkhovsky analyzed the state of the army and said we can't fight;
on October 22, 1917 / 04 Nov. "he went on to Balaam" (?), where only on 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
Nov. 3 / 16, 1917 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee went to headquarters where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a 'general-socialist government';
Nov. 1917 moved to Mogilov.
In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.
On 18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities sentenced to death. December 2, 1931 sentence to 10 years in the camps.

Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov born October 9, 1873 and died August 23, 1942 in Antwerp, Belgium.
"He graduated in 1890 from the Cadet Corps Simbirsk, in 1892 the Military Academy in 1900 and Pavlovsk Academy of Staff of Mykolayiv. ... the Volhynian Guard Regiment, ... and Odessa in 1904. ... military liaison officer 1907 to 1909 in Greece and then from 1909 to 1918 in Serbia. ... 1919 to 1920 he was representative in Belgrade Armed Forces of South Russia, under the direction of Anton Ivanovich Denikin then under those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel...".

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798). See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski). Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment. He authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati. Born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See: Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD; the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling; see: Douglas from Italy, Napoli. James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland. Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.


Back to John Robison:
"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. ... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz). Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations. ... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter. ... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".


Weishaupt (Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748 in Ingolstadt, d. 1830) was trained by friend of Moses Mendelssohn - Hartwig Wessely / Hartog Naftali Herz in 1771. Over the next five years
Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. On May 1, 1776, he formed it to live as a secret Order of the Illuminati or "Enlightened"
and stood at the forefront; see at http://www.eioba.pl/a/3it4/teorie-spiskowe-zakon-iluminatow; this organization essentially acting as a "over-Freemasonry", to take control on all of Freemasonry. Weishaupt himself to be even accept to lodge "Zur Behuntsamkeit" in Munich, and began to arrange his Order within Freemasonry. Please compare the text: http://www.klubinteligencjipolskiej.pl/2015/03/wall-street-i-rewolucja-bolszewicka-w-rosji-2/; and notes by Douglas Reed, translated by Krzysztof Edmund Wojciechowicz, at http://spiritolibero.neon24.pl/post/107504,rewolucja-swiatowa.


And now back to England:
Edward VII, b. 1841 in London, in 1874 the Prince of Wales attended the marriage at St. Petersburg of his brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, with the grand-duchess Marie of Russia. He was first elected grand master of the Freemasons of England in 1874; a bencher of the Middle Temple, he was son of Queen Victoria; initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm in 1868, the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him in 1870. Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. Grand Master Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (then the King of Great Britain and Ireland as Edward VII from 1901), 1874 to 1901.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917; Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943 (? - Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804; her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Mentioned Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato (b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), her father Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d.
1885, Pratolino near Florence),
Russian industrialist, 1871-1872 and 1873-1874 Kiev; the Red Cross during the Turkish war of 1877-1878. He was son of Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov and Aurora Karamzina.

Baroness Eva Aurora Charlotte Stjernvall / Eva Aurora Charlotta Stjernvall; 1836 the name Demidov, 1846 as Karamzin; she was born in 1808, Bёrneborg, died 1902, Helsingfors; the Swedish-Finnish roots, a maid of honor of the imperial court, a large philanthropist.
Her husband was Count Pavel Demidov (1798 - 1840, Mainz), Russian businessman, the owner of the richest Ural iron foundry (see Koziell-Poklewski family), the actual state councilor, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, philanthropist; the son of Count Nikolai Nikitich Demidov and Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov.

On the other hand we look at
Emmanuel Karaso, Karassu / Carasso / Emanuel Karasu (Salonica, 1862 - died in Trieste in 1934), a lawyer of the Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Salonica / Thessaloniki, Greece; a member of the Young Turks; a member or a founder, president of the Macedonian Risorta Masonic lodge in Thessaloniki; he worked for Jewish organizations in Turkey, and negotiated the treaty ending the Italo-Turkish War.

And next network in the Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, owned by Volpi, and the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 - N. M. Potapov.

Potapov in 1915 taken the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence.
In the summer of 1917, Potapov began Bolshevik, but he was known since the 1890s.
He help to the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs (see the Bonch-Bruevich brothers, Lenin, and village Zbyszyn close to Miezonka).
He was the first Red Army Chief of Staff; close to A. A. Artuzov (see Saanen in Switzerland, Lenin, Dzierzynski in Switzerland, Duflon) - who was a cousin of Potapov.


And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Acc. to the article on September 23, 2005, Executive Intelligence Review, ... Parvus Permanent War Madness, by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas. This article was based on an exhaustive study by Allen and Rachel Douglas, 'The Roots of the Trust: From Volpe to Volpi, and Beyond - The Venetian Dragomans of the Russian Empire', and on published and unpublished research by Scott Thompson, Marjorie Mazel Hecht, and Joseph Brewda:
"...a doctrine which the Russian-born British intelligence asset Alexander Helphand, also known as Parvus, dictated to Leon Trotsky's effort to overthrow Russia's Tsar in the revolution of 1905. What Helphand dictated to his dupe Trotsky, in writing, personally, there at that time, is a doctrine of 'permanent revolution / permanent war', which Trotsky himself defended up to the moment of his murder by a Soviet assassin, in Mexico in 1940. Alexander Israel Helphand (a.k.a. Parvus). Both (Shabotynsky / Zabotynski) Jabotinsky and Parvus edited publications of the British / Venetian-spawned Young Turk movement, which helped ... the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire.
Like Jabotinsky, Parvus (1867 - 1924) came from (born in Berezyna in 1867) an Odessa family steeped in the grain trade. By 1886, Helphand / Parvus had already become involved in the Okhrana-spawned Russian socialist scene, travelling to Switzerland to participate in the Emancipation of Labor group, led by a number of documented Okhrana agents, including Lev Deutsch, and suspected Okhrana man Georgi Plekhanov / Plechanow.

... By 1900, Parvus had joined the inner circle of the Bolsheviks, using his Munich, Germany apartment to house the printing press for the group, and hosting V. I. Lenin and other leaders (see Brilling, Duflon and Konstantynowicz family, Inessa Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand).
According to several biographical accounts, by 1902, Parvus was receiving direct Okhrana funding through Gorky, who gave Parvus the rights to publish his works abroad (see Neapol and Capua in my research).
When the entire leadership of the Petersburg Soviet, including Trotsky, was rounded up and jailed in December 1905, Parvus escaped the police clutches. When he was later captured, he escaped police custody, courtesy of the Okhrana agent Lev Deutsch. Parvus next turned up, via Germany, in Constantinople, as a 'journalist' covering the Young Turk rebellion against the Ottomans ... It would be at this moment that Parvus's ties to the leading European 'Venetian Party' factions would be publicly shown.
In 1908, the Committee for Union and Progress, otherwise known as the Young Turks, carried out a military coup, overthrowing the Sultan and seizing power over the Ottoman Empire. ... The actual founder of the Young Turk movement was an Italian Freemason and grain trader named Emmanuel Carasso. Jewish by birth, Carasso had been a founder of the Italian Masonic lodge in Salonika, called the Macedonia Risorta Lodge.
Virtually all of the members of the Young Turk leadership were lodge members. The forerunner of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge was founded by a follower of another Palmerston agent and revolutionary provocateur, Giuseppi Mazzini. ... Carasso was a leading financier (see electricity, Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Venetia) of the entire Young Turk insurrection, and during the Balkan Wars, he was not only the head of Balkan intelligence operations for the Young Turks; he was in charge of all food supplies for the Ottoman Empire during World War I, a lucrative business which he shared with Parvus (see Berezyna and Odessa). ... Another of Carasso's 'business' associates was Parvus, who became economics editor of another Young Turk journal, The Turkish Homeland. Parvus also became a partner of Carasso in the grain trade, and in the arms business, and became independently wealthy. ... Carasso was a protege and business partner of Volpi di Misurata, the leading Venetian banker of the early 20th century, who not only sponsored the Young Turk insurrection, but also promoted the Black Shirt takeover of Rome and went on to run the Mussolini Fascist regime ... The Venetian banker Volpi was closely allied with City of London financiers throughout. And the Young Turks, once they took power, made no secret of their London ties. In 1909 the Ottoman Navy was put under the command of a British admiral; ... banker, Ernst Cassel, established and managed the National Bank of Turkey; and British officials advised the Ministry of Finance, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Justice.
... Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire',
a view shared by Parvus.
... Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark ... Stinnes, too, was tied to Volpi and the Banca Commerciale Italiana. In May 1915, Parvus met with Lenin and Karl Radek in Switzerland (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), and then created a string of front groups in Stockholm and Copenhagen. ... By April 1917, Parvus had pushed the German government to grant secret safe-passage to the Bolshevik leaders back into Russia, and arrangements were soon made, through Parvus and Radek, to smuggle Lenin and 40 other leading Bolsheviks from Switzerland, through Stockholm, back to Petrograd. Parvus remained in Stockholm, in constant communication with the International Mission of the Petrograd Bolshevik Central Committee Abroad...".


On the above Synarchist movement, by LYNN PICKNETT & CLIVE PRINCE:
"...This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d'Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (Papus), a leading light among French esoteric societies. ... Encausse's death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard - head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament - formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and younger members of great business families...".


Pleshcheev and Tadeusz Grabianka

-
Natal'ia Fedotovna Pleshcheeva (1765/1768 - 1855) / Natalie Pleshcheeva VERIGIN,
the daughter of Fedot Michailovich Verigin, 1722-1783, the member of the War Council.

NATALIA was the State lady in 1826; she was - before marriage - closest to the Grand Dss MARIA FEDOROVNA. Natalia was the mistress of Emperor Paul I.
She was widowed in February 1802.
She was married Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802), born in Moscow; he died Jan. 23 (Feb. 4), 1802, in Montpellier, France. Russian vice admiral (1797). "Pleshcheev made a survey to the Dardanelles in 1775 and around the Black Sea coast near Sinop and Trabzon in 1776. He was the author of one of the first geographic descriptions of Russia".

SERGEI was the friend of I. V. LOPUCHIN [see below !], the Freemason.

Sergei's family probably: Sergej Pleshcheev, born 1701, and Sergej had a daughter Mariya Sergeevna Golitsyn.

All quotes below according to the study of Natalie Bayer and Robert Collis

["Light from the North: Tadeusz Grabianka, the New Israel Society and Millenarian Sentiment Among the Russian Nobility, 1788-1807", by Robert Collis and Natalie Bayer - in 2015. Robert Collis - The University of Sussex, United Kingdom and The University of Turku, Finland - at academia.edu. Bayer - Associate Professor of History; "a native of Rostov-on-Don in southern Russia, she graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in modern European history. She received her Ph.D. in European intellectual history from Rice University in 2007, studying under John Zammito..."]:

"... ... According to Grabianka, the society suspended activities in Avignon on October 28, 1800, after a turbulent decade and as a result of dwindling membership. Five years later, not only Grabianka, but also three other leaders of the society were resident in St. Petersburg:

Baron Louis Dagobert Adolphe Emmanuel Lefort (b. 1764), the Chancellor of the ILLUMINATI society and a distant relative of Franz Lefort (1655-1699);

Madame Le Maire d'Attigny (born ca 1742), the Great Mother;
and
Nicolas Simonin, the Interpreter of Dreams. ...

At the same time, geopolitical factors brought St. Petersburg firmly into Grabianka's orbit. Indeed, since the Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Grabianka, as a Podolian nobleman, had officially been a Russian subject. Thus, when he sought to return to his family estate in October 1802, he sought a passport to travel from Arkadii Ivanovich Morkov (1747-1827), the Russian Ambassador in Paris, which he duly received. ...".

This "sect" of Tadeusz Grabianka [since 1778/1779], or The Order of Illuminati, it is a Polish intelligence network created during the collapse of the Polish-Lithuanian State and it is a secretive intelligence and political organization working to rebuild independent Poland in conditions when the entire territory of the country was occupied by three hostile neighbors.

"...
Divonne [Louis de la Forest Divonne (1765-1838)] was a fellow initiate of the New Israel Society.

Furthermore, Lefort

[Baron Louis Dagobert Adolphe Emmanuel Lefort (b. 1764), the Chancellor of the ILLUMINATI society
and a distant relative of Franz Lefort (1655-1699) = Louis Le Fort, was born in Strasbourg, Alsace, France;
LOUIS - the friend of TADEUSZ GRABIANKA -

was the son of Caroline von Falkenhayn LE FORT +
Pierre Frederic Le Fort, born in 1716, chevalier de l'Ordre militaire;

the grandson of Jean Le Fort, chevalier de l'Ordre de Saint-Alexandre Niefsky / the Order of St Alexandre NEVSKY, 1685-1739

(JEAN Le Fort was the Private Counselor of the King of Poland, Elector of Saxony),

married in BERLIN in 1715 to Frederique de SAINT-SAUVEUR

{Jean Le Fort

(the son of Isaac LE FORT, and Elisabeth Baulacre, his second wife),

born in 1685;
the Polish King, send him as his extraordinary envoy to Russia in ST PETERSBURG; Jean was the Knight of St. Alexander NEVSKY.
Died in Dresden in 1739. Married in Berlin on July 7, 1715 to Frédérique Louise the daughter of Josue de Saint-Sauveur, Baron de Montbel, and Justine Philippine Elisabeth, Baroness de Loe,
of whom he had:
1. Pierre Frédéric LEFORT / Le Fort;
2. Peter; 3. Peter second; 4. Peter 3rd, twins born in St. Petersburg}.

Baron Louis Dagobert Adolphe Emmanuel Lefort (b. 1764), the Chancellor of the ILLUMINATI society was the great-grandson of ISAAC LE FORT from GENEVE!]

soon took on the position of governor of the children of

Natal'ia Fedotovna Pleshcheeva (1765 -1855), the widow of Pleshcheev, who had died in early 1802.

We do not know the precise role of Pleshcheeva in the New Israel Society, but Grabianka did write at the time that the widow had 'rendered small services to me'.

A contemporary, Matvei Matveevich Muromtsev (1788-1879), also noted many years later that Pleshcheeva hosted Grabianka and that many meetings of the society took place in her home.

In 1804, Lefort also secured a position for d'Attigny as governess in Pleshcheeva's household.
Soon, however, d'Attigny appears to have retired from service and was able to take up residence in the home of

Mariia Antonovna Naryshkina (1779-1854) / NARYSZKIN,
the Polish mistress of the Emperor".

"...
In 1805, Simonin too secured a position as governor of the children of Pavel Petrovich Ushakov (1779- 1853) in the Mikhailovskii Palace.

Although Lefort left Petersburg in August 1806 in order to accompany Pleshcheeva and her daughter
to Lausanne,
Grabianka wrote that he had only been 'necessary until I arrived in St. Petersburg'.

We do not know whether Naryshkina or Ushakov were active members of the New Israel Society, but whatever the case they did help to provide a means for d'Attigny and Simonin to proselytize among the Petersburg nobility. ...".

"... Madame d'Attigny,
as she was one of the leaders of the sect who came to reside in St. Petersburg prior to Grabianka's arrival in the city.

It was precisely at the time that the Oracle began making ominous prophecies about the fate of Russia
that the society in Avignon initiated its first Russian:

Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802).

Pleshcheev's arrival in Avignon in the autumn of 1788 marked the culmination of something of an odyssey through France and Switzerland in which he sought out the foremost Illuminist sages of the era:
Saint-Martin in Strasbourg,

Jean-Baptiste Willermoz (1730-1824) in Lyon, and

Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801) in Zurich,
among others.

Pleshcheev, an officer in the Russian navy and a Freemason since at least 1776, was a close confidante of Grand Duke Paul and had helped plan for, and escorted the Russian heir on, his Grand Tour of Europe in 1781-1782.

Moreover, he
[Pleshcheev] journeyed to Avignon with Paul's mother-in-law, Friederike Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Württemberg

(1736-1798;
the daughter of Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia b. 1719;
Friederike married Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg b. 1732.

General Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg serving with Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War. Frederick Eugene married Friederike Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt, a niece of Frederick the Great, by whom he had twelve children:

Sophie Dorothea (1759 - 1828), married to Paul I, Emperor of Russia;
and Friederike Elisabeth Amalie (1765 - 1785), married to Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg.

Peter OLDENBURG and Frederica became the parents of two sons:
August (born in 1783) and George (born in 1784), ie.
Paul Friedrich August, Grand Duke of Oldenburg; and
Duke Georg Peter Friedrich of Oldenburg.

GEORG OLDENBURG married Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia.

GEORG's son was
Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 in Yaroslavl, Russian Empire - 1881 in St. Petersburg) was a Duke of the House of Oldenburg. "[copyright by Wikipedia] He was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as
grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
His great-great grandson, Nicholas Romanov, was the President of the Romanov Family Association until his death in 2014".

KONSTANTIN's daughter -

Alexandra of Oldenburg (1838, St. Petersburg - 1900 Kiev, Ukraine), m. Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1831-1891).

Konstantin's son -

Constantin of Oldenburg (1850, St. Petersburg - 1906 in Nice, France), married AGRAFINA JAPARIDSE / Agrafena Djaparidze, created Countess von Zarnekau.

See Armand - Konstantynowicz home in Moscow),

who was [Paul's mother-in-law, Friederike Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Württemberg] herself initiated into the [Illuminati] society.

On November 4, 1788, Richardiere asked the Oracle whether Pleshcheev could joint heir union. The Oracle replied affirmatively. Consequently, Pleshcheev underwent an extraordinary nine-day initiation ... referred to as Mont Thabor - near Avignon. On the first day, Pleshcheev and members of the society ascended to the summit of the hill.
... Amazingly, the written records of
a conversation between Emperor Paul and Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1732- 1798), the last Polish king, which took place on September 15, 1797, suggest that Pleshcheev had indeed revealed a great deal about the New Israel Society to the Russian heir-apparent.

Paul describes in highly favorable terms to Poniatowski how he heard of the 'Avignon brotherhood' about 'eight years ago' and that 'they live very devoutly'.
He added that he was told that 'in 1800, after terrible earthly strife, a full peace will occur that will come from the North'.

Paul also confessed to Poniatowski that he was 'awaiting the advance of these great upheavals, which ... are near'. ...".

Pleshcheev, Sergei Ivanovich (1752-1802) wrote:
"Inscription of the journey of their imperial highnesses,
the great prince Pavel Petrovich and the empress Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna under the name of Count and Countess of the North".
Ed. in St. Petersburg and printed by the writer's dependency; under the Imp. Acad. Sciences, in 1783.

LOPUCHIN = Lopukhin / Lopukchin:

1.
Children of the second wife Zofia Lopuchin from 1860 and Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki:
among others
born in 1862 Sergiej / Siergiej,
1863 Evgenij / Evgenii,
Marija / Maryna / Marina Trubecki b. 1877 - died 1924
and Maria born 1864 - died 1926 ('the second') married Kristi or Christi

(the husband of Maria Nikolaevna Trubetskoy from April 1, 1881 became a cornet of the Guard Hussar Regiment, Grigory Christie b. 1856 d. 1911; but she was only 17? In 1902 - 1905 G. / Jerzy Christie has successfully taken the post of governor of Moscow; June 14, 1882 in Uzkoje, his son Vladimir was born, d. 1946),

Grzegorz, and so on.

Webpage 'ru.rodovid.org' is informing only about 12 children but was 13, including two sisters from the first wife and son Pietr. Polish data base inf. only about the second wife of Mikolaj Trubecki! In 2011 I was writing on 13 children.

2.

DEKA founded in 1901 on 08 June, as the transformation of the company Duflon and Konstantinovich / Константинович, which was founded in 1892 by Luis Edouard son of Frances Duflon / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon son of Francis Dyuflon or Lun Eduard Anton Duflon, born 1861, a Swiss citizen and Polish engineer - technologist Apollon W. Konstantinovich, the Russian citizen.

In December 1895 they bought the land in Lopuchinski Park in St. Petersburg.

This factory was opened December 14, 1896. At the beginning of 1897 the factory turned into the Association and soon the 'Deca' began to receive government contracts, in particular for electrical equipment for naval artillery.

Louis E. Dyuflon was graduated of Zurich Polytechnic and starting as an engineer at the factory of electrical products, he soon became the official representative of the French electrical company of Breguet / Brown in Russia, where he met with the engineer Apollo Konstantinovich / Константинович - a representative of the same company in Moscow.

Edward Brown from London became a partner [see Tadeusz GRABIANKA in LONDON !], and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm; Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.

Lots of houses No 7 and 8 at Pavlov Street (Lopukhinsky road or lane Lopukhinsky in 1887 has got a common name, Lopukhinsky Street) in St Petersburg in 1895 bought L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon / Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon and his companions Y. K. Dizeren / Yu Dizeren and

(inf. about first names, father's name of Apollo(n) Константинович and middle names need to be check, on Yu = Y. K., L. F. = Louis Edward, A. = A. V. / A. W.)

A. V. (A. W.) Konstantynowicz / A. Konstantynowicz for the electrical company

(since 1922 the Petrograd State Machine-Building Plant 'Electric'; in 1923, the factory designed the first Soviet welding generator).

The site houses No 9 and 12 Pavlov Street got the Prince of Oldenburg.

The house No 14 in 1909 - 1910: factory building for 'The Russian Society of the wireless telegraph and telephone', in 1923 created Central Radio Laboratory - here was located the center of the main domestic radio industry (L. Mandelstam, N. Papaleksi, D. Rozhanskii, V. P. Vologdin).

A note dated September 21, 1895 from the Ministry guarantees that the plant
'will be to have a free hand for quick ... execution of its most difficult and painstaking work...'.

Domestic firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' (Константинович) which was a representative of the French 'Sautter and Harle', under a contract of December 4, been making 11 sets of electric winches for battleship's elevators and to additional elevator for 'Rurik', winches ordered directly to firm 'Sautter and Harle' (the 'Rurik'-I keel was laid in the Baltic Works in St. Petersburg, May 19, 1890).

Fuller was an order given in March 1905 to the company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' immediately by 24 portable electric fans of 300 m / hr. 'Navarin' / Наварин, based on the British Trafalgar-class battleship, was built in St. Petersburg, 1889 to 1896;
in September 1893, as planned 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' factory was appointed date of move of 'Navarino' to Kronstadt for completion of equipment and accessories.

To build a 'Громобой' / 'Stormbreaker' ship in the new dock of the Baltic plant started on June 14, 1897, and on December 7 of that year this new cruiser called 'Gromoboi' was enrolled in the fleet; guns delivered from the Obukhov plant, and a winches from 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz company'.

The 'Duflon and Konstantinovich' Company Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, was situated at the Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8.

3.
The family of above Sophia Lopukhin:
a.
Alexander A. Lopukhin b. 1839, d. 1895, in 1867, assistant prosecutor at the Moscow District Court, from 1882 - Chairman of the Warsaw Regional Court.
b.
Mary A., died 1886.
c.
Sophia A. LOPUCHIN, b. 1841, d. 1901.
d.
Lydia A., b. 1842.
e.
Boris Lopukhin, b. 1844, d. 1897, the prosecutor of Warsaw.
f.
Olga LOPUCHIN, b. 1845, died 1883, married Andrew / Andrej or Alexander S. Ozerov born 1845, d. 1897 in St. Petersburg, Major-General,
managing of court of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich -

Alexander Mikhailovich Sandro, 1866-1933, Grand Duke,
was son of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, b. 1832;

Sandro was Adjutant General, Admiral, Chief merchant shipping and ports (1902-1905), after 1914 he was in charge of aviation in the army; mason, a Rosecrucian.
g.
Emilie A. b. 1848.
h.
Sergey Lopukhin b. 1853, in 1906 he was appointed chief procurator of the Senate in St. Petersburg.

This Russian family LOPUKHIN had many contacts with Poland and Poles in prosecution positions and filling other positions. In Chroscina - ex the Congress Poland - on July 17, 1866 the Russian General Krasnokucki, as a reward for the suppression of the January Uprising, taken a palace and after his daughter - married Lopuchin / Lopukhin, also a general - was living here.

From the other hand we know from a work B. I. Mikolajewski, 'Azef. The history of the double traitor', Warsaw 1933:

"...In September 1908 he left Cologne on his way to Berlin,
Duke Alexei Alexandrovich Lopuchin - former director of the Tsar's Police Department.
... came to him an unexpected guest - Vladimir Burcew - known left-wing social activist, journalist and publisher. ... After the revolution of 1905 main attention devoted detecting tsarist secret political police, and above all ... its agents, who penetrated the ... revolutionary organizations. ... This time he wanted to get confirmation from Lopuchin of collaborating with the Tsarist police, then known party activist of the Socialist-Revolutionaries - Jewno Azef. ... Lopuchin in 22 years of age received a law degree at Moscow University and in 1886 has been included among those serving the Ministry of Justice. ... May 1902, he was then a prosecutor Kharkiv chambers...".

4.

Nikita N. Troubetzkoy

(in Russia, Professor Schwartz was the first chief of Russian Freemasons 1780 - 1783 but the true leaders of Freemasons were not where they are looking for; others 'leaders':
Prince Nikita Nikolaevich Trubetskoy,
Turgenev and
Lopukhin;
we don't know who is Prince Nikita Nikolaevich Trubetskoy).

But we know on:

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) is known as a close friend of Novikov and one of the main members of society Martinists. In 1796 Paul I sent him to the Voronezh province, but he was soon appointed as a senator in Moscow Senate.

NIKOLAI was the father of
Peter Nikolaevich Troubetzkoy
and maybe of
Prince Nikita Nikolaevich Trubetskoy.

Named Peter Nikolaevich Troubetzkoy, 1773 - 1801.
Peter was the father of Анна Петровна Кожухова; Юрий Петрович Трубецкой; Grigory Petrovich Troubetzkoy and Елена Петровна.

This MARTINISTS Society had a close connection to the Franco-Masons and the Illuminati, in the end of the XVIII century, was a lot of branches in Russia and Germany. Many of its members were of royal and high-ranking foreign persons, such as the Duke of Brunswick, Duke Kassalsky, Velkner, Prussian First Minister, etc.

Many of the members were the Russians:

Lopuhin Ivan {Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802), born in Moscow, the Russian vice admiral (1797), was the friend of I. V. LOPUCHIN},

Ivan Turgenev,
Kutuzov,
Tatishchev,
Chebotarev, etc.

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) had the brother Prince Yuri Nikitich Trubetskoy / Yuri Troubetzkoy, who was also a member of society Martinists, had a name Neasta (Neastes).

Ivan V. Lopuhin / Lopuchin, wrote:
1. Spiritual Knight;
2. Some features of the internal church.

Above

Ivan Vladimirovich Lopukhin / Ива́н Влади́мирович Лопухи́н, b 1756, in the Oryol Governorate;
died in 1816, was an Imperial Russian philosopher, mystic, writer and humanitarian.
The son of Lieutenant-General Vladimir Ivanovich Lopukhin (1703-1797) and Evdokia Ilinichna Isayeva (1717- 1774), the daughter of Vice-President of the Commerce Board, Ilya Isayev.

The grandson of Ivan Petrovich Lopukhin, born in 1679 - d. 1734 in Moscow / Moskva.

The great-grandson of Петр Авраамович Большой "Лапка" Лопухин, acc. to geni.com was born in 1636 - d. in 1701.

And the great-great-grandson of
Avraam Nikitic Lopukhin, died in 1685

[Софья Алексеевна Трубецкая b. 1841, was the daughter of Aleksej Aleksandrovich Lopuxin / LOPUKHIN;
come from Aleksandr;
the son of Nikolai;
come from Nikita died in 1783,
the son of GAVRILA junior;
from Fedor and
from Gavrila older],

come from Никита Васильевич Лопухин.

Mentioned
Ivan Vladimirovich Lopukhin b. 1756, in Voskreskenskoye / RETIAZHI, at the KROMY county; Lopukhin joined the Preobrazhensky Lifeguard regiment in 1775. He retired as colonel; he was serving as a counselor and later court president on the Moscow Criminal court, 1782 and 1785.
"He was introduced to rosicrucianism, martinism and freemasonry through his friend Nikolay Novikov
and began a career as a writer and printer, while entering civil service. He became Senator in 1798".
In 1801, Tsar Alexander I asked Lopukhin to investigate complaints by the Doukhobors, his reports in 1802 leading to their resettlement on the Molochnaya River, along with other religious minorities.

Note:
Eudoksja Fiodorowna Łopuchina, m. in 1689 to Emperor Piotr I - his the 1st wife. Her grandson was Emperor Piotr II.

Piotr Łopuchin, 1753-1827, m. Jekaterina / Katarzyna Szetnew, 1763-1839.
Prince Pyotr Vasilyevich Lopukhin (1753 - 1827) was a Russian politician; he was president of the Council of Ministers from 1816 to 1827. Procurator General of the Governing Senate 1798-1799; General; Chairman of the Russian Council of Ministers 1816-1827; Duke.
The member of the MALTA ORDER.
The owner of PORCHOVO in the PSKOV governorate.
He married twice:
1. Praskovia Ivanovna, nee Levshina - their daughter
Anna was a mistress of Paul I of Russia.
2. Iekaterina, nee Shetnevoy (1763-1839).

He was the son of VASILI LOPUCHIN.

5.
Now brief note on the Uvarov family settled in Pskov.

Fedor Petrovich Uvarov had his cousin's nephew Sergei Uvarov Apollonovich (1847 in Tula, Kharkov and Tver);
Fedor Petrovich Uvarov [see below] was born on April 16, 1773 [or 1769] in the village Hruslovka in the Tula province.
He was married to Princess Maria Feodorovna Lubomirski.

His father was on trial and lived in St. Petersburg, the property was under arrest, and the Uvarov had to live with his mother in the village. In 1786, Fedor Petrovich was sergeant in the Life Guards Regiment. 1788 the captain of Sofia Infantry Regiment. 1790 he took part in military actions in Poland and again in 1792 and 1794. 1798 he received the rank of colonel.

He became a close friend of Ekaterina Nikolaevna Lopukhina, stepmother of the emperor's favorite, Anna.
In March 1798 he was transferred to St. Petersburg, 1800 he was appointed chief of the Cavalry Corps;
he had the Order of St. John of Jerusalem;
1800 - lieutenant general. Uvarov became one of the most closest friend to EMPEROR Alexander, accompanied him on walks and trips.


The Philalethes and the Illuminati - France, England, Russia and Tadeusz Grabianka, the leader of the ILLUMINATI:

A.

Benedict Chastanier (1739 - ca 1816)
was a French surgeon.

"In 1767 he founded a lodge of Illumines Theosophes, based on the anonymous writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. In 1774 he migrated to England.

In 1775 Chastanier and the Marquis de Thorn joined the Philalethes, a Masonic society founded by Savalette de Langes in Paris

[Charles-Pierre-Paul, marquis de Savalette de Langes, b. in Tours in 1745, died in 1797; he was captain of the national guards and
aide de camp of La Fayette.
He attends reformist clubs like the Valois club. Initiated in the lodge of the "Indissoluble Friends" in Lille in 1766, he is a member and co-founder of the "Les Amis Reunes" lodge, together with, among others,
the Vicomte of Tavannes,
Antoine Court of Gebelin,
Claude Baudard of Saint-James, the president of Hericourt,
and Prince Charles of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg.

He founded the Philalethes regime - martinism is the foundation of this new rite. This lodge welcomed Cagliostro, Mesmer, and Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin.

He also presided over the Philosophical and Masonic Congress of Paris, in 1785 and 1787.
Co-founder in 1783 to the revolution of the "The Olympic of the Perfect Estime".
Deputy of the Grand Orient of France for many years, first supervisor of the Chamber of Grades in 1782, he participated in the codification of orders of the French Rite.
The last philosophical convent of philaleths was in 1787.
Philaleths or philatelists which translates as: friend or seeker of truth; this regime of philosophical or mystical masonry was founded in 1773 by the Marquis Charles-Pierre-Paul Savalette of Langes in the Lodge "Les Amis Reunions". This ritual lasted until the death of its founder in 1797; it had such a representatives:
Saint Martin ,
the brothers Lavater,
Ferdinand of Brunswick
and Joseph de Maistre].

In 1776, Benedict Chastanier (1739 - ca 1816), founded Universal Society in London to disseminate Swedenborg's writing.
In 1782 Chastanier and Charles Rainsford reached out to kindred Illuminist groups in Berlin and Paris by publishing a brochure in French about degrees of the Universal Society.
Chastanier was in contact with the Illumines of Avignon".

Above
Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (born in 1721, Wolfenbüttel - d. 1792, Vechelde),
was a Prussian field marshal (1758-1766). "... 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover."
He also was a freemason, initiated in 1740 into the Lodge of The Three Globes in Berlin, and received the degree of Master Mason in 1743 at Breslau.

He was in the closest touch with Frederick the Great, who supervised the instruction of the guard battalion. Ferdinand was one of the most intimate friends of the king.
In 1759, "... Ferdinand retreated in the face of a French advance, but managed to check them with a decisive victory at the Battle of Minden. This ended the immediate French threat to Hanover, as the French army was in no condition to continue its advance".

Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick 1721 - 1792; Scottish Rite; he is the same Duke of Brunswick who was mentioned in Robison's secret Illuminati membership list; the patron of the Asiatic Brethern, an Illuminati offshoot.
The Sabbatian Vienna Lodge of the Asiatic Brethren was founded by Jacob Frank's cousin, Moses Dobrushka, alias Von Schoenfeld.

The vocation to live a few pseudo-secret organizations, very fast , with extremely strange names and rituals, names dating back to the deep Middle Ages, causes the astonishment and even awakens laughter. In the course of 50 years each of these organizations tried to take control of the other [1740-1790].

The United Kingdom, Russia and France sent out for supreme positions in these organizations, his trusted men, too. Only the United Kingdom has been successful taking over control of the Scottish mysterious structures, but it was in the years 1790-1800.
A previously plan of mysterious brain was successful. From England broke away its colonies [without Canada] in the years around 1776-1785.

Blows from the inside hit in France and Poland [1780s] destroying the two countries; Poland disappeared from the map of the world for about 120 years, but France survived the chaos of the Jacobin revolution and Napoleonic wars.

It broke out a strange uprising in Russia, operettas and provoked, of the Decembrists, as if someone wanted to prove that Russia was not directed underground movements against Poland, Great Britain and France [and even earlier already against Bavaria; and later against the Papacy in Italy], and at the turn of the 19th and 20th century also against Turkey.

But it is Russia suffered the greatest benefits of the revolutionary turmoil in North America and France - but rather in the whole of central and Western Europe at the end of the 18th century.

Discussed below mysterious organization is nothing more than the 18-century intelligence agencies of a foreign power.

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure in the 19th century.
Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

But Bob Atchison wrote (© Copyright 2011):

"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ... GILLIARD NOTE:
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.

The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.

Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on:
"In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne" (Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).

The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya- Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back. The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation.
The reply came: "It is too late."

To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.

Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath.

As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.

While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution, those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".

For Germany, England, France, and Poles and also for Baltic Germans, remained the hardest way - but also the way bringing the greatest benefits - take over the underground structures, when it takes on the momentum and becomes the might;
best to immediately take over the head of structure - the supreme authority of underground networks and the supreme command of Russian intelligence.

It had to be, however, protect from the rear - creating from the ground up a modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia, by the Baltic Germans already infiltrated from Ireland and Scotland.

Objectives were clear - the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty and abridgment of Russia to the national core [1917- 1922]. The whole plan should have been conducted in Europe now plunged into chaos of war - it is the First World War [1914-1918].
So plan for dismantling of the colonial powers: England and France, ended with a defeat - and the same multi-level underground structure has become a tool of western intelligence services.

The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.

They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.

This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

In this ensemble, ready to act, entered Polish independence movement of Pilsudski, using additional family connections with the Baltic Germans, Irish and Scots.
This was the largest triumph of Poles in the period 1618 -2015 [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].
Pilsudski never could let - during his life - destroyed of this work [1926], as his successor Marshal Rydz Smigly [1939-1941].
Greatest defeat suffered Poles in the years 1937-1945, and to this day is difficult for them to get up.

Of course, already other countries took a leading role in this web network in the 20th century; only suggests - USA, Great Britain, the Soviet Russia and Israel ...

Russia was the only country interested in depriving of England colonies in North America (1776), and in broken down of France from the core (1789).
Russia, which began the race for colonies in the Central and North Asia (the way to India and China), and America (the 18th cent. - Alaska, Oregon, California).

Russia in the second half of the 18th century began conquer of the Central Europe, including the destruction of Poland (1795) and Turkey.

Secret societies were the Russian (Freemasonry, Illuminati, Templars) best tools in infiltrating opposition against the monarchs of England and France (and against the Catholic Church). For Tadeusz Grabianka, in 1778-1807, the aim was to reverse this situation and take over the "head" of all Liberal-Masons movements.

We back to Frederick Duke of Brunswick:

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel.
She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I.

Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Emperor Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.

Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.

A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

Everything leads us to Russia.

This MARTINISTS Society had a close connection to the Franco-Masons and the Illuminati, in the end of the XVIII century, was a lot of branches in Russia and Germany. Many of its members were of royal and high-ranking foreign persons, such as the Duke of Brunswick, Duke Kassalsky, Velkner, Prussian First Minister, etc.
Many of the members were the Russians:
Lopuhin Ivan {Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802), born in Moscow, the Russian vice admiral (1797), was the friend of I. V. LOPUCHIN},
Ivan Turgenev,
Kutuzov,
Tatishchev,
Chebotarev, etc.

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) had the brother Prince Yuri Nikitich Trubetskoy / Yuri Troubetzkoy, who was also a member of society Martinists, had a name Neasta (Neastes).

B.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi.

Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France, he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.

Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Oginski by name and Romanov by gene.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son

Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho
who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force;

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.
Mason, and called himself Philalethes.
Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

The brother of named above
Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909,
was:

Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891), the sixth child of Emperor Nicholas I - married Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900).

Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900).
His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).
Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg.

Grand Duke Nicholas played a main role during the Revolution of 1905, from 1905 was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District.

1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro, who reinforced the Pan-Slavic tendencies of Nicholas.
The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I. The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus, next two years in the Crimean Peninsula, 1922, Nicholas was proclaimed as the emperor of all Russia.
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich or Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (1856 - 1929) served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 and was inspector general of the cavalry for ten years from 1895; was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign.

"The first President of the United States, George Washington believed that the Illuminati intended to separate the people from their government in his letters in the Library of Congress. The original manuscript is on the Library of Congress website...", acc. to Greg Scott.

It was a global political network of the Russian intelligence [before 1789 and maybe to a certain extent after death of Tadeusz Grabianka in 1807] infiltrated by the British, French and Germans, and by the Polish independence conspiracy:
Lenin and Inessa Armand, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.

Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities.

This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].
Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.
Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands.
It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear. It works like clockwork.

Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.

The underground structure has clearly defined objectives at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries:

1. call up the chaos in Europe;
2. to bring the continental war;
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia;
4. lead to anarchy in Russia;
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland];
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America.

The network in the 18th to 21st cent. - overarching objectives are at the beginning of the 20th cent.:

1. Polish independence [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland],
2. The independence of the Baltic States;
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

Tools to achieve these goals are:

1. The money from the Scottish, Jewish and American banks; revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea; and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan;

2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America;

3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries.

C.

General Charles Rainsford (1728 - 1809)
was a British Army officer. His uncle, also Charles Rainsford (died 1778), was deputy lieutenant of the Tower of London and used his influence to get him made second cornet in General Bland's 3rd dragoons in March 1744 ...
With his new unit he returned to England to face the Jacobite rising;
he was rising to major of brigade and colonel's aide-de-camp.
He then served as private secretary to Tyrawley, governor of Gibraltar (1756 - 1757) before returning to England again in 1760.

The following year he was given a company to command under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany.

He was also elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1779.
He was also a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, a Rosicrucian, a freemason and a dabbler in alchemy.

In 1782 Chastanier and Charles Rainsford reached out to kindred Illuminist groups in Berlin and Paris by publishing a brochure in French about degrees of the Universal Society.
Chastanier was in contact with the Illumines of Avignon.

General Rainsford was affiliated with the Illuminati through the lodge of Amis Reunis at Paris, which corresponded with the Bavarian Masons.

Whether the Illuminati affair had a role in the history of the Order of Knights Templar in England is difficult to determine,
but by 1791 the latter had decided to end their quasi-separate status and put themselves under the direction of a leading figure within the Grand Lodge. This was Thomas Dunckerley, the provincial grand Master [see Br. Bystrzanowski + George Washington].

Thomas Dunckerley, acted in the Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons,
held at the Castle-Inn, Marlborough (1769) - at half way from Bristol to Reading.

William Wonnacott suggests Sibly may have first become acquainted with his future masonic patron Thomas Dunckerley (1720 - 1795) in Portsmouth.

Thomas Dunckerley known in 1766 and 1767 Chesterfield;
also he known Sir Edward Walpole - early in the construction on his new identity - to support Dunckerley's attempt to be recognized as GEORGE II's son.

Ebenezer Sibly was deeply involved in occult, but his brother Manoah SIBLY was the member of the Swedenborgian Theosophical Society; and was living in London like Swedenborgian minister.

Manoah SIBLY thus provided a tangible connection between
Ebenezer SIBLY / Ebenezer Sibley, and
the Swedenborgian enthusiasts Philippe de LOUTHERBOURG,
Peter Lambert de LINTOT and
Charles RAINSFORD
- and in ca 1776 to CAGLIOSTRO.
Above acc. to Susan Mitchell Sommers.

Thomas Dunckerley, a natural son of George II, was initiated into Masonry, in January 1754.
Acc. to 'HISTORY OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND - 1723-60':
"... The first meeting of this Lodge, of which a record is preserved, took place, December 28, 1732. Present, the Master and Wardens, and seven 'members'.
No other titles are used.
Among the 'members' were George Rainsford [later of course]
and Johnson Robinson, the former of whom is described as Master, and the latter as Pass'd Master, in the minutes of May 18, 1733.

In summer 1783 Rainsford and William Bousie, an Anglo-French merchant, began corresponding with the Parisian lodge of the Philalethes, preparatory to the Philalethes convention in Paris in April 1785 to review the rites of many para-Masonic and esoteric societies.

Rainsford provided information on Emanuel Swedenborg, Baal Shem of London and the Kabbalistic symbolism of higher degrees.

He was then sent to be Robert Boyd's second-in-command at Gibraltar ...

"... By the end of the Eighteenth Century numerous enthusiasts for Swedenborg's reported experiences, and for some of his ideas, were to be found in England and in continental Europe.
... e.g. Benedict Chastanier and
Count Tadeusz Grabianka, fell into the New Church only to fall rapidly out of it,
others, Jacob Duche and
General Rainsford,
for example, kept their distance while maintaining their enthusiasm. ...

Richard Brothers, who had taken up Swedenborgian doctrines at Avignon with the Abbe Pernety / Pernetta, and Count TADEUSZ Grabianka.

Both Brothers and Grabianka attended meetings in London at the home of the Revd. Jacob Duche
who, while studiously avoiding a commitment to the New Church, encouraged the study of both Swedenborg and Jacob Boehme, the German mystic ...

Pernety / Pernetta established his Hermetic Rite of Freemasonry at Avignon in 1766,
but it did not contain Swedenborgian elements until Pernety returned from Berlin in 1785 and transformed his Rite into the Illumines d'Avignon.

They were joined by Count Grabianka, a confirmed Swedenborgian, who attempted to bring Pernety's Rite to London.
Here he might have expected support from a fellow mason and Swedenborgian, Benedict Chastanier ..."
- above under copyright by Robert A. Gilbert published in Things Heard and Seen, the Newsletter of the Swedenborg Society, London, No. 15 (Autumn 2004) pp. 44-51.

Below we have the details of the movements of underground in Europe in the period 1740-1790, which also reached North America.

The years 1740 - 1790, it's the beginning of the secret Masonic organizations in Germany, Ireland, France and Scotland, as well as in Russia, Poland, Austria.

Jean-Baptiste Willermoz (1730 - 1824)
was a "French Freemason and Martinist
who played an important role in the establishment of various systems of Masonic high-degrees in his time in both France and Germany".
In Lyon he became Grand Master in 1761, also organized "Sovereign Chapter of Knights of the Black Eagle Rose-Cross", was admitted to first grade in the Order of the Elus Cohens at Versailles in 1767 by Martinez de Pasqually;

in the 1770s, he came into contact with Baron von Hund and the German Order of the Order of Strict Observance which he joined in 1773;

Willermoz introduced also at the Convention of Lyon the Regime Ecossais Rectifie (Rectified Scottish Rite), which combined Templar Freemasonry with the religious ceremonial of the Elect Coens;

he defended the place of Martinist currents in the rite;

"... he resumed his Masonic activities with a resurgence of the CBCS [the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City; in Lyon in 1778, constituted the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City] in 1804, and dedicated himself to this end until his death ... 1824".

The Rectified Scottish Rite,
"also known as Order of Knights Beneficent of the Holy City is a Christian Masonic rite founded in Lyon (France) in 1778".
It is derived from the Rite of Strict Observance erected in 1754, the foundation of which was attributed to Baron von Hund;
it propounded a theory that freemasonry was developed directly from the Crusading Templars;

the Rite was mainly elaborated by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, including some items coming from the Elect Cohen Order and denying the Templar legacy.

The Elect Cohens,
or the Ordre des Chevelier Macons Elus Cohen de L'Univers / Order of Knight-Masons Elect Priests of the Universe / The Martinist Order of the Elect-Cohens, which issued from
the Traditional Martinist Order
i.e. of the Elus Cohen of Martinez de Pasqually, and of the Order of the Rose-Croix of the Orient;

the Elect Cohens, were a society of Cabbalists, organised on 'Scottish' Masonic lines, who were influenced by the Spanish Alumbrados / Sufi;

"...they were the first group to be called the Illumines, or Illuminati, though their relatively conservative views were diametrically opposite to the Bavarian Illuminati
... founded in 1765 by the Freemason Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually, of Grenoble, France, the Order was initially only open to Master Masons, but later became more open".

"The system of the Strict Observance grew out of what is known as Templarism. Templar Masonry commenced to grow up in France soon after true Freemasonry was introduced.

This was about 1725.

However, no Grand Lodge was established till 1752. ...

The Hospitallers, known officially as Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, was founded at Jerusalem during the first Crusade. ...
Some of the Knights went to Russia and elected the Emperor Paul I Grand Master
... In England the Order was never formally suppressed, and in 1888 Queen Victoria granted it a charter. In 1889 King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales was made Grand Prior. ... The Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, or, as it is otherwise called, Knights Templar, was founded in Palestine in the 12th century by the Crusaders. ...

The Rite of the Strict Observance is based on Templar Masonry.

Its founders claimed that all Templars were Masons ... The truth is that all Templar Masonry is descended from a Kadosh degree invented in Lyons, France, in 1743.

... Nevertheless, about 1740, various Rites, or degrees, of Scots Masonry, did spring into existence, followed shortly afterwards by Scots Mother-Lodges controlling systems of subordinate Scots Lodges. ...

In 1743 the Masons of Lyons invented the Kadosh degree, comprising the vengeance of the Templars, and thus laid the foundation for all the Templar Rites. It was at first called Junior Elect

... The Rite of Strict Observance was carried from France to Germany as early as 1749.

Von Bieberstein, as Provincial Grand Master, was succeeded at his death, about 1750, by
Karl Gotheif, Baron Von Hund, and Alten-Grotkau.
He was made a Mason in 1742. A year or so afterwards
he met at Paris Lord, Kilmarnock, who interested him in Templarism, and he was initiated into the Order of the Temple.
He was given a patent and directed to report to the Prov. Grand Master, Von Bieberstein, of the 7th Province in Germany. ...

We can trace
its beginnings back to Lord Kilmarnock, Grand Master of Scotland, in 1742 - 43.

Kilmarnock in Scotland was made a barony ...

In 1751 Von Hund began to give particular attention to the restoration of the Order of the Temple and evidently considered it his life work.

... In 1763 a fellow named Leucht, going under the name of Johnson, who had got hold of some Masonic papers relating to Masonry proper, as well as the high degrees, appeared at Jena where there was a Clermont Chapter practicing the Templar degrees in the Strict Observance system, and stated that he had a commission from the Sovereign Chapter in Scotland to reform the German Lodges and impart the true secrets of Masonry ...

An Order called the Clerics
turned up and it was supposed for a time that the lost secrets were with it. ...
This convention took place at Brunswick and was in session from May 23 to July 6, 1775.

... Baron Von Gugumos was at the Brunswick convention and told different members of it that they were all on the wrong track; that the Strict Observance was an imitation, or rather, only a branch of the true Order, and possessed none of the real secrets; ...

The Convention of Wiesbaden ... on Aug. 15, 1776,
with the consent the Prince of Nassau-Usingen, but without that of the Duke of Brunswick.
Among those present was the sovereign,
the Duke of Nassau;
also the Duke of Gotha,
the Landgraves Ludwig and George,
and many other nobles of lesser note. At one time there was not less than twelve reigning sovereign Princes of Germany members of the Rite of the Strict Observance ...

Baron Von Hund died on Oct. 28, 1776 ...

In 1782 the Rite of Strict Observance was reorganized by Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, who was elected Grand Master General.
The next year, however, the Lodge of the Three Globes of Berlin, with all of its subordinate lodges and the Hamburg Lodges, withdrew from the Strict Observance ...",
acc. to http://blog.templarhistory.com/ by Burton E. Bennett [born 1863 in North Brookfield, New York; 1887, United States, Attorney for Alaska].

D.

In 1785, Tadeusz Grabianka went to Avignon to the Avignon Illuminati Association and the alchemical laboratory created by Pernety.

He thought that - as the ruler of the New Israel - after taking control of the tsar's state and occupying Jerusalem - would become the Polish king.

"... He soon reorganized the sect under the new name (Kingdom of the New Israel), changing its structure, degrees, dignities, rites, ceremonies and rules, which gave him full power over it. Most of the followers were French, but there were also several Germans, Italians, Spaniards, two Englishmen and a Swede (Reuterholm, who in 1790 visited Grabianka, later king of Sweden, Karl XIII)".

In the circle of the King of New Israel, were:
1.
the daughter of Izabela Czartoryska (1746-1835) -
Maria Czartoryska Wurttemberg (1768-1854) with her husband, Ludwig Friedrich Alexander von Württemberg (1756 in Trzebiatow - 1817);
2.
and Russians:

captain (then admiral) Sergei I. Pleszczew / Pleshcheev (1752-1802) with wife Natalia Fiedotowna;

Piotr I. Ozierow-Dierzawin (1778 ? -1843);

Nikolaj W. Repnin (1734-1801); Pleszczew / Pleshcheev, and Repnin were to leave the sect after about two years.

Sergei Ivanovich Pleshcheev (1752-1802).
Pleshcheev's arrival in Avignon in the autumn of 1788 marked the culmination of something of an odyssey through France and Switzerland in which

he sought out the foremost Illuminist sages of the era:
Saint-Martin in Strasbourg,

Jean-Baptiste Willermoz (1730-1824) in Lyon,
and
Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801) in Zurich,
among others.

Ludwig Friedrich Alexander von Württemberg
married twice:
1.
Maria Czartoryska Wurttemberg (1768-1854)
with her husband, Ludwig Friedrich Alexander von Württemberg (1756 in Trzebiatow - 1817) were the ILLUMINATI's member. MARIA was the the daughter of Izabela Czartoryska (1746-1835).

Maria Anna Czartoryski -
Duchess von Württemberg-Montbeliard - born in Warsaw on 15 March 1768, "daughter of Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, writer, political activist, patron of science and art and the famous Izabela Fleming. Initially, she grew up in the Czartoryski headquarters in Warsaw - the Blue Palace. In 1784 at the mother's initiative, she married Ludwik Würtemberg-Montbeliard, a relative of the rulers German and Russian families. In 1785, they live in the palace in Trzebiatów, which they renew and keep a lively social life, although the marriage is unsuccessful. In 1793 - after the betrayal of the prince in the campaign of 1792 (as the commander of the Lithuanian army acted in favor of Prussia and Russia) - divorce. After the Wirtemberg divorce, she was most often in Warsaw, where she ran a literary salon (so-called blue Saturdays). In 1837 she settled in Paris at the house of her brother, Prince Adam Jerzy; she knew Adam Mickiewicz, and Frederic Chopin ...".

2.

Ludwik Würtemberg-Montbeliard, married on 28 January 1797 to Henriette von Nassau-Weilburg, born on 22 April 1780 in Kirchheimbolanden.
Ludwig Friedrich Alexander von Württemberg born on 30 August 1756 in Trzebiatów / Treptow an der Rega. He was the son of
Friedrich II Eugen von Württemberg born in 1732 in Stuttgart; and Friederike Dorothea von Brandenburg-Schwedt, born in 1736, d. 1798 - the ILLUMINATI.

Above
Pleshcheev, an officer in the Russian navy and a Freemason since at least 1776, was a close confidante of Grand Duke Paul and had helped plan for, and escorted the Russian heir on, his Grand Tour of Europe in 1781-1782.
Moreover,
he journeyed to Avignon with Paul's mother-in-law, Friederike Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Württemberg (1736-1798), who was herself initiated into the society.

"On November 4, 1788, Richardiere asked the Oracle whether Pleshcheev could joint heir union. The Oracle replied affirmatively. Consequently, Pleshcheev underwent an extraordinary nine-day initiation ... referred to as Mont Thabor - near Avignon. On the first day, Pleshcheev and members of the society ascended to the summit of the hill".

Pleshcheev journeyed to Avignon with Paul's mother-in-law, Friederike Sophia Dorothea, Duchess of Württemberg

(1736-1798;
the daughter of Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia b. 1719;

Friederike married Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg b. 1732.

General Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg serving with Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War. Frederick Eugene married Friederike Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt, a niece of Frederick the Great, by whom he had twelve children:
Sophie Dorothea (1759 - 1828), second, married to Paul I, Emperor of Russia;
and
Friederike Elisabeth Amalie (1765 - 1785), married to Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg.

Peter OLDENBURG and Frederica became the parents of two sons:
August (born in 1783) and George (born in 1784), ie.
Paul Friedrich August, Grand Duke of Oldenburg; and
Duke Georg Peter Friedrich of Oldenburg.

GEORG OLDENBURG married Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia.
GEORG's son was
Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 in Yaroslavl, Russian Empire - 1881 in St. Petersburg)
was a Duke of the House of Oldenburg.
"[copyright by Wikipedia] He was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. His great-great grandson, Nicholas Romanov, was the President of the Romanov Family Association until his death in 2014".

KONSTANTIN's daughter -

Alexandra of Oldenburg (1838, St. Petersburg - 1900 Kiev, Ukraine), m. Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1831-1891).

Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900).
His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).

Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Konstantin's son -

Constantin of Oldenburg (1850, St. Petersburg - 1906 in Nice, France), married AGRAFINA JAPARIDSE / Agrafena Djaparidze, created Countess von Zarnekau.
See: Japaridse - Saparov - Armand - Konstantynowicz home in Moscow).



The Martinism Order / the ILLUMINATI - de Saint-Martin - Tadeusz Grabianka and the Troubetzkoy-Konstantynowicz branch:

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) is known as a close friend of Novikov and one of the main members of society Martinists.
In 1796 Paul I sent him to the Voronezh province, but he was soon appointed as a senator in Moscow Senate [see inf. on Tadeusz Grabianka and the Polish King Stanislaw August Poniatowski].

This Martinists Society had a close connection to the Franco-Masons and the Illuminati, in the end of the XVIII century, was a lot of branches in Russia and Germany. Many of its members were of royal and high-ranking foreign persons, such as the Duke of Brunswick, Duke Kassalsky, Velkner, Prussian First Minister, etc.

Many of the members were the Russians: Lopuhin Ivan, Ivan Turgenev, Kutuzov, Tatishchev, Chebotarev, etc.

His brother Prince Yuri Nikitich, who was also a member of society Martinists, had a name Neasta (Neastes).

Genealogy 1:

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) was the son of
Nikita Yurievich Troubetzkoy, born in 1699 in Moscow;
the grandson of
Jurij Jurjevich Troubetzkoy, b. 1668
[see below about Yuri Troubetzkoy born on April 20, 1668, died on September 8, 1739 + Elena G. Cherkassy / Cherkassky];
the great-grandson of
Юрий Петрович Трубецкой / Jerzy Trubecki b. in 1630 in Poland.

Genealogy 2:

Piotr Troubetzkoy (1798-1871), Prince, General of Cavalry, Smolensk and Orel governor and his father:
Ivan Trubetskoy born 1760 and was died in 1843,
his grandmother Tatiana Kozlovskaya / Kozlowska and
his grandfather Nikolai Trubetskoy died 1782.

Parents of Nikolai Trubetskoy:
Ivan Yu. Troubetzkoy b. 1703 d. 1744 and Maria Yakovlevna Glebova;
his grandparents:
Yuri Troubetzkoy born on April 20, 1668, died on September 8, 1739
[see above on Jurij Jurjevich Troubetzkoy, b. 1668] and Elena G. Cherkassy / Cherkassky.

Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888;
served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War;
the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion;
the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg
(see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).

Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:
Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev;
her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov;
her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy, born 1826,
her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804;
her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy, b. 1760, died 1817;
her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich, b. 1731, died 1812

[his father was
Nikita Yurievich Troubetzkoy b. 1699;
the grandfather - Jurij Jurjevich Troubetzkoy, b. 1668;
the great-grandfather was Юрий Петрович / Jerzy Trubecki, b. 1630 in Poland, died in 1679 in Moscow].

Note to above

Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731:

Mentioned above
Prince Nikolay N. Trubetskoi (born 1744), a mason 1776, colonel, that is Nicholas Nikitich Trubeckoj who was also an ancestor of the Estonian - Polish branch of the Trubecki family, born 1744.
He has brothers:
1. Piotr Nikitich Trubeckoj, born 1724, Prince and senator;
2. Sergiej Nikitich Trubeckoj b. 1731
- his son
Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj b. 1760, and here are our old relatives from Georgia

[Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. 1760 died 1817, married Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya, the branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family, died 1796];

his grandson
Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy / Trubeckoj / Trubecki born 29 August 1790, died 1860 was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason of course.

Above
Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy born on August 18, 1804:

Sophie / Sofia Bagration-Mukhrani Iraklievna (born 1850? or 22 Jun 1851 - 8 Oct 1932) married in 28 Apr 1876 to Pr Sergei Nikitich Troubetzkoy (22 Jun 1829 - St.Petersburg 14 Jun 1899).

Father of Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich born 1829, was:
Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy born on August 18, 1804;

brothers and sisters of Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy:
1. Peter Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. on August 23, 1793;
2. Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. 1790 married to Katherine Laval;
3. Elizabeth Trubetskaya b. 1796 m. Potemkin;
4. Aleksandr Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. 1792 + his wife Louise Rostsishevskaya / Luiza Rozciszewska.

Parents of above Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy born on August 18, 1804:
Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy and Marfa Petrovna Kromina or Kramin - his second wife after 1796, because Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, when she was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817).

Peter S. Troubetzkoy, b. 1760, died 1817, was the son of
Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich, b. 1731, died 1812

[his father was
Nikita Yurievich Troubetzkoy b. 1699;
the grandfather - Jurij Jurjevich Troubetzkoy, b. 1668;
the great-grandfather was
Юрий Петрович / Jerzy Trubecki, b. 1630 in Poland, died in 1679 in Moscow].

Note to Konstantynowicz - Troubetzkoy:

The CONSPIRATOR - Nestor Troubetzkoy (with nickname Nester Kalinowski) had a sister Maria. His sister's name would be given by the mother Maria of the Kalinowski house:
Mary Kalinowski who had affinities with family of Oginski; in turn, this family was associated with the Radziwills and then with the Konstantynowiczs in Miezonki.

Maria Trubeckoi / Duchess Maria Troubetzkoy / Mary Trubecki was born 1835 / 1840 / 1850. Duchess Maria Troubeckoy married Konstantinovich
- genealogical research go towards demonstrating that her husband's name was Vasily / Wasyl; Wasilij or Vasily Konstantynowicz was born about 1840.

We remember that named Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow, with all family.

Maria Kalinowska m. Trubecka / Duke Trubecki. That is married to Grigory Troubetzkoy b. 1802 and died 11 January 1874, who was son of Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy, b. 18 November 1773, died 16 November 1801.

Grigory / Grzegorz Trubecki was the son of Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy / Prince Petr Nikolaevich Troubetskoy born 18 November 1773 and died 16 November 1801 and Nadezhda Ivanovna Pestov / nee Pestova born 1793.

Above Prince Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой / Petr Nikolaevich b. 1773 and d. 1801 had parents:
mother Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Czerkasskaja / Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Tcherkassky, and
her husband Николай Никитич Трубецкой / Nicholas Nikitich Trubeckoj b. 1744 and d. 1820 / 1821, writer,
who was son of
Prince Nikita / Ники́та Ю́рьевич Трубецко́й (1699 - 1767, for 3 years as head of the Military Board with the rank of Field Marshal General).

Above Prince Nikita [born in 1699] 7 months after the death of the first wife, married the widow of Major Matthew Kheraskov -
Anna Danilovna, daughter of Prince Daniel DRUCKI-SOKOLNICKI;

Anne Danilovna was primarily married to major Matvey Andreyevich Kheraskov. Above Даниил Андреевич Друцкий-Соколинский died 1752.

Above named Анна Даниловна Друцкая-Соколинская (Хераскова, Трубецкая) died 1780; she had son born in 1744 in Moscow - above Николай Никитич Трубецкой 3rd, 1744 - 1820/1821.
The family had 8 sons Yuri, Nikolai, Alexei, Nicholas, Nicholas II, Alexander, Alexander II, Basil, and 5 daughters: Anna, Maria, Elena, Elena II, Catherine. Of the 13 children, 6 died in infancy.

TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) is known as a close friend of Novikov and one of the main members of society Martinists.
In 1796 Paul I sent him to the Voronezh province, but he was soon appointed as a senator in Moscow Senate.
This Society had a close connection to the Franco-Masons and the Illuminati, in the end of the XVIII century, was a lot of branches in Russia and Germany. Many of its members were of royal and high-ranking foreign persons, such as the Duke of Brunswick, Duke Kassalsky, Velkner, Prussian First Minister, etc. Many of the members were the Russians: Lopuhin Ivan, Ivan Turgenev, Kutuzov, Tatishchev, Chebotarev, etc.

His brother Prince Yuri Nikitich, who was also a member of society Martinists, had a name Neasta (Neastes).

Prince Nikita was the son of
Юрий Юрьевич Трубецкой (1668 - 1739), Russian statesman, privy councilor, senator
[see above on Jurij Jurjevich Troubetzkoy, b. 1668!].


Acc. to 'Cheney Revives Parvus "Permanent War" Madness', by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas:

"...The German government was deeply split over the issue of backing a Russian Bolshevik revolution. Close advisors to the German Kaiser argued that Germany should push a separate peace with the Tsar, while a faction, centered in the General Staff and around Foreign Minister Zimmerman, pushed for a war-to-the-death with Russia, arguing that war with Russia was inevitable, and it made sense to get on with it before Russia became more powerful. One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski ...

In addition to the German Foreign Ministry and the German General Staff, Parvus was also given access to an exhaustive amount of funds for his Russian regime change scheme from a leading German Synarchist industrialist and close associate of Hjalmar Schacht (later Hitler's Economics Minister), Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark, from which Parvus made millions of gold marks per month...".


Some on Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki:
A.
Von Fürstenberg was a powerful family lived in Germany in the 19th and the 20th centuries.
Maria Felicitas Ferdinanda von Fürstenberg married ca 1920 to Friedrich Carl von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg b. 1900. Sophie Therese de Longueval Gräfin von Buquoy b. 1879, the daughter of Karl de Longueval Graf von Buquoy and Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, married Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg in 1897.
Her children: 1. Friedrich Carl Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1898, and 2. Carl Philipp Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1907.
Above Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1864. Above mentioned Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1858, the daughter of Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Countess Aloisia Morzin.
Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1819, the son of Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Therese Gräfin von Orsini und Rosenberg.
Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born on 4 November 1796 at Vienna, Austria, the son of Rudolf Graf Czernin and Maria Theresia Gräfin von Schonborn-Heussenstamm.
B. We know that:
1. after the First World War Stanisław Furstenberg lived in Poland, he was prosecutor, inf. 1931.
2. Fürstenberg Stanisław died in Warsaw, on 06.08.1911. Maybe father of Hanecki.
3. History of the Fürstenberg (Furstenberg) beer originated to the 13th cent. in Donaueschingen, Germany; commercial production of the drink starts from the XVIII century; beer brewed at Hallertau, now Fürstenberg Lager brewed in Munich.
At the beginning of the 19th cent. in Warsaw brewed beer: Krembitz, Schaefer and Glimpf, Wojciech Sommer, in the second half of the 19th cent. in Warsaw: Herman Jung, Karol Machlejda, Władysław Kijok, Edward Reych;
Haberbusch and Schiele since 1846 (Błażej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele and Henryk Klawe) in Warsaw and Odessa;
Herman Jung since 1840 from Silesia to Warsaw, 1846 the Grzybowska street, then with Knopf taken K. Bochenek brewary and from Antoni Boenisch plant, also the Karol Osterloff brewary at Grochow.
Jakub Fürstenberg / Kuba / Mikola, b. 1879, came from an assimilated German family, his father was a wealthy merchant and industrialist of Polonized German family.
His father Stanislaw von Fürstenberg / Stanislaus von Furstenberg was the producer of beer, and a factory owner.
The first owner Samuel Krauze, next Waldemar Beorner leased a brewery from Anna Krauze (see Krauze / Krause in Estonia), and then became it owner, a subsequent owners: S. Fürstenberg / Stanislaw von Furstenberg, next was Z. Katz;
main gate of this brewary at Grzybowska / Wronia street (Grzybowska 61 then 65, and Wronia No 12); at Grzybowska No 34 a brewary of A. LENTZKI of 1874, then 1891 to Samuel Krauze; but 1889 Waldemar Boerner was owner.
C.
Our Polish-Jewish-German revolutionary, Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki b. 1879, killed in 1937 in Soviet Union; Lenin had received money and instructions from Jakub Fuerstenberg / Yakov Ganetsky, and from Alexander Parvus of Berezyna. Jakub Hanecki since 1896 in the underground movement, since 1901 in Berlin as a salesman, 1902 top member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; a friend of Feliks Dzierżyński in Warsaw.
According to the book by Berberova "Iron Lady", the Fuerstenberg or Fürstenberg / Furstenberg family was in a relationship with A. Parvus from Berezyna - Odessa (maybe Stanislaw Furstenberg or his wife was next of kin with the Helphand family of Berezyna?).
We read on an announcement of executions for espionage against the German army, in Warsaw during the German occupation, by the martial court due spy sentenced to death:
1. Leo Sommerfeld,
2. Alexander Petrajtys,
3. Jacob Fürstenberg,
on 23 October 1915, acc. to the German form of 1916.

But immediately after Gelfand had visited Lenin in May 1915 in Switzerland, first appeared one of the most efficient agents of Lenin in Copenhagen, in the place which the Gelfand had chosen as the base for his anti-Russian campaign - the agent was mentioned above Jacob Fürstenberg - Ganetzky.
Lenin asserted in the summer of 1917, Ganetzky had never been a Bolshevik.
The journey of the April 1917 went via Frankfurt to Berlin, where the train was stopped for some time; on the evening of April 12, 1917, the train reached Saßnitz,
24 hours later, Lenin went ashore in Malmö. There, his agent Fürstenberg - Ganetzky received him with a message from Parvus: It is now high time to direct German-Russian peace negotiations in the way.

Ganetzky / Ganetsky / Hanecki was a treasurer of Lenin.
Yakov Stanislavovich Ganetsky / Hanecki / Jakub Fürstenberg / Fuerstenberg / Jakub Ganezki / Jakow Stanislawowitsch Fürstenberg was the connection to Parvus, and was the immediate link to Lenin.
Hanecki - Fürstenberg killed on 26 November 1937, was "...one of the financial wizards who arranged, through his close working relationship with Alexander Parvus, the secret German funding that saved the Bolsheviks ... (with) Karl Radek, was involved in secret negotiations with the German General Staff regarding funding of the Bolsheviks and was one of the organizers of the (Copenhagen operation) as well as a mediator between Lenin and the Germans. He was one of the organizers of Lenin's return in a sealed train from exile in Switzerland to Russia in 1917 ... After the October Revolution of 1917, Ganetsky served as Chief Soviet banker, trade representative and Ambassador to Latvia...(copyright Wikipedia)", by Wikipedia in 2015: he signed the Peace of Riga and Treaty of Kars.
D.
At margin:
Franz Jacob Furstenberg b. 1856 to Franz Johannes Furstenberg and Elizabeth Gerlach. Franz Johannes Furstenberg 1823-1879 married in 1849 to Elizabeth Gerlach b. 1823, her children:
Heinrich b. 1851, August 1853, Furstenberg, Franz Jacob b. 1856, and 4. Franz Joseph b. 1861. The Gerlach family was from Helmsdorf bei Leinefelde.
Franz Johannes Furstenberg born in Helmsdorf, Germany in 1823 to Adam Furstenberg and Dorothea Wachtel. His brother (?) Franz Joseph Furstenberg 1831-1930.

By Wikipedia:
"Karol Sobelsohn / Karl Berngardovich Radek, b. 1885 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, d. 1939, acted in the Polish and German social democratic movements; during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, sentenced to 10 years of penal labor; killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate, or was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria".
1901 Karl set out for Cracow (classmates: Marian Kukiel); met with Boleslaw Drobner, 1902 wrote to 'Promien'; met with Emil Haecker of 'Naprzod'; 1903 in Cracow with Feliks Dzierzynski at the Jagellonian University, but late in 1903 Radek emigrated to Zurich!
took a job as librarian, met with Max Nomad (see Machajski and Trubecki Nestor); then met with Adolf Warski Warszawski, who was his sponsorship to SDKPiL; through Warszawski Warski, he began a correspondence with Rosa Luxemburg; and she arranged for him to publish some articles in the newspapers of the German socialist;
in December 1905 he crossed the Austro-Russian border to Warsaw, was arrested in March 1906 (see Nestor Trubecki); emerged from prison in early 1907;
in May 1907 he became the editor of 'Czerwony Sztandar'; 1908 had transffered some trade union funds to Stanislawski, and Radek must left Warsaw for Berlin;
met with Warszawski and his immediate acceptance into the top socialist circles in Germany in 1908 could been through the intervention of Warszawski, Marchlewski, Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches, Paul Frolich in Berlin.

Then Radek moved to Leipzig (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), under command of Luxemburg; by 1910 Radek was well known in German socialist circles; 'married' 1909/1911 to a German girl Rosa;
summer 1910 in Copenhagen (see Anna Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand); met Lenin the first. Radek returned to Leipzig; 1910 moved back to Berlin, 1911 with Hanecki Furstenburg and Unszlicht; 1911 disagreement with Marchlewski, but close friendships with August Thalheimer, Konrad Haenisch from Bremen.
Karl Radek in spring 1912 published for Karl Kautsky; but in July 1912 aimed his attack directly at Kautsky.
'Through Germany in the Sealed Coach', ed in 1924, originally published in German in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66. This is the first time this text has been published in English. Translated and transcribed by Ian Birchall. Translation © Copyright 2005 Ian Birchall. Used by kind permission of the translator. Marked up by Einde O'Callaghan for the Marxists' Internet Archive; at https://www.marxists.org/archive/:
"...On behalf of Vladimir Ilyich I turned, in association with Paul Levi, who at the time was a member of the Spartacus group, and who was temporarily staying in Switzerland, to the representative of the Frankfurter Zeitung, who was known to us. If I am not mistaken, it was a Dr Deinhard. Through him we asked the German Ambassador Romberg whether Germany would allow emigres returning to Russia to pass through its territory. In turn, Romberg enquired of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin and received a reply that was in principle favourable. Thereupon we elaborated the conditions on which we were willing to undertake the journey through Germany. The main conditions were as follows: the German government should allow all applicants to pass through, without asking for their names; those travelling through should enjoy the protection of extraterritoriality and nobody would be entitled to enter into negotiations of any sort with them during their journey. With these conditions we sent the Swiss Socialist deputy Robert Grimm, the secretary of the Zimmerwald Union, and our political ally and comrade Platten to see Romberg. After the meeting with the German Ambassador we met in the trade-union premises. Grimm related how surprised the Ambassador had been, when they had read out to him our conditions for the journey. ...
Grimm, who continued the negotiations in the name of Martov group, had undoubtedly already in Switzerland engaged in negotiations about conditions for peace, and later from Petrograd he sent communications about the prospects for peace from his government, which the Swiss government then probably passed on to the Germans. The attempts to represent him as a German spy or agent are absurd. He wanted to play an important role; Ilyich had already considered that such ambition was the principal motive of his activity. The Germans hoped that in Russia the Bolsheviks would act as opponents of the war and declared themselves in agreement with our conditions. I recommend those gentlemen who are still raising an outcry against the Bolsheviks on this account to read Ludendorff's memoirs, for he is still tearing his hair out over the fact that he let the Bolsheviks through; he has finally grasped that in so doing he was not performing a service for German imperialism, but for the world revolution.
So we set off and travelled in a Swiss train as far as Schaffhausen, where we had to change into the German train. ...
In Trelleborg we made a very striking impression. Ganetsky invited us all to supper which in the Swedish fashion involved Smörgas. We poor fellows, who in Switzerland had been accustomed to have no more than a herring for our dinner, looked at this enormous table with innumerable hors d'oeuvre: we rushed at it like a swarm of grasshoppers and completely emptied the table, to the astonishment of the waiters, who were used to seeing only civilised people at the Smörgas table. Vladimir Ilyich ate nothing. He tried to find out from Ganetsky everything he could about the Russian revolution - but Ganetsky knew nothing. The next morning we arrived in Stockholm. Swedish comrades, journalists and photographers were waiting for us. At the head of the Swedish comrades was Dr Karleson in a top-hat, an inflated chatterer who now, fortunately, has returned from the Communist Party to Branting's camp. ...
In Stockholm Parvus tried to meet Lenin as a representative of the central committee of the German Social Democracy, but Ilyich not only refused to meet him, but charged me, Vorovsky and Ganetsky, together with the Swedish comrades to make a formal record of this attempt. The whole day passed in discussions; we went here and there; but before Lenin left another real deliberation took place. The moment of departure was approaching. Together with the Swedish comrades and a part of the Russian colony in Stockholm we went from the Regina hotel to the station. When our comrades had already boarded the train, one of the Russians took his hat off and made a speech to Lenin. ...
This account by Radek was published in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66.
According to Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life Volume 2: Worlds in Collision, Basingstoke 1991, p. 153, an account of the journey by Radek appeared in Pravda, no. 91, 20 April 1917, p. 4. However, the 1924 version had clearly been revised, since there is a reference to Ludendorff's Memoirs, first published in 1920.
... Last updated on 18.10.2011".

And more information
(on 26th January 2015 by Hubert Koziel) at http://foxmulder2.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/najwieksze-sekrety-archanio-cz-4-miecz.html.
'Antidotes to Empire: From the Congress System to the European Union' by Stella Ghervas of Harvard University, Center for European Studies, Department Member;
'Blockade 9: Sustaining The Enemy – Tea, Coffee And Plenty Denials' by Jim Macgregor (First World War Hidden History) and Gerry Docherty.



Prometeizm a niepodleglosc Polski, 11 listopada 1918.

Prometheism and the independence of Poland, November 11, 1918.

The 1877-1878 Russian - Turkish War:
von Unruh [of the Great Poland family] = General Artur Niepokojczycki + Michal Domontowicz = Michal Demontowicz [Mihail Domontovits, 1830 - 1902, General Major in 1875] - Aleksandra Kollataj [+ the Webb couple] - Lenin + Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand + Inessa Armand - Miezonka + Lubuszany / Berezyna of Potocki "Templar's" net:

The then Central National Committee sent in October, November and December 1862 to a commission established and residing in Paris, 140000 zlotys for the purchase of weapons. Since then, it has been sending important funds, on the fastest delivery of weapons to the country. The main Polish activists were Józef Cwierciakiewicz in Paris and in Królewiec [for Domontowicz], and Langiewicz in GENUA and London [together with Bonfort], later a dictator in 1863; in Vienna were Pietraszkiewicz and Józef Kwiatkowski from Warsaw; in Katowice - Janczewski and Maciejowski; in Paris - Józef Ordega;
Liege - Aleksander Guttre.

Domontowicz / Demontowicz and TEOFIL Lapinski had a weapon form Sweden and send it to Zmudz - see a letter from the National Government to Domontowicz on 10 April 1863. Giuseppe Mazzini revealed a lot of good will, even with cash uploaded the Zmudz expedition of Domontowicz and Lapinski.
With the outbreak of the January Uprising in 1863, the idea of a nautical expedition to Zmudz sprouted among the Polish political emigres. The closing of the border between Prussia and the Kingdom of Poland effectively cut off the possibility of buying arms from abroad. The way around this problem seemed to be delivery by sea.
Initially, the commander of the project was to be one of its co-creators, General Ludwik Mieroslawski, but due to internal disputes, which caused that the entire operation was difficult to keep secret, Mieroslawski resigned.

Jozef Cwierciakiewicz, a representative of the Provisional National Government, came to Paris from London. He turned to offer the command of this adventurous, to Colonel Teofil Lapinski.

Teofil Lapinski vel Teffik-bej born ca 1826, d. 1886 in Lwow. He studied in Vienna. And served the Turkish Army. In 1857 - 1859 helped the Circassians. In 1864 co-operated with Wladyslaw Ewaryst Broel-Plater

{b. 1808, d. 1889, MP in 1831, acted in Rapperswil in 1870,
the son of Kazimierz PLATER 1779-1819, and Apolinara Zaba 1784-1847;
the grandson of Jan Plater, 1759-1789 and ANNA WOLLOWICZ.
Wladyslaw Plater in 1868 made plans to set up the Anti-Moscow League.
Above Wladyslaw Ewaryst's great-grandparents:
Jan Ludwik Plater, SECOND, 1700-1764

[the son of FABIAN Broel-Plater, d. 1742 + Ludwika PUZYNA; the grandson of Jan Andrzej Henryk Broel- Plater, died in 1696 + Ludwika Maria von GROTTHUS, d. 1720]

and Emerencja Ludwika Plater 1730-1777.
Note:
The great-grandfather of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, was Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 or 1690-1736, FIRST.
Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 either 1690-1736, was the son of
Jan Andrzej Henryk Plater [1626 - 1696] and Ludwika Maria von Grothuss [she died in 1720];
Jan Ludwik PLATER, FIRST, 1686/1690-1736, was husband of Rozalia Brzostowska;
Jan Ludwik was the father of
Konstancja HILZEN;
Konstanty Ludwik [Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778] and
Józefa;
Jan Ludwik PLATER, 1686/1690-1736 was the brother of Fabian Ksawery Broel-Plater

[Fabian died in 1742, was the son of Jan Andrzej Henryk Broel-Plater + Ludwika Maria von Grotthus d. 1720 - see above!
Fabian married Ludwika Puzyna with the son
Jan Ludwik Broel-Plater, SECOND, 1700-1764 + Emerencja Ludwika, d. 1777;
and grandson Jan Broel-Plater, 1759-1789 + Anna Wollowicz;
and great-grandson KAZIMIERZ Broel-Plater, 1779-1819];

Aleksander Konstanty;
Izabela Borch and
Anna Sybilla von Syberg / Zyberk.

WRONIAWY - Broel-Plater and Mielzynski:

Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.

MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Krzysztof had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 - Goscieszyn close to - Wolsztyn (Wollstein); 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family. See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.

Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.
Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border. Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Józefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo, close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].

CONSPIRATORS in Lithuania in 1821:

Barankiewicz,
Biallozor,
JOZEF BILLEWICZ,
Buczynski,
Bykowski,
Aleksander CHODKIEWICZ,
Franciszek Czarkowski,
Downarowicz,
Karol Dziekonski,
Stanislaw Gruzewski,
Jozef Gruzewski,
Michal Hoffmann,
Karpinski,
Korbut;
Kulczycki;
Labanowski;
Piotr LAGOWSKI,
Lipski;
LUKASZEWICZ,
Stanislaw Mackiewicz;
Stefan Mackiewicz;
Stanislaw Mikulicz;
Teofil Mikulicz;
Konstantyn Nowowieyski,
IGNACY PLATER or Kazimierz Ignacy Broel Plater
- below on his genealogy.

Michal Plater-Zyberk b. in 1777, died in 1862 in Schloßberg, Saksonia. Son of Count Kazimierz Konstanty Plater [see WRONIAWY] and Izabela Ludwika Plater / Izabella Borch / IZABELA BORCH PLATER ZYBERK. Husband of Izabella Helena.
Brother of
Ludwik August Plater [b. 1775];
Jan Ferdynand Plater;
Stanislaw Broel-Plater Sr. born 1784;
Kazimierz Ignacy Broel-Plater / IGNACY BROEL PLATER;
Viktoria Augustina.

Stanislaw Plater Senior, b. 1784 in Dowgieliszki / Dawgieliszki, d. 1851 in Wroniawy or Wolsztyn / Wollstein, the Provinz of Posen, had brother Ludwik Plater [born in 1775].
STANISLAW b. in Daugieliszki in 1784; Polish geographer, geologist, historian, the author of numerous publications. Stanislaw Plater, Senior, was an officer in 1806 to 1815, then lived in Posen and Paris for a long time. He was known as historian and antiquarian.
Keblowo, the church was built by owners of Wroniawy: Stanislaw Plater and his son Stanislaw junior.

Stanislaw Plater, junior, was the son of named Stanislaw Broel-Plater and Antonina Gajewski of Blociszew, he was born in 1822 in Paryz / PARIS.
Plater (Broel-Plater) Stanislaw (1822-1890), junior, was the landowner, political activist, in 1850 was member of the Polish League; 1858 to 1863 he was a member of the Prussian parliament, from the district of Leszno, then in the Poznan-Oborniki.
Married (1848) KATARZYNA MIELZYNSKA / Catherine Mielzynski (1828-1899), daughter of MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI. Above Katarzyna Broel-Plater b. 1828 in above Chobienice, the Wolsztyn County, Greater Poland; d. 1899 in Warsaw, daughter of Count Maciej Mielzynski
[Maciej Mielzynski 1799 - 1870, son of Count Józef Mielzynski and Franciszka NIEMOJOWSKA]
and Konstancja Mielzynska daughter of PROKOP MIELZYNSKI [see MERKEL].

Katarzyna was the wife of Stanislaw Broel-Plater Jr.; sister of Karol Ignacy Mielzynski and Gabriela Koncza.

Above Ludwik / Ludwig Plater (1775 in Kraslaw, Livonia / Polish Inflanty, d. 1846 in Posen / POZNAN) was a Polish patriot. Count Plater came from the German baltic noble family; MASON; in 1794 he took part as a volunteer in the Kosciuszko uprising and became adjutant of General Karol Sierakowski. In 1815 he joined the Polish State Council, in 1830 he co-operated with Karol Kniaziewicz in Paris, his estates were confiscated; he stayed first in Paris, where he became Vice- President of the Literary Society, and moved to POZNAN / Posen in 1840, where he died in 1846.

Named above Kraslava / Kreslau / Kraslaw, at half way from DYNEBURG to Wierchniedzwinsk - DRYSSA - see SWOLNA.

See on
Jan Ludwik Plater SECOND, died in 1764 in DUSETOS, and Emerencja Ludwika, 1730-1777. Jan Ludwik Plater, SECOND, 1700-1764, was the son of
FABIAN Broel-Plater, d. 1742 + Ludwika PUZYNA;
the grandson of Jan Andrzej Henryk Broel-Plater, died in 1696 + Ludwika Maria von GROTTHUS, d. 1720}.

1878 Teofil Lapinski vel Teffik-bej back to Lwow.

At that time, in 1863, Lapinski was a man - a legend. Karl Marx wrote about his actions from London to the American newspaper "New York Daily Tribune".
His true fame brought Lapinski to his achievements in the Muslim Caucasus where he found himself in 1857 as the commander of the Polish unit. There, for three years, he supported Cherkess in their heroic fight against the Russians.
They were thinking in Paris, to deport Swedish-French troops in COURLAND, but this project has come to an end when Bismarck declared that Prussia never it will allow. The insurgents landing in Lithuania supported, among others, Garibaldi and Emperor Napoleon III.
Lapinski to take command of the ship "Ward Jackson". Unfortunately, rumors about the organization of the expedition reached the Russians. This was caused, among others, by infiltration of Polish emigre circles by Russian agents. Probably even the secretary of Lapinski was on the services of the Russian embassy in London. Just in case, on 16 February, 1863, the Governor of Vilnius, General Nazimov, declared martial law in the area of Belarus and Lithuania.
On March 22, 1863, not without obstacles, the ship "Ward Jackson" along with a 145-person insurgent unit (108 Poles and 37 foreigners), went into the sea. In addition to the crew, the insurgents were a member of the plot of Piotr Sciegienny in 1844, an activist of the Democratic Society of Poland, deputy commissar of the Temporary National Government, Leon Mazurkiewicz and Józef Demontowicz / Jozef Domontowicz, the commissioner of the National Government to the Scandinavian countries.
Lapinski decided to reach Lithuania, and for the rest of the funds he bought weapons and ammunition. The "Emilie" sailing ship, June 3rd, began to flow towards the former Polish lands, and finally, it would be just 10 miles from Klaipeda. Lapinski decided to take shelter with the crew in Sweden. They take a course to the island of Gotland, where they arrived on June 14, 1863.

Józef Demontowicz / Józef Blazej Demontowicz / Jozef Domontowicz (born 1823, died 1876 in Stockholm) - insurgent activist, delegate of the National Government to the Scandinavian countries.
In 1860 - 1861 he co-organized socialist circles in Kaunas, in March 1862 he became the plenipotentiary of the Central National Committee for Western Prussia (present Pomerania). In September 1862, his area of activity grew to include Greater Poland. In December 1862, he traveled to Liege and Berlin to buy weapons for the January Uprising. Weapons were sent via Gdansk and Królewiec, transports were supervised by Demontowicz.
In 1863, a sea trip from London to Zmudz failed, then Józef Demontowicz decided not to return to the homeland seized by the invaders. He stayed in Stockholm, where he was the National Government delegate to the Scandinavian countries and the Commissioner of this Government in Sweden.
He kept in touch with Michal Bakunin.
After the fall of the January Uprising he settled permanently in Stockholm, helped emigres from Poland on social issues.

DEMONTOWICZ Józef Blazej (1823-1876)
was the son of
Ildefons Demontowicz, born ca 1780/1790 [Jan Ildefons Demontowicz - the Wilno official in 1823],
and Katarzyna Schultz (m. ca 1822).

We know about Julian Schultz (Szulc), (1820 - 1856), of Radom.

Jan Ildefons Demontowicz, maybe was the brother of Piotr Demontowicz, the official in 1840.

Mazzini - an important note:

Albert Pike [Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years] described in a letter wrote to Mazzini
[Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"],
dated August 15, 1871, plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr
[died 1959, was an English-born Canadian naval officer and an author; educated in Scotland; he also refers to the theories of l'abbe Augustin Barruel and John Robison
{John Robison b. 1739, d. 1805, was a Scottish physicist; the first general secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh; worked with James Watt on an early steam car; he authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati"}
who explained the French Revolution as a Freemasonic plot linked to the German Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt, associated to the conspiracy theory of the New World Order],
former Intelligence Officer in the Royal Canadian Navy. The British Library has confirmed ... that such a document has never been in their possession, but Cardinal Rodriguez have said that it was in 1925".

Note to above
JAN LUDWIK PLATER died in 1764:

Maciej Mielzynski 1799-1870 had married in 1820, in Chobienice / Köbnitz to Konstancja Mielzynska 1799-1844 (daughter of Prokop Mielzynski). They had children:
1. Maria Mielzynska 1821-1878 + Jan Bninski 1818-1847;
2. Katarzyna Mielzynska 1828-1899 + Stanislaw Broel-Plater 1822-1890;
3. Jan Mielzynski 1831-1863 + Anna Kwilecka 1836-1924 [see the family of General FISZER - compare KOSCIUSZKO and General PASZKOWSKI].

Above named Stanislaw BROEL-PLATER had great-grandparents:
Konstanty Ludwik Plater Broel, 1722-1778; Jan Andrzej Józef Borch 1713-1780; Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski 1714- 1775; Augusta Oginska 1724-1791; Ludwika Anna Zyberk 1740-1788; Katarzyna Tworzyanska and Weronika Krzycka.

Mentioned above Katarzyna Mielzynska, 1828-1899, married Stanislaw Broel-Plater, Count, born in 1822 in PARIS - died in 1890 in Warsaw, son of
Stanislaw Broel-Plater 1784-1851 senior, the grandson of
Kazimierz Konstanty Plater 1746-1807 and Izabela Ludwika Borch 1752-1813;
the great-grandson of Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778,
Jan Andrzej Józef Borch 1713-1780 and Augusta Oginska 1724- 1791.

AUGUSTA [Augusta Oginska 1724-1791] was the daughter of Duke Józef Tadeusz Oginski 1693- 1736.

Józef Oginski b. 1693, was the son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski, Duke, and Eleonora WOJNA. Kazimierz Dominik Oginski, ca 1664 - 1733, was the son of JAN OGINSKI / Jan Jacek Oginski, b. 1619 in Mstislavl,
and grandson of
SAMUEL LEON Oginski.

Regina Pociej nee Oginska, b. circa 1624, died ca 1700, was daughter of Samuel Leon Oginski b. 1593 in TROKI, and Zofia Billewicz born ca 1600. She was sister of Jan Oginski born 1619 or ca 1620; Szymon Karol Symeon Oginski, and Helena Tyszkiewicz. Above Samuel Leon Oginski b. ca 1593, d. 1657.

Note to above Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778:
The great-grandfather of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, was Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 or 1690-1736.

Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 either 1690-1736, was the son of
Jan Andrzej Henryk Plater [1626 - 1696] and Ludwika Maria von Grothuss [she died in 1720];

Jan Ludwik PLATER, FIRST, 1686/1690-1736, was husband of Rozalia Brzostowska;
Jan Ludwik was the father of Konstancja HILZEN; Konstanty Ludwik [Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778] and Józefa;

Jan Ludwik PLATER, 1686/1690-1736 was the brother of Fabian Ksawery Broel-Plater

[Fabian died in 1742, was the son of Jan Andrzej Henryk Broel-Plater + Ludwika Maria von Grotthus d. 1720 - see above!
Fabian married Ludwika Puzyna with the son
Jan Ludwik Broel-Plater, SECOND, 1700-1764 + Emerencja Ludwika, d. 1777;
and grandson Jan Broel-Plater, 1759-1789 + Anna Wollowicz;
and great-grandson KAZIMIERZ Broel-Plater, 1779-1819];

Aleksander Konstanty;
Izabela Borch and
Anna Sybilla von Syberg / Zyberk.

Grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
1. named above Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778,
2. Augusta Oginska 1724-1791,
3. Stanislaw Ferdynand Beydo-Rzewuski 1737-1786,
4. Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwill 1740-1789.

Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and
Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800.

The White Committee:
Goutre / Aleksander Guttre / Aleksander Goutry,
Adam Czartoryski;
Wladyslaw Niegolewski,
Kosinski, who after 1846 was sentenced to death;
Zygmunt Jaraczewski,
Wladyslaw Wolewicz,
Roger Baczynski;
Domontowicz.

Unknown Domontowicz was the owner of Poszawsze, in Zmudz;
near Cytowiany, 30 km south-east to Szawle.

Now on Kollataj - Domontowicz branch:

Ludwik Kollataj born in 1814 in Przedborz, was the son of Józef Kollataj, and named Ludwik was exiled to the Caucasus after the January Uprising. His daughter-in-law, Aleksandra was the wife of Wlodzimierz, and she made a staggering career in Soviet Russia.
It was she who supported Lenin in April 1917 in Petrograd.

Aleksandra Michajlowna Kollontaj nee Domontowicz, b. 1872 in Petersburg.
The daughter of
General of the Russian army, Michail Domontowicz, commander in the Russian-Turkish war (1877-1878), then head of the office of the Russian Embassy in Bulgaria in 1878-1879, and his wife Aleksandra Masalin-Mrawinska, daughter of a rich Finnish wood trader.

Ivan Domontovich / JAN DOMONTOWICZ

[Domontovich, Ivan Mikhailovich born ca 1640, - the general in Little Russia; at the meeting in Konotop on June 17, 1672, among other signed the statement to the Moscow Tsar. In 1672, Samoilovich transferred the village of Kudrovka to the possession of General Domontovich "for feeding".
Family: the daughter Euphrosyne, was married to Prokhor Ivanovich Zabela.

Remember - George (Yuri) Ivanovich Domontowicz, born about 1754, was married to Anastasia Ivanovna Tovstoles [Tolstoj ?] (she is the great-grandmother of Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai).

Above Ivan remained in history as the founder of St. Nicholas' Cathedral (1680) in Krupitsky Nikolsky Monastery.
JAN b. ca 1710 [see below on the genealogy], was the son of MICHAL Domontowicz b. ca 1680 ? - and grandson of IVAN Domontowicz / Ivan Ivanovitsch Domontovich = Demontowicz, senior, b. ca 1660, the son of Ivan, oldest, b. ca 1640 - above named !].

Jan Domontowicz (ca 1710 ? - 1780) had a son -
George Domontowicz (ca 1754-1823) - Jurij / JERZY DOMONTOWICZ

[did Jerzy Domontowicz have a brother Jan Demontowicz, born ca 1755? who had a son Ildefons Demontowicz born ca 1780/1790 = Jan Ildefons Demontowicz of Wilno; Ildefon's son was DEMONTOWICZ Józef Blazej (1823-1876)]

and two grandsons:
1.
Ludwik Kollataj / Ludwig Kollontai, b. ca 1800 / 1820 ! + Praskovya
2.
Alexey Domontowicz (1790-1853) + Maria Stepanovna (?).

Alexey Domontowicz had a son
General Mikhail / Michal Domontowicz / General Major Michal Aleksander Domontowicz (1830-1902) + Alexandra Masalin-Mravinskaya (? -1901)
with a daughter - Alexandra Domontowicz Kollontai (1872-1952).

LUDWIK Kollataj - the CONSPIRATOR of 1863, Pole - had a son:
Vladimir Kollontai b. ca 1840/1850 + Alexandra Domontowicz Kollontai (1872-1952) - Wladymir was the COUSIN of Aleksandra Domontowicz.

Mihail Domontovits (1830 - 1902), General Major in 1875; the son of Aleksei Georgievich Domontovich and Maria Stepanovna, was born on November 24, 1830 in the village of Kudrovka, the Sosnitsky district of the Chernigov province. He received his education in the Petrovsky-Poltava Cadet Corps, then in the Nobility Regiment, from which he was released on May 26, 1849, as an ensign in the Life Guards Grenadier Regiment. He made a campaign in Hungary. December 6, 1852 was promoted to lieutenant.
At the initial stage of the Crimean War he was operating on the Danube.
In 1876 he was appointed governor of the chancellery of the head of the civil section under the commander-in-chief of the Danube army

[Nicholas Nicolaievich was appointed Commander-in- Chief of the Russian armies of the Danube],

and in 1877 - the Governor of Tyrnov (in Bulgaria); awarded the Order of St. Stanislav 1-st degree with swords. This post he took several months and in early February 1878 returned to Russia, where he was appointed to the headquarters of military schools.

Mihail Domontovits (1830 - 1902), General Major.
Compare:
the Advance Detachment under Count Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko, which was assigned to quickly move via Veliko Tarnovo and penetrate the Balkan Mountains, the most significant barrier between the Danube and Constantinople.
The Eastern Detachment under the command of Tsarevich Alexander Alexandrovich, the future Tsar Alexander III of Russia, assigned to capture the fortress of Ruschuk.
Commander-in-chief of the Danube army:
the epitome of his career was the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, when Nicholas Nicolaievich was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian armies of the Danube, although his reputation as a strategist was very low.
After the expulsion of the Russian troops from Rumelia and unsuccessful attacks at Plevna, Nicholas Nicolaievich was removed from actual command, although in theory he remained in his post.

Aleksandra Kollataj:

In the summer of 1899, thanks to the recommendation of prof. Herkner, she met in England with Sydney and Beatrice Webb; she wanted to get to know the working class there, and the Webbs were representatives of the Fabian Society. In the autumn of the same year Kollontaj returned to Russia. Then she published her first articles dedicated to the fight against social oppression. In 1901, she left Russia again; she traveled to Zurich, Paris and Geneva. He met Rose Luxemburg, Karl Kautsky, Paul Lafarg and his wife Laure (daughter of Karl Marx). At the same time, she established close cooperation with the Scandinavian workers' movement.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day. From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner;
others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included:
Bertrand Russell,
Sidney and Beatrice Webb,
Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was born in Dublin.
He was the youngest child of George Carr Shaw (1814 - 1885) and Lucinda Elizabeth (Bessie) Shaw née Gurly, 1830 - 1913; the family was of English descent and belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. In 1880 Shaw began attending meetings of the Zetetical Society, to "search for truth in all matters affecting the interests of the human race".
Here he met Sidney Webb.
Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor.
He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy.
Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.

Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden.
The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller.


This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone.

In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions.

Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner.
In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873).
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890.
... in modified form, it exists to this day.
From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".

Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee, Perth and Kinross);
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.

Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:

George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.

See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz- Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).

Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.

In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge. Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz. By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.

Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party.
Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on ​​an armed uprising against Russia.
Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий- Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич- Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.

Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of

Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;

next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;

next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:

1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;

2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;

3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, had son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898.
His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and
Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873.
She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.
The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.
Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.
Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895, his brother Antoni Bułhak born 1898;
Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski and husband of Wanda Kadenacy, niece Marshal (mistake!?).
After the invasion of the Germans in Poland in September 1939, he was taken from Warsaw to its assets in the Suwalki region:
Pilsudski wife - Alexandra / Aleksandra Szczerbinska and her daughters, her sister and their cousin Anna.
Jozef Klemens Pilsudski + Aleksandra Szczerbinska has daughter Jadwiga Jagoda Pilsudska married to Andrzej Jaraczewski
(Andrzej Jaraczewski / Andrzej Antoni Jaraczewski, nickname Andrew, b. 1916, d. 1992, a Polish Navy lieutenant, the Zaremba coat of arms. In 1944 he married Jadwiga Piłsudska, an Air Transport Auxiliary pilot and daughter of Marshal Józef Piłsudski.
They had a son, Christopher Joseph / Krzysztof Józef, and daughter, Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, who married Janusz Onyszkiewicz);
they had daughter Joanna Jaraczewska / Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, married to Janusz Onyszkiewicz / Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz born 1937.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. 1st to NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950.
Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (1845 - 1918), her daughter
Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake!?), the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
We need check this genealogy!
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898;
married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of
Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska.
The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
So, we are thinking, Antoni Jerzy Bułhak / Antoni Bulhak, the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, had wife Wanda nee Juchniewicz.
Above mentioned Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów / Lviv; a Polish mathematician and politician. 2007 until 2009, he served as the Vice-President of the Foreign Affairs Committee in the European Parliament. Minister of Defence under Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and again from 1997 until 2000 under Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek. 1984 - 1986 member of the Warsaw University Senat; his parents:
Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Franciszka Cencora b. ca 1910;
he was older child;
we know on Karol Mościcki + Maria with Franciszka vel Maria Mościcka + Onyszkiewicz with children: Jerzy Onyszkiewicz d. 1939 in Zamość and Maria Onyszkiewicz + Handzel.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950, with Danuta, Wanda, Witosława, Andrzej, and Stanisław Onyszkiewicz.
Above named Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, born 1910 and Franciszka Cencora had one child?
But Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, 1906 - March 1989, was born to Tomasz Onyszkiewicz and Katarzyna Mucha. Stanisław had one brother Kazimierz Onyszkiewicz. Stanisław married Franciszka Cencora in 1936, at age 30. He had 2 children: daughter married to Bogobowicz.
We know on Tadeusz Stanisław Onyszkiewicz b. 28 Apr. 1906 in Lwow, d. 21 Nov. 1989 in Zamośc, doctor, son of Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Agata Keller. 1946 in Zamośc. He had older brother Edwarda and sister Jadwiga, He had children: Tomasz (Lublin then) and Jerzy (Warsaw then) b. 1940, and Andrzej b. 1941.

4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.

5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинови ч Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.

6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.

7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.

9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.

10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;

12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;

13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?

14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski
(of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family)
from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places.

The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.



My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century.

Initially it was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British [1791], French [from the 40s of the 18th century] and Germans [1769/1776], and by the Polish independence conspiracy [was established 1792/1799] starting from a years 1870/1878.

Compare three dates:
1.
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg.

2.
1870, Brown of London - takes over the Breguet company [below];

3.
and the letter of 1871 from Albert Pike to Mazzini.


Breguet

cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter); Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).

In 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878.

L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

Albert Pike
[Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years]
described in a letter wrote to Mazzini

[Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"],

dated August 15, 1871,
plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr...".

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day.


Early in his political career, Pilsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party. In 1895, he became a Polish Socialist Party leader and took the position that doctrinal issues were of minor importance and that socialist ideology should be merged with nationalist ideology, since that combination offered the greatest chance of restoring Polish independence.

At the same time in Belarus and Austria,
Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice.
Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892]
(K. Lipinski - the manager of Berezyna, Tepliki, Zwinogród),
to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz
(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze; the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),
wife of the Galicja governor -
Andrzej Potocki
(killed in 1908 =
Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA).

In the capital of Russia -
L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. In 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

And in London -
Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).
See:
the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown took the Breguet Company in 1870.
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day.

Pilsudski, like many contemporary ones, was deeply convinced that the most serious obstacle on the road to leading independence, is Russia. In the struggle with the Russian state, Poles, to win, they should have won loyal allies.

Socialists initially expected that such roles will play proletariat "connected with us by the international solidarity". But soon the London congress of II Internationals turned out it and the resolution about the Polish case proved the support is highly illusive [this organization has been called in 1889; the Polish actions took place in 1896].

In this situation [1890/1895], the leader of the Polish party paid careful attention to "these millions of different peoples who, like us, are shackled in Russian bondage."
It was just the possibility of jointly experiencing of the peoples of the Russian empire, as it results from the analysis carried out by Jozef Pilsudski in the middle of 1895.
This very extensive analysis of the internal situation of the Russian empire by Pilsudski was included in the article on Russia, published in the one-day lunch prepared by the Polish Socialist Party.
The conclusions of the socialist leader, Pilsudski, may have caused at least astonishment of the Orthodox Marxist, because he strongly emphasized that he did not believe in the emergence of a mass revolutionary movement in Russia.
He concluded that fortunately the composition of the Russian state, in addition to Russia, is of the other, violently enslaved nations. "The population of these countries, Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians - formerly belonging to the Commonwealth - have quite a different historical past, other traditions; all of them are suffering severely national and religious persecution, which among them arouse hatred of current political relations."
A much higher level of political consciousness of the ex-Polish Commonwealth's population, and those areas that are lagging behind, the areas of proper Russia, and economic development, and finally the educated class structure led Pilsudski to the conclusion that "there will emerge this force that will destroy the power of Russia", while the Russian revolutionary "movement" can play in this fight only an auxiliary role.
It is hard not to notice that in Pilsudski's vision, the native Polish working class, as Prometheus, would crush, in the interest of the subjugated peoples, the Russian chains.
Pilsudski has repeatedly stated that enslaved nations - "only when the shackles of captivity, put on us by the despotic government, will be removed" - drop into the era of rapid progress towards a happy future without care and harm.
It concerned what is worth emphasizing once again, all enslaved nations may fight for freedom, not only the former lands of the Commonwealth, taken over by the Tsar's state, but in practice of all areas annexed to the Russian empire.
And all of them will be forced to actively oppose.
Even where there were limited constitutional regulations, as in Finland.
Jozef Pilsudski assumed, "the same position, must lead to a close connection between the revolutionary forces of Poland and Finland, and it will be then - he concluded - a serious step, approaching us to
the common goal - the dispersion of this dark and threatening cloud, which holds the worlds
... and is called the Moscow's regime".

Similar opinions at the time when Pilsudski was in charge of Polish Socialist Party, sometimes unequivocal in his pronunciation, at other times allusive, can be found much more.
Necessary suggestions were scattered in the work of activists, closely related to Pilsudski.

A key excerpt from Pilsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:
"Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbor."

A brief history of Poland's Promethean endeavor was set down on February 12, 1940, by Edmund Charaszkiewicz, a Polish military intelligence officer whose responsibilities from 1927 until the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September 1939 had included the coordination of Poland's Promethean program. Charaszkiewicz wrote his paper in Paris after escaping from a Poland overrun by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.


Von Unruh [Niepokojczycki in Russia] + Ludendorff and Kruszewnia:


Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (1865 - 1937), a German general; in August 1916 he was appointed to the post as Quartermaster general. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen / Poznan. His father - August Wilhelm Ludendorff (1833-1905).
Erich's mother, Klara Jeanette Henriette von Tempelhoff (1840-1914), was the daughter of Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff (1804-1868) and his wife Jeannette Wilhelmine von Dziembowska (1816-1854), the daughter of
Stefan Dziembowski / Stephan von Dziembowski (born in 1779 - died in 1859 in POWODOWO, 5 km south-east to Siedlec; 13 km south-east to CHOBIENICE of Mielzynski. 7 km south to Stara Tuchorza).

Through Dziembowski's wife
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862),
Erich was a descendant of the Counts of Dönhoff, the Dukes of Legnica and Brzeg.

Above
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862; married Stephan von Dziembowska 1779-1859)
- was the daughter of
Stefan Unruh / Stephan von UNRUH [born ca 1745] + Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca

[1745 ?? - maybe from Nojewo close to Pniewy, and Szamotuły. 10 kilometres north of Pniewy, 19 km west of Szamotuły. East to Miedzychod. Compare:
in 1791 in Poznan, on Helene Gottliebe von Unruh / Gottliebe (Bogumiła) von Unruh - a witness in Strychy / Striche, 9 km south-west to Miedzychod; 5 km north to Nowe Gorzycko.

And Juliane Helene von Unruh nee von Stosch, 1755 - 1831, wife of Friedrich Ernst August von Unruh]

1755

{see: Jeannette Von Unruh b. ca 1775, was the daughter of
Stephan Von Unruh and Helene Von Oppeln-Bronikowski

[von Oppelins = Bronikowski = von Oppeln-Bronikowski.
Compare:
1.
Golanice, 1757, [wedding in Rogowo close to Krobia], Jerzy Twardowski younger married Krystyna Konstancja Bronikowska, owner of Lukow, widowed after death of the owner of Rogowo in the Krobia parish;
witnesses:
Andrzej Twardowski, the Chamberlain of the Prussian king, owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne; and Zygmunt Unrug / Zygmunt UNRUH, the owner of a part of Drzewce - 4 km west to ROKOSOWO.
2.
Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka. Melchior's brother was Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847
[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].
3.
Antoni Wankowicz, Michal duke Puzyna, Ignacy Moniuszko, Jan Chodzko and Xawery Lipski signed Act of Temporary Administration of the Minsk Province on 19 July 1812 under general Oppeln Bronikowski.
4.
Count Christoph von Unruh was the official in Oborniki, the Vice President of the Electoral Saxon War Council and General of the Infantry.
His brother Peter von Unruh - see below!
Next his brother Konstantin (died 1763), also raised to the rank of the Imperial Count, had taken a wife from the Gdańsk patriciate and settled there. Both brothers were childless, so that his nephew Bogislaw Unruh inherited the Birnbaum estate in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter Unruh.
Named above Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH married Charlotte BOJANOWSKI. Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH / Piotr Unruh].

Named Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI married to Stephan von UNRUH

[different source:
Jeanette Dziembowska born von Unruh, the daughter of Georg Bogislaw von Unruh and Helene von Unruh born von Oppeln-Bronikowski. Jeanette married Stephan von Dziembowski born in 1779. They had one daughter Jeannette Wilhelmine von Tempelhoff born von Dziembowska],

the son of
Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH and Charlotte BOJANOWSKI.

Above mentioned
Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH

[= Piotr Unruh had a brother Konstantin von Unruh / Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh b. 1689, d. 1763, the Saxon diplomat]

+ Johanna Marianna von Unruh nee von Oppeln-Bronikowska, the daughter of ZYGMUNT ALEKSANDER OPPEL-BRONIKOWSKI
{Bronikowski b. 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724};

and the grandson of Bogislaw von UNRUH 1st

[Bogislaw the 1st = Bogusław von Unruh / Unrug, born in 1661 in Birnbaum, died in 1725 in Birnbaum; the son of Christoph von Unruh, of Birnbaum / Międzychód {32 km north to Trzciel - see below !}, PONIEC / Punitz {23 km south-east to Leszno}, Unruhstadt / KARGOWA {14 km south to CHOBIENICE}, Tirschtiegel / Trzciel {18 km north to Zbaszyn}, Karge, and Marie Anna von Unruh]

and Ludwika ZYCHLINSKA
[Ludwika Konstancja Anna Zychlinska - the daughter of PIOTR ZYCHLINSKI].

We back to
Klara Jeanette Henriette von TEMPELHOFF 1840-1914.
Above KLARA:
married in 1860 to August Wilhelm LUDENDORFF 1833-1905 with
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm LUDENDORFF 1865-1937.

We back to
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862) -
her father was named
Stephan von UNRUH b. ca 1745 / 1750 ?

[Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there.
Konstantin's nephew - Bogislaw Unruh / Boguslaw von UNRUH
{Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779}
inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan von UNRUH = Stephan Peter UNRUH, b. ca 1750.

We have question here:

who is Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki vel von Unruh? Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official. Maybe Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki von Unruh was the brother of above Stephan von UNRUH = Stephan Peter UNRUH, b. ca 1750.

I wrote formerly with mistakes regarding dates of birth but at present everything is correctly -
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski. Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county. Bartlomiej Niepokójczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki; Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce. Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce. Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI, b. ca 1760/1763, had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1785], the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [born on 8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!

Interesing network:
Aleksander Pociej d. 1770 the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK - BARTLOMIEJ Niepokojczycki [the grandfather of General ARTUR Niepokojczycki] - Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808 the owner of BEREZYNA and [with his wife] of LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs after 1842], with Ludwik's daughter - Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867.
Anna Tyszkiewicz, the owner of the BEREZYNO - Luboszany estate, married to Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845],

grandparents:
Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH / Jerzy Boguslaw UNRUH {Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779}; and Charlotte von BOJANOWSKI.

The great-grandparents:
Peter von UNRUH {= Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (b. ca 1695 ?; died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779)}; and Charlotte von SCHAUMBERG.

The great-great-grandparents:
Bogislaw von UNRUH / Boguslaw von Unruh;
and Ludwika ZYCHLINSKA = Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska.

[see above - Anna Zychlinska was the mother of
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General;
Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh;
Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count (Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh, born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony)].


The Oppeln-Bronikowski / Bronikowski family:

Mikolaj Deodat Kajetan = Mikolaj Bogdan Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski (1767 - 1817),
Grand Master of the King's Court in Warsaw in 1811; general of Polish and French troops, the son of Piotr Oppeln-Bronikowski and Teresa Rydzynski;
until 1782 he studied in Berlin. He was a member of the Freemasonry, a member of the lodge School of Wisdom. In 1786 he joined the Polish army. For the heroic attitude in the battle of Zielence he became the Knight of the Order of Virtuti Military.
During the Kosciuszko Insurrection as a Major General, he participated in the diversionary expedition of Jan Henryk Dabrowski in 1794. In Dresden, Fryderyk August I gave him the Order of the White Eagle.
In 1812 General Mikolaj Bronikowski was the governor in MINSK in Belarus.
Fleeing from Minsk, Bronikowski has withdrawn in all haste toward Borissow, inhopes of defending the bridgehead on the Berezina.

Mikolaj Bogdan Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski had a sister Ksawera Bronikowska b. ca 1760, died in 1798; married Karol Bienkowski;
a brother was Karol Bronikowski, 1758-1822;
and next brother Gabriel Kajetan Franciszek Bronikowski, b. 1764.

Mikolaj Bogdan Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski in 1815 was admitted to the Polish Army of the Congress Kingdom in the rank of brigadier general. In October 1816, Major General.
Probably Mikolaj Bogdan Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski was the founder of a conspiratorial organization - the "Union under the name Dabrowski". It was the first organization of this type, which was supposedly an organization in 1814-1815 referring to the name of General Jan Henryk Dabrowski. It was founded by a group of patriotic officers inspired politically by the general to whose name they were referring, and who were previously under his command. A similar organization was organized in Warsaw at the same time by Ignacy Pradzynski, Klemens Kolaczkowski and Gustaw Malachowski - the Society of True Poles.

Mikolaj Oppeln-Bronikowski married in 1795 to Anna Krasinskich 1 voto Walicka; Anna Korwin-Krasinska 1775-1813; the sister of general Wincenty Krasinski. The only her daughter Amelia, was brought up in Opinogóra by his uncle, General Wincent Krasinski
[Swislocz - close to Grodno, 15 km to present Polish border. Józef Paszkowski b. 1787, 1853, an educator of the sons to Zygmunt Krasinski. Above Napoleon Stanislaw Adam Feliks Zygmunt Krasinski, born in 1812 in Paris, the greatest poet of Polish Romanticism. The owner of Opinogóra; the son of General Wincenty and Princess Maria Radziwill. He was baptized by two couples: Ludwik Pac, Maria Walewska, Piotr Krasinski. During the revolution in Rome in 1848, together with Cyprian Kamil Norwid, he defended the Pope Pius IX. From mid-May to September 1857 he stayed in Zloty Potok. Opinogóra near Ciechanów, where the Museum of Romanticism is now located],
and she was the first love of Zygmunt Krasinski. She later married Roman Zaluski. They did not have children.

Above
Teresa Rydzynska married Piotr Bronikowski in 1758. Teresa Bronikowska (Rydzynska) of Werbno, b. ca 1730, d. ca 1779. Daughter of Mikolaj Rydzynski. Wife of Piotr Bronikowski. Mother of Karol Bronikowski; Mikolaj Deodat Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski - General; and Ksawera Bienkowska.

Above
Piotr Bronikowski = Piotr Ignacy Bronikowski, 1725-1775,
the son of Jan Bronikowski and Barbara. Husband of Teresa. Brother of Marianna Moszczenska and Teresa Pomorska.

Mentioned
Jan Bronikowski b. ca 1690, d. 1752, junior,
the son of Hieronim Bronikowski and Ewa Elzbieta. Husband in 1714 to Barbara ROGOWSKI, Bronikowska and Malgorzata in 1712. Father of Marianna Moszczenska; Piotr Bronikowski and Teresa Pomorska.

Named
Hieronim Bronikowski b. ca 1660, died in 1701.
Husband of Ewa Elzbieta = Elzbieta von UNRUH, Bronikowska in 1679;
the father of Jan Bronikowski.

Above named
Hieronim was the son of Jan Bronikowski, senior, b. ca 1625, died in 1672; and Katarzyna Broniewska m. in 1645.

JAN was the brother of Aleksander Bronikowski, b. ca 1625 / 1630 - d. 1692.
Maybe
Jan was the brother of Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732.

Zygmunt was the son of Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, the owner of NEUDORF; and grandson of
Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

See -
Adam Oppeln-Bronikowski (1714-1778), General of the Saxon army.
Adam Oppeln-Bronikowski born in Dobrojewo [13 km north-west to SZAMOTULY] - died in Zychlin. Polish landowner and politician, general of the Saxon armed forces, Calvinist. He was the son of Andrzej, the owner of Orzeszkowo [Orzeszkowo - a village in Poland located in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, in the Sroda county, in the commune of Dominowo] and Marianna Kotkowski.
In 1751, Adam Bronikowski bought Zychlin near Konin. The patron of Evangelical Reformed congregation. During the seven-year war he served the Polish king and elector of Saxony, August III, and headed of the light cavalry regiment; then the general.
Confederates of Bar destroyed his property in Kalisz. He co-operated with Goltz, and Fryderyk von Unruh, in 1771 under the Russian ambassador Saldern. After the first partition in 1772, Bronikowski (on behalf of the Calvinists) and Unruh (on behalf of the Lutherans) continued to take care of Polish Protestants.

Adam married in 1742 in SWIDNICA, to Joanna Florentyna Potworowski (b. 1719, died 1800/1801), from the old Calvinist family; he had with her, among others son Adam Feliks, a well-known politician of the beginning of 19th century.

Above
Adam Feliks Oppeln-Bronikowski b. 1758, Zychlin; died in 1840; MP, Calvinist, Freemason.
Adam Feliks Bronikowski was the son of Adam, the owner of Zychlin, and Joanna Florentyna Potworowska.
He inherited the paternity of Zychlin and Kragola near Konin.
A member of the tax commission; belonged to the supporters of the Constitution of May 3 and he joined the Friends of the Government Constitution. Around 1791 he received the title chamberlain, and in 1793 Order of St. Stanislaus. After the Third Partition of Poland, in 1798 he took the title of Prussian chamberlain and the Order of the Red Eagle.
He was also active in Freemasonry in the Pallas lodge of Konin, opened in 1818.
Married to Joanna Karolina Mojaczewska, a evangelical woman, he had three sons with her.

Mentioned Andrzej Bronikowski:
1708 in Dobrojewo, Aleksander Chryzostom, was born, the son of Andrzej Bronikowski and Marianna Kotkowski. Witnesses: Andrzej Rozbicki, Wojciech Bronikowski, Rafal Bronikowski, Stanislaw Szczeniecki, Zareba from Wróblewo, Jadwiga Bronikowska, Joanna Ewa Rozbicka, Zarebina, Szczeniecka.

Marianna Bronikowska born Kotkowska from Przybinice and Belzow, died in 1715.
Andrzej Bronikowski, 1680-1739 = Andrzej Wojciech Bronikowski died in 1739 + Marianna Kotkowska;
he was the son of Przeclaw Bronikowski died in 1703 [= Oppeln-Bronikowski, 1650-1708] + mother Jadwiga Rozbicka died in 1719.

Grandson of
Aleksander Bronikowski, born ca 1625/1630, died in 1692 + Zofia Broniewska died in 1678.

Note -
Hieronim OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI, was the son of Jan Bronikowski b. ca 1625, died in 1672; and Katarzyna Broniewska m. in 1645.

JAN was the brother of Aleksander Bronikowski b. ca 1625/1630 - d. 1692 !

Maybe Jan was the brother of
Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732. Zygmunt was the son of Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, the owner of NEUDORF; and grandson of Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

Hans Sigmund von Bronikowski = Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski / von Oppeln-Bronikowski b. ca 1700 - died ca 1776. New coat of arms for Bronikowski in 1743 to Count Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski - his father was
Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski / Sigismund Aleksander von Oppeln-Bronikowski, auf Chlastawe, Kuschten, Kursko {west to Miedzyrzecz} und Placzowo bei Meseritz, born in 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724.

Grandfather - Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732;

great-grandfather was Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, the owner of NEUDORF;
the great-great-grandfather was Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

Jeannette Von Unruh b. ca 1783, not ca 1775, was the daughter of Stephan Von Unruh and Helene Von Oppeln- Bronikowski. Jeanette married Stephan von Dziembowski born in 1779. They had one daughter Jeannette Wilhelmine von Tempelhoff born von Dziembowska.

Stephan von Unruh was the son of Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH and Charlotte BOJANOWSKI. Above mentioned Bogislaw = Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH.

Count Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski b. ca 1760/1764 - 1838 in DRESDEN, maybe was the brother to Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755/1765; they were children of Aleksander Antoni Bronikowski / Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI, 1730-1780, who married in 1764, to Joanna Unrug, 1725/1730-1788.

Joanna Krystyna UNRUG / von Unruh, Bronikowski married to Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski / Zygmunt Wladyslaw Oppeln-Bronikowski, b. ca 1760 - d. 1838 in Dresden, the son of Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI, 1730- 1780 [and Joanna Unrug ?] = Aleksander Antoni Oppeln-Bronikowski [see below !].

Zygmunt Wladyslaw Oppeln-Bronikowski, b. ca 1760 - d. 1838 in Dresden;
the son of Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI 1730-1780 [and Joanna Unrug ?] = Aleksander Antoni Oppeln-Bronikowski;

the grandson of Hans Sigmund von Bronikowski = Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski / von Oppeln-Bronikowski b. ca 1700 - died ca 1776.
New coat of arms for Bronikowski in 1743 to Count Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski - his father was
Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski / Sigismund Aleksander von Oppeln-Bronikowski, auf Chlastawe, Kuschten, Kursko {west to Miedzyrzecz} und Placzowo bei Meseritz, born in 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724.

Grandfather - Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732;
great-grandfather was Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, the owner of NEUDORF;
the great-great-grandfather was Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

We have question here:

who is Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki vel von Unruh? Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official.

Maybe Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki - von Unruh, was the brother of above Stephan von UNRUH = Stephan Peter UNRUH, b. ca 1750.

I wrote formerly with mistakes regarding dates of birth but at present everything is correctly -
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski. Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county. Bartlomiej Niepokójczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki; Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce. Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce. Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI, b. ca 1760/1763, had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1785], the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [born on 8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!



Western Borderlands of Poland.

PRZEMET - 28 km east-south-east to KARGOWA
[Kargowa in 1541 to Zychlinski; it served as a customs chamber of POLAND at way to Brandenburg and north Silesia of the Czech Kingdom. But Trzebiechow was situated in Brandenburg / Prussia in 1482 to 1945].

PRZEMET - 16 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie [Wilkowo Polskie - 27 km north-east to ex-border of Silesia and the Czech Kingdom]; and 16 km north-west to ex-border of Silesia [Silesia in 1742 to Prussia].

Above Zychlinska:

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno

{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}

and JERZY UNRUH was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Anna Zychlinska was the mother of [her children were born ca 1685/1695]
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General; Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh; Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (b. ca 1695 ?; died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count

(Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there. His nephew Bogislaw / Boguslaw inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter UNRUH);

and Eleonore von Unruh.

KRUSZEWNIA

- the estate was founded in the seventeenth or eighteenth century near the deserted village in the sixteenth century, Sulowo, the area was later incorporated into Siekierki Wielkie. Kruszewnia was founded on the place of the disappeared Sulów.
There is no data on the development of the settlement and its owners until the end of the 18th century. Kruszewnia became part of the Swarzedz 'key' and its owner from 1791 was until bankruptcy, banker Jan Klug.
The next owner was Bojanowski [see von Unruh], who bought the entire Swarzedz key on forced of sales in 1796.
This was probably sold to Nepomucen Dyamentt.
It is unclear when Kazimierz Sniegocki sold it to the Ludendorff family.
Nevertheless, German took from 1859, and August Wilhelm Ludendorff appears as the next owner of Kruszewnia.
Ludendorff married the noblewoman Klara Tempelhoff, whose parents were the owners of Dabrówka.
Klara's father was Fryderyk, and her mother Joanna Dziembowska (daughter of Stefan and Wilhelmina Unruh).
The grandmother of Erich Ludendorff (on the part of her mother), the future Prussian general, was therefore a Polish noblewoman.

Kruszewnia - 10 km west to Kostrzyn "poznanski".
Koninko in 1803 - 17 km south-east to POZNAN.
Koninko - 14 km south-west to Kruszewnia.
Opalenica - west of Poznan.

Stanislaw Fiszer / Fischer (1769 - 1812) was Polish General and Chief of Staff of the Duchy of Warsaw. He was married to Wirydianna Radolinska
(see Wola Pszczolecka; Kalinowski, Oginski, Trubecki, Konstantynowicz; Estonia; Walewski and Madalinski, Kiedrzynski); 1783 - 1788 studied at the School of Cadets,
served the Division of Tadeusz Kosciuszko during the Polish-Russian War in 1792, Polonne and Dubienka;
arrived at Frankfurt by Oder and recognized the Prussian army.
During the Kosciuszko Insurrection accompanied Kosciuszko at Maciejowice, was send with Kosciuszko and Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz to St. Petersburg, as the only state prisoner refused to testify, for which he was deported to Nizhny Novgorod. 1796 / 1797 he went to Paris,
then the Danubian Legion organized as brigadier general; 1799, was taken into captivity. Then under General Moreau; Livorno - the infantry legion, 1801 left for Paris (see Kosciuszko); he stayed there surrounded Kosciuszko, who show to him
Wirydianna Kwilecka Radolinska, and managed to get the Koninko estate near Poznan, where he settled in 1803.
He married to Wirydianna in 1806.
Since 1811 led the mobilization for war with Russia. In 1812 he joined the General Confederation of Polish Kingdom; Moscow in 1812, as chief of staff; the Battle of Borodino and taken Moscow. At the back from Moscow, was killed. Freemason in Gdansk in 1792.

Ludwik Fiszer b. 1800, Warszawa, a lawyer, a nephew of General Stanislaw Fiszer.
His grandfather d. 1783, was the colonel of the Russian army, and then service of Polish Army in 1767, adjutant general of the King Stanislaus Augustus.

Parents of Stanislaw Fiszer 1759-1812 were Karol Ludwik Fiszer General Major, 1730-1783 and Joanna Luiza Elzbieta von Luck 1738-1788;
wife Wirydianna 1761-1826 was daughter of Józef Stanislaw Radolinski of Wschowa, 1730-1781 and Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792 (see Kiedrzynski and Raczynski).

In November 1806, General Jan Henryk Dabrowski sent a special letter to STANISLAW Mycielski, calling for him to undertake a propaganda campaign in Poznan for Napoleon and France.

Stanislaw Mycielski died during the smallpox epidemic; due to his medical education, he tried to help his peasants using the Jenner vaccination. Edward Jenner (born on May 17, 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, died on January 26, 1823) - English physician, discoverer of smallpox immunization. See BECU in Scotland!

STANISLAW's MYCIELSKI wife, Anna Mielzynski (died on March 1, 1840), previously divorced Bonawentura Gajewski b. ca 1760

[BONAWENTURA's father - Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski b. 1714, d. 1775 + Tworzyanska. RAFAL's GAJEWSKI 2nd wife was JOZEFA MIELZYNSKA (see on Jozefa MIELZYNSKI)],

also participated in the pro-Polish and pro-Napoleonic activities

[1767-1840; the daughter of Maciej Mielzynski 1733-ca 1793 and Seweryna LIPSKA].

Jan Nepomucen Uminski b. 1778 in Czeluscin, the brigade general, he took part in the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794, where he was the adjutant of general Antoni Madalinski.
In 1806 he fought near Gdansk and Tczew during the Napoleonic wars. He was taken prisoner by Prussia and released in 1807 and joined the French cavalry; he moved to the army of the Warsaw Duchy. In Poznan, he was the commander of the squadron of the Honor Guard. The Polish-Austrian war in 1809; 1812 the Russian campaign, Borodino and near Smolensk. As the first of the Napoleonic army, he headed the Polish Hussars to Moscow. Leipzig in 1813, where he was wounded and was taken prisoner; release in 1815, he joined the army of the Congress Kingdom.
In 1816 he left the army and settled in Smolice [compare General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI]. In 1820, he founded the "Kosynierzy Union" / SCYTHEMEN, then he became a member of the Patriotic Society, for which he was convicted by the Prussians in 1826 for six years in prison.
Uminski was jaled in Glogow, whence escaped on 17 February 1831. He joined the army of Poland in 1831. General Dembinski entrusted him with command of the 1st Cavalry Corps. On September 23, 1831 he was the commander-in-chief. After capitulation he moved to Modlin. In Plock he had a controversy with General Maciej Rybinski. He went to France to emigrate. He was a collaborator of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski.

He was a member of the Freemasonry of the United Brothers as "journeyman" in 1829 [in prison ?].

Count Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 Nov. 1806, was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize the 3rd Infantry Regiment; Col. Stanislaw Mielzynski was stationed in Pawlowice; in August 1807 in Poznan under Colonel Mielzynski. The 3rd Infantry Regiment / the Legia of Poznan received the number 11th and was part of the 3rd Infantry Division, of General J. H. Dabrowski.
Stanislaw Kostka Andrzej Jakub Mielzynski born in 1778, Rabin, died 1826, Pawlowice, Count, Freemason, Brigadier General of the Polish Army.

Stanislaw was the son of Maksymilian Antoni (1738-1799), and Konstancja Czapska;

Stanislaw Mielzynski in 1810 - General; in 1815, he moved to his estates in
Pawlowice [see the Merkel family], Kakolewo,
Poniec, Smogulec, Golancz,
under the Prussian partition.

There he was very active as a freemason, especially in lodges supporting the conspiratorial struggle for independence and the unification of Poland, such as the Poznan lodge - the Scytheman Union / Scythemen, which Mielzynski was leading, or in a secret Masonic organization created by Valerian Lukasinski. In 1800, Mielzynski married the Honorata Zaremba and he had son Leon and three daughters:
Laura (Eleonora) married Józef Napoleon Czapski with the son famous Bogdan Hutten-Czapski - compare the Polish independence conspiracy in Belarus.

1806 / 1807:

On the appeal of the General J. H. Dabrowski and Joseph Wybicki, Stanislaw Mielzynski allocated substantial sums for the organization of the infantry regiment. Their wealth included palaces like Pawlowice and Iwno. Stanislaw Mielzynski was owner of Pawlowice, Poniec, Laszczyn and Golancz. Above named Stanislaw Mielzynski was born on November 14, 1778 in Rabin as Stanislaw Kostka Andrew James.
He was the fourth child (the first of three sons) of the writer of the Crown - Maximilian Mielzynski / Maksymilian Mielzynski and Konstancja Czapska / Constance Czapski.

In the early 90's of the XVIII cent., the family lived in Pawlowice owned by Maximilian. In 1799, Count Maximilian Mielzynski died - the owner of a huge fortune inherited by his three sons. Stanislaw got Pawlowice, Poniec, Laszczyn and Golancz. His brother Nicholas among others, Zytowiecko, Leka, Karczewo, Baszków close to Krotoszyn and Rawicz; the youngest brother Thomas died four years later. Three brothers had sister Catherine.

On 18 November 1800, Stanislaw married in Gostyn to Prowidencja Honorata Zaremba, the daughter of the chamberlain Peter Zaremba and Elizabeth nee Radolinski. From this marriage were born in the following order: Elizabeth (1802), Joseph (1803), next daughter (1807), Leon (1809) and Eleanor (1815).

In 1806 in November, the French troops invaded the Great Poland; in Poznan was gen. Jan Henryk Dabrowski and Joseph Wybicki who known Mielzynski and began creating Polish army; the count Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 November 1806 was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize the 3rd infantry regiment in the division of the General Jan Henryk Dabrowski. Because Mielzynski had no military experience, his 3rd Infantry Regiment commanded Major Stanislaw FISZER / Fisher. Major Stanislaw Fisher was later the heroic chief of the General Staff of the Army.

KROTOSZYN - south-east of Gostyn and Pawlowice. Pawlowice - 15 km east of LESZNO; south-west of Kunowo and Gostyn. GOLA 4 km west of Gostyn. Koszkowo north-east of GOSTYN. Noskow - 9 km south-west of Jarocin.

General Stanislaw FISZER settled then in the Great Poland, where Mycielski gave him the property.
Fiszer lived in Koninko in 1803 - 17 km south-east to POZNAN.
In 1775 in the Koninko estate, divided a land, after the death in 1774 of Gorecki; witnesses: General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki - the spouses; Teresa was widowed after 1st husband General Józef Gorecki; General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki Zakrzewska were the heirs of the deceased already Wojciech Dzierzbinski. Above named Jan Gorecki of RZUCHOW died in 1774, was married Zofia Niwinska. Before 1775 Anna Kierski also died; Krzysztof Kierski was died; Marianna Jemelska the General wife died, too. The court established the amount of the inheritance of the Koninko and Swiatniki properties [SWIATNIKI - the Konin county].

Koninko and Swiatniki were sold in 1731 to hands of Wladyslaw Andrzej Kurnatowski. The court divides this sum into two parts, ie the son and daughters of Jozef Gorecki and Teresa Zakrzewska Gorecka.
Here we read about Marianna Zakrzewska, the wife of Samuel Kierski, official in Rogozno, who was died. Marianna was widowed in 1729. Lukasz Gorecki was the brother of Jozef ?

General Uminski said that General Franciszek Paszkowski rejected membership [acc. to me Paszkowski was secret member of the Union of Scythemen or of the ILLUMINATI Order ?, and he escaped in 1822 to Free City of Cracow] of the Union of Scythemen, and General Amilkar Kosinski said

{Kosinski in 1809 occupied the post of the Governor of Warsaw, then the commander of Polish troops in the battles at Szczekociny and Zarnowiec; he once again demanded his resignation when he was omitted from promotion. At that time,
he was granted a long-term lease of the Poznan - Staroleka property in 1809/1810 - STAROLEKA is the part of east POZNAN.

From 1811, he was a general of the division. In 1812 he joined the General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1814 he was offered a transfer to the Prussian service and organizing Polish national defense in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. He accepted the offer, but he immediately resigned.
He died in 1823 in Targowa Górka.

Kosinski was a member of the lodge Français et Polonais Reunis (French and Poles United Brothers) from 1807, and from 1810 a founding member of the Saint John in Poznan.

Antoni Amilkar Kosinski born 1769 in the DROHICZYN district;

named Targowa Górka - 10 km west to WRZESNIA, close to Mystki and north to WINNA GORA - ca 16 km; see Wirydianna Fiszer}:

"lost the good opinions".

Then Maciej Mielzynski reorganized the Union of Scythemen, excluding former members and acquiring 10 - 12 new ones.


KARGOWA and the family of Angela Merkel - von Unruh and von Oppeln-Bronikowski:

The great-great-grandmother of the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, that is Apolonia Kazmierczak, was born in 1826 close to Krotoszyn! Mielzynski had the property near this city.
Above Apolonia Bielejewicz, acc. to Leszek Mila at geni.com: born on January 2, 1826 in Parzyce, the Boleslawiec County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship; died 1903; was daughter of Aleksander Bielejewicz, Jr.

[come from Aleksander Bielejewicz, Sr. / Bielewicz / Bilejewicz, b. ca 1760 probably in Zmudz / Samogitia / Žemaiteje / Žemaitija, and he lived in the Pawlowice estate near Leszno, owned by von Maximilian Graf Mielzynski]

and Franciszka Sypkoska b. ca 1790;

Apolonia Bielejewicz was wife of Bartlomiej Kazmierczak and was mother of Philipp Kazmierczak and Anna Rychlicka. Franciszka Sypkoska was daughter of Antoni Sypkoski and Brygida Dorocianka. Above Anna Rychlicka b. 1867 in Kunowo [see OPPEL-BRONIKOWSKI !], close to Duszniki and Szamotuly - west of Poznan, or Kunowo of the Kiedrzynskis.

Anna was Catholic, moved to Poznan, and born her son Ludwik in 1896; in 1901 Anna married to Ludwik Rychlicki; to 1915 Ludwik Kazmierczak lived in Poznan; then Kazmierczak moved home to Berlin, where in 1959 he died; in 1926 had son Horst Kazmierczak. In 1930 change surname to Kasner. Horst had daughter Angela.

Angela Merkel's ancestors on her mother's side:

acc. to Brandenburg, Germany, Transcripts of Church Records - Emil Richard Drange was son of
Carl Gottfried Drange b. in the Lubuskie province, Poland.

That is Emil Richard Drange b. 1866 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa, Provinz Posen / the Poznan prov., Prussia; died 1913 in Elbing / Elblag, Deutschland / Germany - now Poland.

He was the son of Carl Gottlieb Drange and Christiane Emilie Drange, and husband of Emma Drange with daughter Gertrud Alma Jentzsch.
Carl Gottfried Drange, one of Angela Merkel's maternal ancestors was a master miller in KARGOWA under care of von Unruh.

Above Christiane Emilie Drange nee Günther, b. 1835 in above Unruhstadt 18 km south-west of Wolsztyn and ca 20 km south-west of TUCHORZA - see genealogy of ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI.

Christiane Emilie was the daughter of Samuel Gottlob Günther and Johanne Christiane; she was the mother of named above Emil Richard Drange.
Named above Johanne Christiane Günther nee Kadach, born ca 1793, and died 1863 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa south of BABIMOST [the Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland].
Mentioned above Samuel Gottlob Günther b. ca 1783, died 1860 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa.

Named above Gertrud Alma Jentzsch (Drange) b. 1891 in Elbing / Elblag, Westpreußen, Germany [Poland], to Emil Richard Drange and Emma Drange. Gertrud Alma was the wife of Willi Jentzsch - he was born 1886 in Bitterfeld- Wolfen to Wilhelm Jentzsch
[Friedrich Wilhelm Jentzsch (1854 - 1932)], a landowner (Gutsbesitzer) from Bitterfeld-Wolfen
[that is Friedrich Wilhelm Jentzsch and Wilhelmine Pauline Minna Jentzsch - she was the daughter of Friedrich Carl Wilde and Caroline Wilhelmine Wilde nee Ehrenberg, b. 1829, daughter of Friedrich Gottlob Ehrenberg and Marie Christine (Rosine Elisabeth Kretschmann b. ca 1789) Ehrenberg {her mother was Anne Rosine Kretschmann nee Schaaf}. Wilhelmine Pauline Minna Jentzsch had brother - Friedrich Gustav Reinhold Wilde {copyright by L. Grube at geni.com}].

Willi Jentzsch died 1936 in the Free City of Danzig / GDANSK, a German teacher and politician, Senator of the Free City of Danzig in 1926, in 1936, he became school director in Danzig; married Gertrud Alma Drange in 1921 in Danzig, daughter of Emil Drange, who worked in the administration of the Eastern Prussian city of Elbing. Willi Jentzsch was the father of Herlind Jentzsch, who married Horst Kasner / KAZIMIERCZAK with daughter Angela Kasner who married Ulrich Merkel.

Above Emil Drange born 1866, died 1913 in Elbing, was a German major municipal official of the East Prussian city of Elbing. He is the great-grandfather of German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Emil Drange's father was a miller born in Lower Silesia [KARGOWA !], and his mother was a native of the Posen (Poznan) area.
His wife Emma nee nee Wachs, was born in Glogau in 1871 and died in 1935.
Emil Drange's daughter Gertrud was a teacher at the school for girls, married Willi Jentzsch with daughter Herlinda [Willi Jentzsch was the father of Herlind Jentzsch, who married Horst Kasner / KAZIMIERCZAK with daughter Angela Kasner who married Ulrich Merkel],
mother of Angela Merkel.

KARGOWA:

1641 - belonged to Count Jerzy Unrug with the name Unrugowo.
Kargowa is owned by the UNRUG family in 1661 until 1837. In 1661 owned by Krzysztof Unrug.
1793 to Prussia.

Here was living Johann Friedrich Preschel (1732-1809), died in Busk. Johann Friedrich Preschel came from a wealthy German family. He trained as a merchant in Krakow. In 1766 he founded the trading company Franchi and Co in Lviv with a business partner, he was not allowed to do business alone as a Protestant. He traded with linen, tobacco and wood. His activities ranged to Gdansk and Amsterdam. In 1769 he acted in Busk, in 1775, in Lviv.

Kargowa was owned at the beginning by Maciej Żychliński, inf. in 1615-1623; 1630 - Wojciech Żychliński, 1641 - Wojciech Żychliński with his wife Zofia Swiniarska sold Kargowa to Jerzy Unrug (Georg von Unruh).

Krzysztof Unrug older / Christoph von Unruh, in 1597 bought from Jan Ostrorog - Międzychod.
Bogusław Unruh was the official in 1688 of Wałcz.
His son Karol (Karl) Unruh, born in 1683 in Kargowa; he owned Kargowa and Chwalim; his father died in 1689;
and his older brother Bogusław (owner of Międzychod), managed Kargowa.

Karol Unruh took Kargowa in 1698; he studied in Frankfurt by Oder in 1700; in 1706 he married Anna Krystyna von Schlichting, d. 1713; Karl von Unruh married 2nd time in 1720 to Joanna Marianna Kotwicz-Konotop, Baroness von Kottwitz zu Konotopp. Karl took Walcz and in 1715 he was the official in Wschowa. Karol / Karl Unruh died in 1736;

in 1736 Aleksander Unrug, the son of Karol, took Kargowa; Aleksander Unruh was born in 1726; his mother Joanna Marianna Kotwicz Unruh, managed Kargowa - together with Adam (Aleksander?) Bronikowski / ADAM OPPELN-Bronikowski

[Adam Oppeln-Bronikowski (1714-1778), General of the Saxon army. Adam Oppeln-Bronikowski born in Dobrojewo [13 km north-west to SZAMOTULY] - died in Zychlin. Polish landowner and politician, general of the Saxon armed forces, Calvinist. He was the son of Andrzej, the owner of Orzeszkowo [Orzeszkowo - a village in Poland located in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, in the Sroda county, in the commune of Dominowo] and Marianna Kotkowski. In 1751, Adam Bronikowski bought Zychlin near Konin. The patron of Evangelical Reformed congregation. During the seven-year war he served the Polish king and elector of Saxony, August III, and headed of the light cavalry regiment; then the general. Confederates of Bar destroyed his property in Kalisz. He co-operated with Goltz, and Fryderyk von Unruh, in 1771 under the Russian ambassador Saldern. After the first partition in 1772, Bronikowski (on behalf of the Calvinists) and Unruh (on behalf of the Lutherans) continued to take care of Polish Protestants.
Adam married in 1742 in SWIDNICA, to Joanna Florentyna Potworowski (b. 1719, died 1800/1801), from the old Calvinist family; he had with her, among others son Adam Feliks, a well-known politician of the beginning of 19th century.
Above
Adam Feliks Oppeln-Bronikowski b. 1758, Zychlin; died in 1840; MP, Calvinist, Freemason. Adam Feliks Bronikowski was the son of Adam, the owner of Zychlin, and Joanna Florentyna Potworowska. He inherited the paternity of Zychlin and Kragola near Konin. A member of the tax commission; belonged to the supporters of the Constitution of May 3 and he joined the Friends of the Government Constitution. Around 1791 he received the title chamberlain, and in 1793 Order of St. Stanislaus. After the Third Partition of Poland, in 1798 he took the title of Prussian chamberlain and the Order of the Red Eagle. He was also active in Freemasonry in the Pallas lodge of Konin, opened in 1818. Married to Joanna Karolina Mojaczewska, a evangelical woman, he had three sons with her].

In 1740 named Joanna Marianna Kotwicz Unrug / Joanna von Unruh, send a letter to Fryderyk Wilhelm I, d. 1740, about guns of 1735.

Aleksander Unrug, the son of Karol von Unruh, in 1756, obtained a pension in amount 600 talars.
Aleksander von Unruh in 1754 was a Colonel; 1753 he married Baroness Maria Ann Berlepsch of Turyngia, b. 1735, the daughter of Erich Volkmar Berlepsch, and Johanna Eleonora von Brühl. Johanna's father was the First Minister of August III, Henryk von Brühl, of Brody
[inf. in 1753; compare PASZKOWSKI and BYSTRZANOWSKI in BRODY !].

Aleksander had a daughter Marianna Amelia (1757-1790) and the son Jan Moritz (1770-1836) von Unruh. Jan's mother - Maria Anna d. in Kargowa in 1776;
Aleksander Unruh, died in Kargowa in 1806 !
Aleksander Unruh granted a guild statute to millers in 1761 in KARGOWA - see the family of ANGELA MERKEL !

Aleksander Unruh in 1764 became an official in Chodzież, which resulted in the purchase of several properties in those regions and in 1778 he took post in Czarne (near Człuchów). In 1790 King Stanisław August appointed him the general manager of the mint in the Crown.
In January 1792, Alexander fought against Russia in defense of the Constitution of May 3.
After the second partition, Aleksander's fortunes were in the Prussian Partition. In 1794, the Prussian king confirmed him the hereditary right, among others, to the village Chwalim, Wojnowo, Stare KRAMSKO and Nowe Kramsko -
10 km north-west to KARGOWA and south-west to Chobienice of Mielzynski.

Aleksander Unruh took the Count title in Prussia in 1802.

Jan Moritz Unruh managed Kargowa since 1800. Jan Unruh married in 1793 to his cousin - Fryderyka Wilhelmina Unrug (of Skrzydlew). They had a son Moritz Wilhelm von Unruh, b. 1804; after the death of Jan Moritz von Unruh, the Prussian government took Kargowa in 1836.

The next son of Jan Moritz was Eduard Severin Oswald Unrug (1809-1874), the Prussian officer in Erfurt, and in Eller close to Düsseldorf.

Carl Gottfried Drange, one of Angela Merkel's maternal ancestors was a master miller in KARGOWA under care of von UNRUH.

Note on Krotoszyn:
A.
KROTOSZYN - south-east of Gostyn and Pawlowice. Pawlowice - 15 km east of LESZNO; south-west of Kunowo and Gostyn. GOLA 4 km west of Gostyn. Koszkowo north-east of GOSTYN. Noskow - 9 km south-west of Jarocin.

B.

Stanislaw Mielzynski was born on November 14, 1778 in Rabin as Stanislaw Kostka Andrew James. He was the fourth child (the first of three sons) of the writer of the Crown - Maximilian Mielzynski and Constance Czapski. In the early 90's of the XVIII cent., the family lived in Pawlowice owned Maximilian. In 1799, died Count Maximilian Mielzynski, the owner of a huge fortune inherited by his three sons. Stanislaw got Pawlowice, Poniec, Laszczyn and Golancz. His brother Nicholas among others, Zytowiecko, Leka, Karczewo, and Baszków close to Krotoszyn and Rawicz.

C.

BOGDANSKI Walenty died ca 1761, owner of Gostynie [north-east of KALISZ] married to Ewa Stawicka, with A. Michal BOGDANSKI m. Salomea Kawiecka 1731 - 1821 daughter of Marcin owner of Charbice and Bratkowo, with:
1.
Teresa b. 1768 in Orpiszewek;
and 2.
Petronela 1783 - 1807 m. Józef Kiedrzynski a leaseholder of Ostrzeszów [see Izydor Kiedrzynski],
3. Ambrozy Sylwester b. 1776;
4. Józef Wincenty 1777 - 1852 in Krotoszyn m. 1806 to Józefa Otuska b. ca 1765, daughter of Helena nee Niemojewska.

D.

Antoni Madalinski was friend in 1768 to Józef Bierzynski; 1770 of Józef Sawa-Calinski;
1778 - 1788 under protection of the Sulkowskis;
was living in Baszkow - 6 km to the Silesien and then Prussian border - south-west of Krotoszyn, close to Zduny - north-west of Ostrzeszow.

Baszków is situated ca 5 km west of Zduny, the Leszczynskis land, then in 1791 to Mielzynski.

Antoni Madalinski after capitulation in 1794, was jailed by the Prussians 1795 - 1797.

The great-grandmother of Angela Merkel came from Pyrzyce / Perzyce close to Krotoszyn and Zduny; 4 km north of the ex-Prussian border, and east of Baszkow, north of Zduny at the border; her name was Apolonia Kazmierczak, b. 1826, died in 1903. Her daughter was Anna.

Perzyce / Pyrzyce belonged to the separate property, which was owned by Aleksander Mielzynski. Bestwin was part of the Baszkowo estate, owned by above Aleksander Mielzynski. The Piaski farm was the part of above named Baszkowo;
since ca 1730 to the Sulkowskis;
then to Maksymilian Mielzynski,
but Aleksander Mielzynski lost them;
next to duke Reuss.

Aleksander Dominik Mielzynski b. 1813 - Baszków, died in 1885 - Torino / Turyn / Turin; he was the son of Mikolaj Gorgoni Mielzynski 1780-1842; the grandson of Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski 1738-1799; the great-grandson of Andrzej Mielzynski 1698-1771.

Jan Nepomucen Uminski joined the Army of the Republic of Poland and took part in the failed Kosciuszko Uprising of 1794 as an adjutant to General Antoni Madalinski. Following the Polish defeat, he escaped Russian-held Poland. In Dresden, he served as an emissary of the Society of Polish Republicans and General Jan Henryk Dabrowski.

E.
Aleksander Dominik Mielzynski b. 1813 in Baszków, the Krotoszyn County, died in 1885 in Turin, Italy; was son of Mikolaj Gorgoni Mielzynski and Brygida Szczaniecka; husband of Katarzyna Potulicka of Wiecbork; father of Wladyslaw Mielzynski.
Above Mikolaj Gorgoni Mielzynski b. 1780, d. 1842 in Karczew, the Otwock County, son of
Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski {born in 1738 in Laszczyn, the Rawicz County, died 1799 near Pawlowice},
and Konstancja
[Konstancja Mielzynska nee Hutten-Czapska b. 1749, d. 1813 was daughter of Jakub Hutten-Czapski of Brest region in BELARUS - son of Piotr Hutten-Czapski; and Rozalia Ewa Hutten-Czapska daughter of Piotr Aleksander Hutten- Czapski];

Mikolaj Gorgoni Mielzynski was brother of Stanislaw Kostka Mielzynski and Józefa Kozminska.

F.

Baszków - 4 km north to the Prussian border, 1684 bought by Rafal Leszczynski; 1696 to his son Stanislaw then King of Poland, with villages: Dlugoleka, Rogozewo, Bestwin, Rebiechów, Sielec, Ruda, Borownica, to 1736;
next to son of August II - duke Aleksander Sulkowski in 1741, but since 1762 to his son August Sulkowski,
who sold Baszków to Maksymilian Mielzynski in 1791 (to 1826);
next Aleksander Mielzynski and Mikolaj Mielzynski 1828 / 1829.

In 1779 Baszków was hired by Antoni Madalinski, General in 1794;
in 1799 died Maksymilian Mielzynski who was father of Stanislaw; Stanislaw taken Pawlowice, Poniec, Laszczyn and Golancz. Mikolaj - Zytowiecko, Leka Mala, Karczewo, Baszków. Katarzyna taken Rabin.
In 1800 Stanislaw m. Prowidencja Honorata Zaremba daughter of Elzbieta Radolinska.
1848 and 1863 in Baszkow was centre of insurrections.
Heinrich XIII von Reuss ca 1860 bought (?) Baszkow.
In 1813 here was born Aleksander Dominik Mielzynski; his son Wladyslaw Mielzynski b. 1848 in Wroclaw; his son was Wlodzimierz Mielzynski b. 1877 in Roskosz, the Lublin Voivodeship.

Western Borderlands of Poland.

PRZEMET - 28 km east-south-east to KARGOWA [Kargowa in 1541 to Zychlinski; it served as a customs chamber of POLAND at way to Brandenburg and north Silesia of the Czech Kingdom. But Trzebiechow was situated in Brandenburg / Prussia in 1482 to 1945].

PRZEMET - 16 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie [Wilkowo Polskie - 27 km north-east to ex-border of Silesia and the Czech Kingdom]; and 16 km north-west to ex-border of Silesia [Silesia in 1742 to Prussia].

Jezierzyce Koscielne - 14 north-east to WSCHOWA [Wschowa in 1343 to Poland]; 14 km south-east to GORSKO. 4 km west to Golanice and Krzycko Male. 5 km to ex-border of Bohemia - Czech / Silesia [1348-1742].

GORSKO, 10 km south-west to PRZEMET; 13 km north-west to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Wilkowo Polskie 23 km north to KRZYCKO WIELKIE - see OPPEL-BRONIKOWSKI.
In 1815-1848, Wilkowo Polskie belonged to the Kosten county; and Wilkowo Polskie was owned by Marceli Czarnecki, including Siekowo, Siekówko, Ziemin and Bielawy in 1841.
At the beginning Osowski in 1644 put away the dowry to his daughter, who married a Catholic, Radomicki.
In the 17th cent. owned by Szoldrski, inf. 1679. See: KIEDRZYNSKI + PRADZYNSKI.

Popowo Stare was the part of the parish of Wilkowo Polskie until 1660; the distance is 3 km.

All villages below situated north-west to LESZNO [ARMAND - Papmehl of LESZNO - GOLITSYN / GOLITZYN - BAGRATION-GRUZINSKY]:

1. Wroniawy [PLATER-ZYBERK] - 22 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie; 17 km north-west to PRZEMET.

2. CHOBIENICE, 25 km north-west to Wroniawy;

3. Wilkowo Polskie, at half way from Wolsztyn to Koscian.
4. Wilkowo Polskie, 15 km north-east of PRZEMET / Przemet [see in named Przemet was living a father to Andrzej Mielzynski of Kcynia, 1698-1771 + Anna Petronela Bninska, 1720-1771].

Von UNRUH = Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594]. CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno

{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}

and JERZY was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(von Unruh / Unrug - importance in Poland, Kargowa;
Heinrich Kajetan Moritz Henryk von Unruh = UNRUG (1791-1849 !) that is Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 [? - this is date of deat of his wife !] - Henryk was the son of
Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802 {Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI};
grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884).

In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism. In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Józef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.
The son of named Aleksander:
JERZY SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1666-1723);
the grandson
ALEKSANDER UNRUG (1704-1773);
the great-grandson
FRYDERYK SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1734-1802),
the great-great-grandson
HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew,
had 8 children.
Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Józef Bartlomiej Unrug / Józef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug.
Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.


The Gruzinsky - Papmehl - Golitsyn branch:

ERNST PAPMEHL
was the husband of Katherine and
Aleksandrina Lvovna Golizyn, Princess, b. 1869, the daughter of prince
Lev Alekseevitsch Golizyn b. 1829.

LEV Golitsyn was the son of

Aleksej Alekseevitsch Golitsyn / Golizyn, b. 1800.

Grandson of Алексей Андреевич Голицын b. 1767.

Aleksei's brother was BORIS ANDREEVICH GOLITSYN b. 1766.

Note on BORIS's son:
Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn, b. 8 / 19 November 1794, musician, and served in the Second Caucasian war 1820 - 1832, held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

Mentioned
Алексей Андреевич Голицын, 1767 - 1800, the son of
Андрей Михайлович Голицын and Elisaveta Borisovna Jussupova. Brother of Mikhail Golitsyn and BORIS / Borys Golitsyn / Boris Golicyn.

Above
Андрей Михайлович Голицын, 1729 - 1770,
was the son of
Михаил Михайлович Голицын.
Brother of Aleksandr Michailovic Golicin; Dmitrij; Екатерина Михайловна старшая Румянцева; and Николай.
Half brother of Анна Михайловна Бутурлина; Анна Михайловна младшая; Петр Михайлович; and Duke Michail Michailovich Golitsyn.

Remember -
sister of Daria GRUZINSKY:

Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya, b. August 17, 1760, was married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn / Aleksandr Goolitsyn,
and second time married in 1790 to
Boris A. Golitsyn / Galitzine / Golitzyn.

Anna GRUZINSKY - wife of Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789.
Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin.
Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789 ie. Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin, was the son of
Александр Михайлович Голицын, b. 1723 - d. 1807 in Moscow.

The grandson of
Михаил Михайлович Голицын, b. 1684 - d. 1764 in MOSCOW / Москва.
The great-grandson of
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, born in 1639 - d. 1687 in Belgorod
[see below !] -
Mikhail was the brother of ALEKSEI, b. 1632 in Moscow.

We back to mentioned above Михаил Михайлович Голицын.
Named
Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Sr., born 1675 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1730.
The son of Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn and Paraskevia Nikitichna Golicyna.
Brother of Prince Dmitry Mikhaylovich Galitzyn; Daria Mikhailovna Galitzine; Петр Михайлович Голицын;
Михаил Михайлович Голицын SECOND;
Мария Михайловна старшая Голицына.

Above
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, 1639 - 1687 in Belgorod,
the son of
Андрей Андреевич Гoлицын.
Brother of Василий Андрееевич Голицын;
Алексей Андреевич Голицын

[the branch of Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846 m. 1st Aleksander Franciszek Chodkiewicz 1776 - 1838, m. 2nd to Aleksander Golicyn, 1789 - 1858. Above Aleksander Golicyn, 1789 - 1858 [Aleksandr Siergiejewicz Golicyn], was the son of Sergei Fiodorovich Golitsyn, 1749 - 1810 in TARNOPOL; the grandson of Feodor Sergeevich Golitsyn, 1714 - 1797. The great-grandson of Sergei Borisovich Golitsyn, 1687 - 1758. The great-great-grandson of Борис Алексеевич Голицын, 1654 - 1714. BORYS was the son of Алексей Андреевич Голицын, 1632 - 1694. Above ALEKSEI was the brother of Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, 1639 - 1687 in Belgorod];

and Иван Андреевич Гoлицын.

Mentioned
Андрей Андреевич Гoлицын, junior, 1598 - 1638,
the son of
Андрей Иванович Голицын, "Скуриха", senior. Andrej junior, was the Governor of Siberia in 1633- 35, Prince.


The Walewski - Jablonowski - GOLITSYN - Bagration-Gruzinsky / GRUZINSKY - BIERZYNSKI branch [see ILINSKI - the line to Tadeusz Grabianka and the ILLUMINATI]:

Antoni Michal Jablonowski - the POLISH CONSPIRATOR,
the prince in Ostrog, Maryampol and Podkamien; born 1793 in Warsaw - died 1855 in Annopol; member of the Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland, chamberlain of the emperor of the Russian Empire, prince of the Congress Kingdom in 1820; a Polish conspiracy activist to 1826.

Stanislaw Pawel Jablonowski and Teodora Walewska were the parents of Antoni Jablonowski.

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jablonowska, died in 1826; the daughter of Michal Walewski

{Michal Walewski 1740 - 1806; the son of Marcin Walewski

(Marcin Walewski 1700 - 1761 was son of Franciszek Walewski from Sieradz, 1670-1733)

and Magdalena Antonina SZEMBEK

[Marek Szembek b. circa 1700, d. 1744, son of Antoni Felicjan Szembek and Ewa Apolonia; husband of Jadwiga; father of Paulina / Paula Oginska; brother of Józef Eustachy Szembek, and Magdalena Antonina Walewska].

Michal Walewski, 1735 or 1740 - 1806, Voivode of Sieradz 1785-1792. Michal Walewski m. 2nd to Ksawera Marianna Jadwiga Turno, with children:
Teresa Walewska 1776 - 1856 m. Adam Bierzynski,
Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846 m. 1st Aleksander Franciszek Chodkiewicz 1776 - 1838, m. 2nd to Aleksander Golicyn, 1789 - 1858;
Józef Walewski 1780 - 1813;
Hieronim Jerzy Walewski b. ca 1780 m. Cecylia Potocka 1783 - 1861.

Above named Michal WALEWSKI, 1735 / 1740 - 1806 m. 3rd to Szczesna Feliksa Kokoszka-Michalowska, 1770- 1844.
Michal Walewski in 1788-1792 put forward the project of expansion of the Polish army to 100 000 soldiers; the Speaker of the Bar Confederation of Cracow province in 1771. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation, with Stanislaw August Poniatowski;
he was the son of Marcin Walewski / Martin (d. 1761) who married 1st to Antonina Magdalene Szembek b. circa 1710, d. 1744, daughter of Antoni Felicjan Szembek.
Marcin Walewski married 2nd to Marcjanna Romer (d. 1761).

Jozefina or Józefa Walewska nee Lubomirska married to Brigadier Adam Walewski, brother of Michal Walewski,
the Voivode / governor of Sieradz}

and Jadwiga

{above Jadwiga Colonna-Walewska / Walewski, born 1740 / 1744 to Józef Colonna-Walewski and Ludwika Colonna-Walewska. Józef was born in 1700 / 1710, in Walewice.

Jadwiga had brother Anastazy Colonna-Walewski.

Jadwiga married Michal Walewski. Michal was born in 1735/1740/1750, officer in Sieradz}.

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jablonowska, died in 1826, the daughter of Michal Walewski, the wife of Stanislaw Potocki and Stanislaw Pawel Jablonowski. Mother of Antoni Jablonowski and Stanislaw Potocki - Jablonowski.
Half sister to Teresa Bierzynska;
Karolina Teresa Chodkiewicz; Józef Walewski; Hieronim Jerzy Walewski and Wojciech Walewski.

Antoni Jablonowski was the caretaker of the Masonic lodge Bouclier du Nord in 1818; a member of the Patriotic Society of Walerian Lukasinski; In 1825, Antoni Jablonowski negotiated with the Decembrists. After the fall of the Decembrists' uprising, he was arrested in 1826.
About 1810 Antoni Jablonowski married Paulina Wandalin-Mniszech, the daughter of Michal Jerzy Wandalin- Mniszch. Their daughter Dorota Jablonowska married Stanislaw Kostka Krasinski, an officer of the November Uprising in 1831.

Note 1:

Antoni Józef Madalinski b. 1739 in Porowo / Porów / Borowo [or Borowa Wola south to Nowe Miasto by the Pilica River; or Potworow ?], d. 1804 / 1805 in Borowo [Borow, in the Przybyszew parish. NORTH TO MARIOWKA then to KIEDRZYNSKI];
son of Józef MADALINSKI
[1700/1710 - 1755;
Jozef was NOT son of Bonawentura Madalinski and Konstancja Oraczewska]
and Barbara Gutowski / Gutowska b. ca 1710, died 1775.

LUBANIA - north to Nowe Miasto by the Pilica;
Sadkowice - north to named Nowe Miasto.
Porów - we are not sure where this town is located! Borow, in the Przybyszew parish.

Above Józef Madalinski b. ca 1710, d. 1755, of Niedzielsko 4 km east of Wielun, died in Srem close to Koscian - see Sulkowski!

Józef Madalinski, acc. to inf. 1739 - owner of Karniszew (the Sokolniki parish north of Gniezno, includes: Bojanice, Bojanickie Huby, Borzatew / Wilhelmsau, Florentynowo, Karniszew / Karniszewo close to Klecko, Kobylica, Maczniki, Male Swiatniki, Mieleszyn north-east of Klecko, Przysieka, Sokolnickie Huby, Sokolniki), married to Barbara Gutowski, owner of Gola - 5 km west of Gostyn and close to the Sulkowskis estates, in 1745-1746 owner of Babin - 6 km north of Slupca and east of Wrzesnia; Chrostowo - 1754, d. 1755.

Barbara Madalinski Gutowski, m. 2nd in 1765 to Jakub Krzyzanowski.

Antoni Jozef Madalinski was a participant in the Bar Confederation fighting initially from 1768 in the branch of Józef Bierzynski.

In 1770 he fought in Mazovia in the branches of Józef Sawa-Calinski, however, in December 1770 he was wounded near Wysokie and he was taken prisoner by Ksawery Branicki.
In 1778-1788, in the political life he used the Sulkowskis' protection.
He was living in Baszków (commune of Zduny) and was the commander of the garrison in Zduny.

Above
Józef Bierzynski, b. 1739 - in the Mierzyn parish; the son of Felicjan Bierzyński b. ca 1700 [see below !].

Jozef was the BAR insurgent, fought against Kazimierz Poniatowski in 1769, then in 1776 he acted in BRZESC KUJAWSKI; died after 1778/1791.

Jozef Bierzynski was commander in 1770 for
Joachim Czerny-Schwarzenberg;
Tomasz Wilkoński;
Ignacy Potocki;
Rafał Tarnowski;
Michał Dzierżanowski;
Antoni Stanisław Morzkowski in Wieluń.

Note 2:

Teresa Walewska 1776 - 1856 m. Adam Bierzyński, b. ca 1770

[the son of Colonel Onufry Bierzyński and
grandson of Felicjan Paweł Bierzyński, the Żytomierz official, b. ca 1700.

We know on Józef Bierzynski, b. 1739 - in the Mierzyn parish;
the son of Felicjan Bierzyński b. ca 1700.

Maybe FELICJAN Bierzynski had 3 sons:
1.
Colonel Onufry Bierzyński b. ca 1747/1750;
2.
Jozef Kajetan Wiktor Bierzynski, b. in 1746;
3.
Józef Bierzynski, b. 1739 - in the Mierzyn parish],

and her sister was
Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846 m. 1st Aleksander Franciszek Chodkiewicz 1776 - 1838, m. 2nd to Aleksander Golicyn, 1789 - 1858.

Above Aleksander Golicyn, 1789 - 1858 [Aleksandr Siergiejewicz Golicyn], was the son of
Sergei Fiodorovich Golitsyn, 1749 - 1810 in TARNOPOL;
the grandson of
Feodor Sergeevich Golitsyn, 1714 - 1797.

The great-grandson of
Sergei Borisovich Golitsyn, 1687 - 1758.

The great-great-grandson of

Борис Алексеевич Голицын, 1654 - 1714. BORYS was the son of
Алексей Андреевич Голицын, 1632 - 1694.

Above ALEKSEI was the brother of
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, 1639 - 1687 in Belgorod.

Note 3:

Note to ARMAND - Papmehl - GOLITSYN / GOLITZYN - BAGRATION-GRUZINSKY:

Marie Papmehl (nee Armand), 1868 - 1942, wife of Vladimir Papmehl. Sister of Alexander E. Armand [see Inessa Armand + sister of Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND + Lenin].

Above Vladimir Papmehl, 1865 - 1936, son of Ernst Alexander Papmehl and Katherine. Brother of Alexander Papmehl; Alexandra Koenig; Ekatharina Papmehl and Victor. Copyright by Andrey Masing.

Mentioned Ernst Alexander Papmehl, born 1836 in Saint Petersburg, d. 1903 in Saint Petersburg; son of Karl August Papmehl and Marie.

ERNST PAPMEHL was the husband of Katherine and
Aleksandrina Lvovna Golizyn, Princess

{b. 1869, the daughter of prince
Lev Alekseevitsch Golizyn b. 1829

[son of Aleksej Alekseevitsch Knjaz Golizyn, b. 1800.
Grandson of Алексей Андреевич Голицын b. 1767

(Aleksei's brother was BORIS ANDREEVICH GOLITSYN b. 1766 -
and also note on BORIS's son:
Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn, b. 8 / 19 November 1794, musician, and served in the Second Caucasian war 1820 - 1832, held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel,
great-grandson of Field Marshal Mikhail Golitsyn and

son of Lieutenant-General Prince Boris A. Golitsyn 1766-1822 and Princess Anna Alexandrovna Bagration of Georgia / Bagration Gruzinskaya born 1760 or in 1763-1822,
granddaughter of the king of Kartli - Bakara III and great-granddaughter of Alexander Menshikov.

Above Nikolai Golitsyn was also personally acquainted with Chopin and Oginski - both Poles.

The grandchildren of Darya Alexandrovna Trubetskaya, were relatives among other with the families:
Bagration, Rehbinder, Sverbeev 1837, Obolensky, Modeyski, von Muller, Rylski / Rilsky, Klushin, Urusov, Tolstoy. Beloselsky-Belozersky, Golitsyn, Peshchurov, Golenishchev-Kutuzov.

Prince George Alexandrovich Gruzinskij (1762-1852) rules Lyskovo, and here his children were born, Anna and Ivan.
His father -
Prince Alexander Bakarovich Gruzinskij / Bakarovich Alexander Bagration of the Bagration of Mukhrani Royal Family,
mother - Darya Alexandrovna Menshikov,

his grandfather - Georgian King Vahtangovich Bakar,

and great-grandfather - Georgian King Vakhtang VI.

George Alexandrovich Gruzinskij (1762-1852) the owner of Lyskovo, and he had
brother Alexander and
sisters Anna and
above named Daria.

Above sister of Daria:
Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya b. August 17, 1760 and was married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn and
second time married in 1790 to
Boris A. Golitsyn / Galitzine / Golitzyn

[wife of Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789

{Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin, the son of
Александр Михайлович Голицын, b. 1723 - d. 1807 in Moscow.

The grandson of
Михаил Михайлович Голицын, b. 1684 - d. 1764 in MOSCOW / Москва.

The great-grandson of

Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, born in 1639 - d. 1687 in Belgorod -
Mikhail was the brother of ALEKSEI, b. 1632 in Moscow !
Compare - Field Marshal Mikhail Golitsyn},

and Борис Андреевич Голицын].

Prince Boris Andreevich Golitsyn, was a close friend of Georgian general Pyotr Bagration [Princess Anna Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya, was an aunt of Prince Peter Bagration].
Anna = Ana Golitsyn died on October 11, 1842 in St PETERSBURG.

Brother of Daria:
GEORGY Gruzinsky = George Aleksandrovich Gruzinsky, b. 1762, 02 November, married Barbara P. Bakhmetev, died on 1852, 15 May).

Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789 ie. Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin,
was the son of above
Александр Михайлович Голицын, b. 1723 - d. 1807 in Moscow],

and Lev Alekseevitsch Golizyn b. 1829 married Nadeschda Nikolajevna Engalytschev / Golizyn}.

Named Karl August Papmehl / Papmahl, b. 1787 in Leszno, the Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland [after 1825 ? in Russia !]. Died in 1842 in Saint Petersburg.

Son of Daniel Papmahl and Anna Rosina Papmahl second.

Karl August Papmehl / Papmahl was the husband of Marie BRUSH from [b. 1803 in Stralsund, Mecklenburg- Vorpommern, Germany; died 1841 in Saint Petersburg] Meklemburg, Germany.
Occupation: Karl August Papmehl / Papmahl was the owner of a sugar refinery.

Above Daniel Papmahl, b. 1748 in Leszno, died in 1792 in Leszno.
Son of Martin Papmahl and Anna Rosina Papmahl 1st [Anna Rosina Freudrich, b. 1711 in Leszno, d. 1775 in Leszno, Poland. Daughter of Martin Freudrich].
Daniel Papmahl, b. 1748 in Leszno, the landowner and miller,
was the husband of Anna Rosina Papmahl [Anna Rosina Kirst b. 1752 in Leszno, d. 1807 in Leszno. Mother of Anna Rosina Keschner 3rd, and mentioned Karl August Papmehl].

Compare - the family of Angela MERKEL [miller in KARGOWA !] nad the UNRUH home.

In Leszno, died in 1777, Jerzy Papmehl - brewer.

Note 4:

Angela Merkel's ancestors on her mother's side:
acc. to Brandenburg, Germany, Transcripts of Church Records - Emil Richard Drange was son of Carl Gottfried Drange b. in the Lubuskie province, Poland.

That is Emil Richard Drange b. 1866 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa [ca 72 km north-west to LESZNO; 35 km north- west to PRZEMET; 40 km west to WILKOWO POLSKIE], Provinz Posen / the Poznan prov., Prussia; died 1913 in Elbing / Elblag, Deutschland / Germany - now Poland.

He was the son of Carl Gottlieb Drange and Christiane Emilie Drange, and husband of Emma Drange with daughter Gertrud Alma Jentzsch.
Carl Gottfried Drange, one of Angela Merkel's maternal ancestors was a master miller in KARGOWA under care of von Unruh.

Above Christiane Emilie Drange nee Günther, b. 1835 in above Unruhstadt 18 km south-west of Wolsztyn and ca 20 km south-west of TUCHORZA - see genealogy of ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI.

Christiane Emilie was the daughter of Samuel Gottlob Günther and Johanne Christiane; she was the mother of named above Emil Richard Drange.

Named above Johanne Christiane Günther nee Kadach, born ca 1793, and died 1863 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa south of BABIMOST [the Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland].

Mentioned above Samuel Gottlob Günther b. ca 1783, died 1860 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa.

Named above Gertrud Alma Jentzsch (Drange) b. 1891 in Elbing / Elblag, Westpreußen, Germany [Poland], to Emil Richard Drange and Emma Drange. Gertrud Alma was the wife of Willi Jentzsch - he was born 1886 in Bitterfeld- Wolfen to Wilhelm Jentzsch

[Friedrich Wilhelm Jentzsch (1854 - 1932)], a landowner (Gutsbesitzer) from Bitterfeld-Wolfen [that is Friedrich Wilhelm Jentzsch and Wilhelmine Pauline Minna Jentzsch - she was the daughter of Friedrich Carl Wilde and Caroline Wilhelmine Wilde nee Ehrenberg, b. 1829, daughter of Friedrich Gottlob Ehrenberg and Marie Christine (Rosine Elisabeth Kretschmann b. ca 1789) Ehrenberg {her mother was Anne Rosine Kretschmann nee Schaaf}. Wilhelmine Pauline Minna Jentzsch had brother - Friedrich Gustav Reinhold Wilde {copyright by L. Grube at geni.com}].

Willi Jentzsch died 1936 in the Free City of Danzig / GDANSK, a German teacher and politician, Senator of the Free City of Danzig in 1926, in 1936, he became school director in Danzig; married Gertrud Alma Drange in 1921 in Danzig, daughter of Emil Drange, who worked in the administration of the Eastern Prussian city of Elbing. Willi Jentzsch was the father of Herlind Jentzsch, who married Horst Kasner / KAZIMIERCZAK with daughter Angela Kasner who married Ulrich Merkel.

Above Emil Drange born 1866, died 1913 in Elbing, was a German major municipal official of the East Prussian city of Elbing. He is the great-grandfather of German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Emil Drange's father was a miller born in Lower Silesia [KARGOWA !], and his mother was a native of the Posen (Poznan) area.
Emil's father -
Carl Gottfried Drange, one of Angela Merkel's maternal ancestors was a master miller in KARGOWA under care of von Unruh.
Emil's wife - Emma nee nee Wachs, was born in Glogau in 1871 and died in 1935.

Emil Drange's daughter Gertrud was a teacher at the school for girls, married Willi Jentzsch with daughter Herlinda [Willi Jentzsch was the father of Herlind Jentzsch, who married Horst Kasner / KAZIMIERCZAK with daughter Angela Kasner who married Ulrich Merkel], mother of Angela Merkel.

Note 5:

Ana Gruzinsky-Golitsyn = Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya b. August 17, 1760, and she was married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn.


Brief explanation:

Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Sr., born 1675,
and
Михаил Михайлович Голицын, SECOND, b. 1684, were the brothers!

Above
Михаил Михайлович Голицын, SECOND, b. 1684 - d. 1764 in MOSCOW / Москва, was the son of Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, born in 1639 - d. 1687 in Belgorod.
See -
the branch of Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya, b. August 17, 1760 or in 1763 [see below !].
Above
Михаил Михайлович Голицын SECOND, b. 1684 - it's the branch of ERNST PAPMEHL.

We back to mentioned above
Михаил Михайлович Голицын / Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Sr., born 1675 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1730.
The son of Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn and Paraskevia Nikitichna Golicyna.
Brother of
Prince Dmitry Mikhaylovich Galitzyn; Daria Mikhailovna Galitzine; Петр Михайлович Голицын;
Михаил Михайлович Голицын SECOND;
Мария Михайловна старшая Голицына.

Above
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, 1639 - 1687 in Belgorod.

Compare the branch of
Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846:

this line came from
Алексей Андреевич Голицын, 1632 - 1694.
Above ALEKSEI was the brother of
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, 1639 - 1687 in Belgorod.

Note on GRUZINSKY:

Remember -
sister of Daria GRUZINSKY:

Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya, b. August 17, 1760, was married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn / Aleksandr Golitsyn, and second time married in 1790 to Boris A. Golitsyn / Galitzine / Golitzyn.

Anna GRUZINSKY - wife of Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789. Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin. Alexander Litzin b. 1760, d. 1789 ie. Aleksander GOLICYN = Litzin, was the son of
Александр Михайлович Голицын, b. 1723 - d. 1807 in Moscow.
The grandson of
Михаил Михайлович Голицын, b. 1684 - d. 1764 in MOSCOW / Москва.
The great-grandson of
Mikhail Andreyevich Golitsyn, born in 1639 - d. 1687 in Belgorod
-
Mikhail was the brother of ALEKSEI GOLITSYN, b. 1632 in Moscow.

Golitsyn Prince Alexei Borisovich 1732-1892, Major-General, his wife Princess Anna Georgijevna Gruzinskaya, 1754-1779

[but see on Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya, b. August 17, 1760, was married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn / Aleksandr Goolitsyn, and second time married in 1790 to Boris A. Golitsyn / Galitzine / Golitzyn]

and his daughters:
Maria 1772-1826, Princess, her husband Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769-1844,
with five sons and four daughters;
and Elizabeth 1779-1853, her husband Alexander Ivanovich Osterman-Tolstoy 1770-1857, had no children.

Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769/70-1844,
from 1797 Adjutant General, in 1806-1807 the main army chief of staff, in 1829, Chief of St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. His wife Maria Golitsyn Alekseevna 1772-1826.
Children among others:
Egor / Jegor 1802-1874, Lieutenant-General, Senator since 1861, his wife Princess Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy;
and
Vladymir TOLSTOY, 1805-1875, Major General, his wife Countess Sofya Orlov-Denisov.

Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy died February 12, 1900,
marriage:
Jegor / Egor / Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy b. July 19, 1802 and died March 12, 1874,
child: Mary Yegorovna / Marija Jegorovna Tolstaya born 1843.

Father of Varvara -
Peter Petrovich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. August 23, 1793 and died August 13, 1840.

Grandparents of Varvara:
Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. 1760 died 1817 and Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya, the branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family, died 1796.

And also:

Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn b. 8 / 19 November 1794, musician, and served in the Second Caucasian war 1820 - 1832, held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, great-grandson of Field Marshal Mikhail Golitsyn and
son of
Lieutenant-General Prince Boris A. Golitsyn 1766-1822 and Princess Anna Alexandrovna Bagration of Georgia / Bagration Gruzinskaya, 1760/1763-1822,
granddaughter of the king of Kartli - Bakara III
and great-granddaughter of Alexander Menshikov.

Above Nikolai Golitsyn was also personally acquainted with Chopin and Oginski - both Poles.

Alexander, son of Bakar / ალექსანდრე ბაქარის ძე or Aleksandr Bakarovich Gruzinsky that is Александр Бакарович Грузинский born 1726 died 1791,
was a Russian-born Georgian prince of the Mukhrani / მუხრანბატონი branch of the Bagrationi royal dynasty;

Alexander was the son of Bakar, Crown Prince who had followed his father Vakhtang VI, the king of Kartli, into exile to Russia in 1724

(the descendants of Vakhtang V, the elder branch of the house of Mukhrani, retained the crown of Kartli until 1724, when the Ottoman invasion forced King Vakhtang VI of Kartli into exile in Russia and they formed
two lines in exile:
1.
Princes Gruzinsky, descended from Vakhang VI’s son Bakar,
2.
Princes Bagration, descending from Vakhang VI’s nephew Alexander, by Pyotr Bagration who was born in 1765);

Alexander was married to Princess Daria Aleksandrovna née Menshikova, d.1817.

Princess Darejan / Daredzan / Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya, TROUBETZKOY, died 1796.

We back to
Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. 1760 died 1817, married Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya, the branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family, died 1796

Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) had four children, including
Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy.

Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement.

The grandchildren of Darya Alexandrovna Trubetskaya, were relatives among other with the families:
Bagration, Rehbinder, Sverbeev 1837, Obolensky, Modeyski, von Muller, Rylski / Rilsky, Klushin, Urusov, Tolstoy. Beloselsky-Belozersky, Golitsyn, Peshchurov, Golenishchev-Kutuzov.

Prince George Alexandrovich Gruzinskij (1762-1852)
rules Lyskovo, and here his children were born,
Anna
and Ivan.

His father - Prince Alexander Bakarovich Gruzinskij / Bakarovich Alexander Bagration of the Bagration of Mukhrani Royal Family, mother - Darya Alexandrovna Menshikov,

his grandfather - Georgian King Vahtangovich Bakar,

and great-grandfather - Georgian King Vakhtang VI.

His brother Alexander
and sisters
Anna and above named
Daria TROUBETZKOY.

The sister of Daria TROUBETZKOY:

Anna Bagration Gruzinskaya b. August 17, 1760, married Alexander Galitzine / Golitzyn and second time married Boris A. Golitsyn / Galitzine / Golitzyn. She died on October 11, 1842.

Brother of Daria:

George Aleksandrovich Gruzinsky, b. 1762, 02 November [Prince George Alexandrovich Gruzinskij (1762-1852) was the owner of LYSKOVO / Polish Lyskovo], married Barbara P. Bakhmetev, died on 1852, 15 May.

The Georgian writer Boris Andronikashvili wrote on ancestry of Prince Gruzinsky:

"Name of Georgian princes, kings comes from ... the first king of the people he was elected in 1083...".

In 1686, a village Lyskovo was given to a son of the Kartli King Vakhtang V - Archil Shah Nazar Khan, and then Archil Vahtangovich in 1687 escaped to Russia with his son, Tsarevich Alexander, whom the great Tsar Peter the Great granted in the Nizhny Novgorod province palaces in parishes Teryushevskaya, Belgorod and Lyskovsky / LYSKOVO, and villages and farmers.

In 1724 Peter I granted Lyskovo another native of the Caucasus - the son of King Vakhtang VI.

Under the direction of the Georgian, the village was until 1852, when a 90-year-old Yegor / Egor Alexandrovich Gruzinsky died.
After his death the estate passed to his daughter and her husband, Count Tolstoy.

In 1863 here a plant was owned by the daughter of Prince Egor Alexandrovich:
Tolstoy, Countess Anna,
then Theodore Y. Ermolaev bought all.

Count Alexander Petrovich Tolstoy was born in 1801 in St. Petersburg, served in the Horse Artillery Guards, the Cavalry Regiment and was appointed adjutant to the Chief of Staff of the 1st Army Gen. Dibich, by the State Archive of the Russian Federation: 'The appointment of Count Alexander P. Procurator of the Holy Synod was followed on September 20, 1856 during the Emperor Alexander II' in Moscow;
in 1833, Earl married the daughter of Duke George Alexandrovich Gruzinsky -
Anna Georgievna.
Anna G. was the granddaughter of the Georgian Prince Bakar, a direct descendant of Vakhtang VI.

Gogol was familiar with the Archimandrite Antony, and Nashchokina Vera, the wife of a friend of Pushkin, Pavel Nashchokin, in 1848 or 1849; Gogol in 1839 had already corresponded with the Count Alexander Petrovich Tolstoy; this acquaintance grew into a close friendship; Gogol often lived at Tolstoy properties: in Paris, Moscow and in the estate of Anna, Lyskovo.
Personal correspondence of Gogol with Count Tolstoy, was very extensive, but after the death of writer Lev / Leo Tolstoy, perhaps, destroyed their letters.

George - the eldest son of Prince A. Gruzinsky
and his brother Alexander and sisters Anna and Daria lived in the palace of King Archil Vahtangovich.

The children received a good education, he also knew French, German, Italian, studied history, geography, mathematics, physics, fortifications, artillery, architecture, in short, was an educated man.

His mother, Darya Alexandrovna nee Menshikov, paid little attention to children when they lived in St. Petersburg, but his aunt, Elizabeth Bakarovna, engaged in their education.

George after 20 years, in 1788, retired from service with the rank of Major. Initially, George Alexandrovich was living in a suburban village of All Saints / Vsiehsviatskom, ex-property of Archilovich Alexander and his sister Daria Archilovna.
In 1812 All Saints village was destroyed by the French. After the expulsion of Napoleon's troops Georgy / George with even greater splendor restored estate.
But then Prince G. A. Gruzinsky went to the village Lyskovo / Polish Lyskovo

(the name of this village sometimes is writing 'Polsha Lyskovo'; the distance between Lyskovo and Kazan is 310 km and in Kazan are a necropolises of Georgian figures in Russia: Semyon Mikhailovich Prince Barataev / Baratayev born 1734 and died in Kazan, and Barataeva Princess Anna, nee Rodionov b. 1760 d. 1830 in Kazan; Baratayev / Barataev Prince Semyon Mikhailovich rules of Kazan from 1789 and was General Major; he was a descendant of the ancient Georgian princely family and Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Baratayev ruled in Ufa 1796).

The Georgian, Darya Alexandrovna, Duchess Trubetskaya was living in Lyskovo, the Nizhny Novgorod Province.

Darya Alexandrovna, m. Trubetskaya died 1796, it was the Bagration of Mukhrani Royal Family.
Her parents:
Bakarovich Alexander Bagration of the Bagration of Mukhrani Royal Family b. 1726 d. 1791 and Darya Alexandrovna Menshikov b. 1747 died 1817.

The husband of Daria Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya,
Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817.

Her children:
Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. 1790 d. on November 22, 1860;
Aleksandr Petrovich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. 1792 d. 1853;
Peter Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. on August 23, 1793 died on August 13, 1840;
Elizabeth Trubetskaya m. Potemkin, b. 1796 d. after 1870.

Darya Gruzinskaya died in 1796.

Anna Georgievna Bagration Gruzinskaya b. on January 31, 1798 died on July 17, 1889 and her father was George Aleksandrovich Gruzinsky Bagration of Mukhrani Royal Family b. 1762 and died 1852, 15 May.

She was born in Moscow, married Aleksandr Petrovich Tolstoy b. on January 28, 1801 died on July 21, 1873; she died in Moscow;
her grandfather
Alexander Bakarovich Bagration b. 1726, m. Darya Alexandrovna Menshikov, and died in 1791, Smolensk.

Acc. to Lars Ulwencreutz's book 'The Royal Families in Europe - The Reigning and Formerly Reigning Sovereign Royal Houses of Europe and South America', the founder of The Kingmakers Society - A society of royalists:
It was seven lines of the Pr Bagration-Moukhransky family and several Polish connections:
from Constantine, Pr Bagration-Moukhransky, last Duke of Muchrani (1782 - 7 Sep 1842) who was married to Maria-Charoschan Pss Zedginidze-Guramov (1786 - 21 Nov 1831) among others:

a) Iraldy (17 Jul 1813 - 1892) married in 1848 to Pss Catharine Ivanovna Mkhargrdjeli-Argutashvili (1830 - 1880) and

b) Sophie / Sofia Bagration-Mukhrani Iraklievna (born 1850? or 22 Jun 1851 - 8 Oct 1932) married in 28 Apr 1876 to Pr Sergei Nikitich Troubetzkoy (22 Jun 1829 - St.Petersburg 14 Jun 1899).
Father of Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich born 1829, was:
Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy born on August 18, 1804;
brothers and sisters of Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy:
1. Peter Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. on August 23, 1793;
2. Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. 1790 married to Katherine Laval;
3. Elizabeth Trubetskaya b. 1796 m. Potemkin;
4. Aleksandr Petrovich Troubetzkoy b. 1792 by his wife Louise Rostsishevskaya / Luiza Rozciszewska has children:
Mary A. Trubetskaya m. Modeyskaya / Modejska,
Darya Alexandrovna Trubetskaya m. Rylska,
Vladimir Trubetskoy b. 1820 and
Peter A. Trubetskoy b. 1833 or 1829 married to Elizabeth von Muller.

Children of Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy b. 1804:
1. Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826,
2. Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1829,
3. Catherine Nikitichna Trubetskaya b. on August 6, 1831 and
4. Alexandra Nikitichna Trubetskaya b. on March 13, 1840.

Troubetskoy connection to a Serbian Prince in St Petersburg and to Drzewiecki:

from family of Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826 and Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804.
Parents of above Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy born on August 18, 1804:
Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy and Marfa Petrovna Kromina or Kramin - his second wife after 1796, because
Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796,
when she was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817).

Prince Nikolay N. Trubetskoi (born 1744), a mason 1776, colonel, that is Nicholas Nikitich Trubeckoj who was also an ancestor of the Estonian - Polish branch of the Trubecki family, born 1744.
He has brothers:
1. Piotr Nikitich Trubeckoj, born 1724, Prince and senator;
2. Sergiej Nikitich Trubeckoj b. 1731 -
his son
Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj b. 1760, and here are our old relatives from Georgia [Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. 1760 died 1817, married Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya, the branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family, died 1796];

his grandson
Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy / Trubeckoj / Trubecki born 29 August 1790, died 1860 was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason of course.

c) George (St.Petersburg 16 Jul 1884 - Madrid 29 Sep 1957) who was married in Tbilisi Jul 1908 to Elena Zlotnicky / Helena Zlotnicka (Tbilisi 29 Mar 1886 - Madrid 25 Apr 1979);

d) Maria (born Tbilisi on 13 Oct 1911 and died in Tbilisi on 10 Aug 1992) m. 1st (div.) N. Smirnov, m. 2nd (div. 1932) Paul Domerstchikov and married 3rd to Willy Karganov;

e) Alexander (Warsaw 21 Oct 1909 - Tbilisi on 6 Aug 1978) married to Nina Ritchkov (19 Dec 1914 - 1981);

f) Michael (13 Nov 1831 - 11 May 1907) m. Elisabeth Ivinskya / Elzbieta Iwinska (7 Sep 1833 - Moscow 21 Sep 1856).




Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski: his father - Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 in Smogulec + Eleonora Mielżyński; his grandfather Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski 1760-1810
(he was brother of Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski Count 1753 - 1833, who was father of Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1862, and Antonina Skórzewski; and grandfather of Matylda Fabianna Jadwiga Osiecimska; Kazimierz Antoni Fabian Hutten-Czapski, and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1837 - 1884 in Paris);
and his great-grandfather General Antoni Michal Hutten-Czapski (ca 1725) 1725-1792,
great-great-grandfather Ignacy 1699 - 1745.

Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten born 1725 (ca 1725)
(son of above mentioned Ignacy Hutten-Czapski b. ca 1699 / 1700, who was brother of Franciszek Hutten-Czapski [m. Katarzyna Skorzewska], Józef Piotr Hutten-Czapski, and Teresa Pawłowska),
d. 1802 in Warsaw; his children:
a. Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1760 m. Gen.-Major Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski of Bukowiec, 1804 Count, with children: 1. Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski b. 1797; 2. Antonina Skórzewski;
b. Anna m. to Józef Oskierka;
c. Ignacy born 1770,
d. Franciszek b. ca 1770;
e. Karol b. in Mińsk 1777-1836 m. Fabianna Obuchowicz (next generation - Emeryk b. 1828);
f. Stanisław 1779-1844 m. Zofia Obuchowicz, Colonel under Napoleon.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.
His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to
(January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in
1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.


Explanations:

1. At http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1832/feb/29/count-czapski we read:
"...It appeared that Count Czapski had made his escape from Warsaw, with great difficulty, and was so fortunate as to get to Belfast; on his landing there, he was told, it was necessary to give information of his arrival to the office of the Secretary, under the Act regarding Aliens. On his arrival at Dublin, he had made several inquiries at the Custom House and the Castle, and 966 was told at the latter place, as he only intended to stay a few days, he need not apply again. ... After he had landed in Ireland, he came to Dublin, and when he had been there a short time, he was informed, that, in conformity with the Alien Law, he must state to the Government whether he intended to fix his residence there...".
2. "...THE ALIEN LAW - COUNT CZAPSKI. It will be seen from our Police report in this day's FREEMAN, that the distinguished, but unfortunate Pole, who has been sojourning in Dublin for a few weeks. A was yesterday fined 50Ł by the Magistrates at the Head office of Police, under...", on 3 February 1832 in Dublin.
3. "...I DINNER TO COUNT JOSEPH NAPOLEON CZAPSKI. On yesterday, upwards of seventy gentlemnen sat ... I o 'plendid dinner' at Challoner and Hunt's hotel, Davsonstie, WILLIAM FRANCIS FINN, Etq. in the Chair. The, CHAIMIMANI (??), in proposing the first... Saul, be a about to propose the...", on March 02, 1832, by 'Freeman's Journal', in Dublin.
4. Aliens Act; Petition from Dublin respecting Case of Count Czapski.
"Upon reading the Petition of the Inhabitants of the Parishes of the City of Dublin, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, whose Names are thereunto subscribed; taking notice of the Arrest and Punishment by Fine of Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski, a Native of Poland, for an unintentional infraction of the Aliens Act; and praying their Lordships 'to take such steps as may be best calculated to vindicate the Character and Nature of the British Laws; and to cause a strict Investigation to be instituted into all the Facts of this Case, with a view to a Redress and Reparation of the Injury sustained, and the Punishment of the guilty...".
5. 1832. The House resumed, and the report was ordered to be received next day. The other orders of the day were then disposed ... COUNTRY MISCELLANEA. AFFAIRS OF GERMANY. A meeting, rather thinly but respectably attended, was held on Wednesday at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, to express, as the requisition stated, their indignation and abhorrence at the invasion lately made by the Diet of Frankfort on the ancient liberties of the Germanic States. Colonel Evans, M. P., Mr. Wyse, M. P., Sir W. Brabazon, Mr. Murray, Count Czapski, M. Bach, with several other foreigners were present. Mr. T. Campbell as chairman, opened the proceedings in a feeling and energetic speech, towards the conclusion of which he said, 'If England allowed Germany to be enslaved by Princes who were themselves the slaves of Russia, she might, when too late, repent in sackcloth and ashes over her departed liberties. The measures of Napoleon against English commerce would be but a jest, a mere feather, compared with the hostility of the present continental despots...".
6. Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski / Czapski left Dublin for London in April 1832.
7. "William Francis Finn was an Irish politician in the United Kingdom House of Commons", by Wikipedia. "He was elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in (on 20 Dec.) 1832 (with Pierce Butler, b. 1774, held post to 1846), and held the seat until 1837".
Pierce Butler (1774 d. 1864) was an Irish politician, elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in 1832, and held the seat until 1846.
Acc. to http://genealogy.links.org/links-cgi/readged?/ we read:
Pierce Butler 1774 - 1846 son of Edmund Butler 1745 - 1793 and Lady Henrietta 1750 - 1785; grandson of Edmund Butler, Charlotte Bradstreet, Somerset Hamilton Butler 1718 - 1774, and Juliana Boyle d. 1774.
William Francis Finn died in December 1862 in Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; wife Alicia; a member of Carlow town family; William Francis Finn's father, also named William, was a prosperous Carlow merchant and tanner, who resided in Carlow.
His brother, Edmund Finn (d. 1777) produced 'Finn's Leinster Journal' / 'Leinster Journal' of Kilkenny. William Snr. helped finance the paper, then to Patrick Kearney.
Carlow is situated on way from Kilkenny to Dublin, south-east of Mountrath!
William Snr. was one of the Carlow delegates to attend the Back Lane Parliament in 1792.
William Francis senior held lands in Graiguecullen, and farms in Kilkenny. William senior had four sons: Thomas, William - Francis, Patrick and Michael. Thomas 1772 - 1842 resided in Carlow. He was an able journalist and accurate historian, in 1798, in "The Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Biography 1811, Vol.4"; died 1842, at Bellfield, Clontarf.
William Francis, the second son, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805;
a friend of Daniel O'Connell, O'Connell was a frequent visitor to Carlow town, where he stayed with Alicia and William at their residence at Evergreen Lodge in Cox's Lane. Patrick Finn - William's brother, was actively involved in the County Carlow committee, and was also for many years secretary of the "Friends of Civil Religious Liberty... County", with William as chairman; A Liberal club was established in the town, with the Finn family prominent among its leaders. Peter Gale from the Queen's County, William Francis Finn - Carlow, Nicholas Aylward Vigors - Old Leighlin, and Francis Bruen - Enniscorthy, who represented the Tories. Finn to represent the Liberal party.
William Francis was well known and respected in the Leinster and Munster areas, through his involvement in the Catholic Association.
August 1832 - a Baronial meeting at Ballyhale met with William Finn. William Francis finally declared his intention to stand as a candidate for the constituency of County Kilkenny;
he had settled in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny.
In 1837 William Finn withdrew from parliamentary representation; While residing in Tullaroan, he donated land to the clergy, for the erection of a church and school;
The KILKENNY COUNTY: north of Waterford, north-east of Clonmel and east of Tipperary.
County Kilkenny / Contae Chill Chainnigh is a county in Ireland, in the province of Leinster, of the South-East Region.


Very interesting that the family of Countess Maria Dorota Leopoldyna Czapska (nick-name Dorota Obuchowicz, Maria Strzalkowska, and Dorota Thun), b. 1894 in Praga, died 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, Polish historian, sister of Józef Czapski,
grand-daughter of Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, met and was talking in Belarus with (in 1892) Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, the next of kin of the Belarussian branch of the Czapskis, who described an estate of the Czapski family close to Minsk;
she was in Paris 1925 - 1930.
Maria Leopoldyna Hutten-Czapska / Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapski, b. 1894 / 1895 in Prague, died in 1981, daughter of George and Josephine;
above George / Jerzy Hutten-Czapski 1861-1930, was son of Emeryk Zachariasz 1828-1896 and Elzbieta Karolina Meyendorff b. 1833 in Sankt Petersburg, d. 1916;
and mentioned Jerzy was grandson of Fabianna Obuchowicz b. ca 1800 and Karol Hutten-Czapski 1777-1836;
also Jerzy was grandson of Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795 (Georges de Meyendorff d. 1863, diplomate) and Zofia Stackelberg b. 1806.
Above named Josephine / Jozefa Thun-Hohenstein 1867-1903, was daughter of Fryderyk Franciszek Józef Thun-Hohenstein 1810-1881 and Leopoldyna Lamberg 1825-1902.
Above named baron Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795, died in Würzburg, Bawaria, acc. to Maria (Maja) Anna Górska-Zabielska.
Copyright by Claude Trudel:
Jerzy / George Baron Meyendorff (1795-1863) recounts his journey from Orenburg to Bukhara made in 1820 in his travelogue published in 1826. He was then a colonel in the General Staff of the Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825).
This expedition is part of Russian expansionism initiated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great (1729-1796).
An extract of this travelogue is contained in the anthology 'The trip to Central Asia and Tibet' published by Michel Jan in the Editions of Robert Laffont. This extract contains two parts: Preparation and dangers of the journey, Manners and customs of Kyrgyz. Acc. to http://cltr.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/expedition-en-asie-centrale-1820.html.

Above mentioned Emeryk Zachariasz Mikolaj Seweryn Hutten-Czapski, Count, b. 1828, was son of Karol Józef Czapski, friend {?}

(Karol Czapski was owner of Stankow / Stan'kava in Belarus!; b. 1777, died in 1836 in Danilovichi / Daniłowicze
[Daniłowicze / Danilavichy (Данілавічы, Даниловичи, Daniłavičy), ca 11 km east-south-east of Stan'kava / Stankowo of the Hutten-Czapskis, and 18 km south-east of Dzyarzhynsk / Dzierzynsk / Kojdanow of the Hutten-Czapski family; west of Dukora of the Oginski family; ca 40 km south-west of Minsk in Belarus now. In 19th cent. it was the Minsk government, the Ihumen county (Cerven now), the Uzda region];
he was son of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick- name Rybenko; Karol Czapski married to Fabianna Obuchowicz, daughter of Michał Obuchowicz of Minsk in Belarus; Karol was brother of Stanisław 1779-1844 / 1845, Colonel of the Polish Army; Marshal of the Minsk county, married Zofia Obuchowicz, owner of Kiejdany - son of mentioned Stanislaw was Marian Czapski Count: born in Łachwa in 1816 Belarus now, d. 1875, Więckowice in the Posen province / Poznan province, studied in Wilno / Vilnius, 1845 owner of Kiejdany close to Minsk, exiled to Siberie in 1864, Tomsk to 1867, 1867-1871 Czapski was living in Dorpat, Estonia)

of last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski
(see: Sulkowski, Poniatowski genealogy, Venture, Breguet, Konstantynowicz and villge Miezonka),
and Fabianna nee Obuchowicz; this branch come from Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Czapski, of the Chelmno province, and from Belarus (Radziwill family and Wittgenstein - Radziwill).

Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski studied in St Petersburg, 1863-1864 governor of Great Nowogrod, in 1865 was deputy of the Petersburg governor.

Karol Józef Czapski leased Miezonka from Radziwill 1832 - 1842; then Miezonka was the Konstantynowiczs estate (see: Breguet in Kazan and Armand in Moscow).

Above named Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko / Prince Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila / Міхал Казімер Радзівіл, b. 1702, Olyka, owner of Niasviž, Olyka, Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744, 1725 he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecki, 2nd married Anna Luiza Mycielski in 1754 in Lviv; his children: Michal Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Janusz Tadeusz, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł - Panie Kochanku, Anna, Ludwika, Teofilia Konstancja Radziwiłł / Teofila Morawska, Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Rzewuska / Katarzyna Karolina, Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł / Weronika Joanna Hutten-Czapska, Hieronim Wincenty, Maria Wiktoria / Maria Wiktoria Maja Moricone / Morykoni, Józefina Grabowska, and last Konstancja.
Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila Žuvelė / Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł / Rybenko d. 1762 in Nieswiez, son of Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669 - 1719, Karol was brother of Mikołaj Franciszek Radziwiłł; Bogusław Krzysztof; Jerzy Józef Radziwiłł; Ludwik Radziwiłł; Tekla Adelajda; and Jan) and Anna Katarzyna;
he was brother of Katarzyna Barbara Branicka; Tekla Róża Korybut-Wiśniowiecka; Karolina Teresa Pia Sapieha; Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł, and Konstancja Franciszka Sapieha.


In May 1900, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (acc. to Bogdan Hutten Czapski) gave the political leadership - Chancellors Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst and Bernard von Bulow - "an early opportunity to object to the politically risky portion of his military thinking ... Accepted by Gerhard Ritter, Fritz Fischer, and Norman Rich, he sought to determine what the Reich political leadership thought about violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality.
In May 1900 Schlieffen asked Graf (Bogdan) Hutten-Czapski, confidential and private secretary to Chancellor Hohenlohe, to visit him. He asked (Bogdan) Hutten (Czapski) if he would sound out Holstein and the Chancellor confidentially.
... Schlieffen apparently did not name the country to which he referred, but Graf Hutten (-Czapski) immediately thought of Belgium. Hutten-Czapski broached the matter with his friend Holstein, the influential advisor to the Foreign Office. ... A few days later Holstein arranged a social gathering at his house to which the Chancellor and the Chief of the GGS were invited. ... Schlieffen apparently carried out the same procedure with Chancellor Bulow. Schlieffen got a different reaction from Herman Freiherr von Eckhardstein, German Counselor in London...", acc. to Moltke, "Schlieffen, and Prussian War Planning", p. 176.
The Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff in 1905, with the Deployment Plan Aufmarsch I in 1905, "...would not involve Russia but was expected to include Italy and Austria-Hungary as German allies ... In Aufmarsch I, it was stated that Germany would have to go on the offensive to win this kind of war, which entailed all of the German army being deployed on the German–Belgian border, so it could launch an offensive into France, through the southern Dutch province...".
Alfred von Schlieffen, b. 1833, d. 1913, a German field marshal, the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was at the time the confidential adviser and secretary to Prince Hohenlohe. Acc. to J. Bradford DeLong on July 16, 2014.
In July 1914, Germany had prepared nothing diplomatically, not even the ultimatum to Belgium. Count Hutten-Czapski, records that in May 1900 immediately thought about Belgium. The whole conversation lasted only a few minutes. The name of the country to which Schlieffen referred was never mentioned.
Count Hutten Czapski claims to have been of a different opinion - that it was a momentous decision which would need careful thought. "...Fundamentally he was against any violation of neutrality without the permission of the states involved, because the consequences could not be predicted".
Schlieffen still had close contact with Holstein, also no less significant and influential Count von Hutten-Czapski.
Big play began in the eighties of the 19th century, when Hutten-Czapski, who was the Polish largest landowner in the Prussian officer corps, also enjoyed the full confidence of Holstein, was as a personal secretary at the Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe; and under his successor Bulow.
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow b. 1849, in 1905 Prince, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
Senior military officials, foreign diplomats and military attaches met in the Bogdan Hutten Czapski house. His connections with the ruling circles and members of the imperial government and the Prussian officer corps were very needed to Schlieffen,
"who conducted non-public life. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote about it: 'When he was chief of the General Staff, he let me go to him often and I honored his confidence, using my connections'. ... 'Hutten-Czapski had ample contacts in Poland and Russia and use them to gather political information and military espionage for the Chief of the General Staff...'. The high trust placed him close to Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, evidenced by the fact that Hutten-Czapski to find out about how to Hohenlohe and Holstein relate to the violation of Belgium's neutrality, which was the highest level of state secrets, acc. to Theodor Schiemann. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote, among other things about him: 'Even when he resigned from his position, he allowed me to visit him and said to me, laughing, that I am now the one who delivers to him the most interesting information about court life and politics'. ... On the other hand, Ritter, Wallach and Craig, wrote that between Holstein and Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 'often marked confidential talks on the political situation', and in appreciation of contacts with Hutten-Czapski. ... Contact with Hutten-Czapski proved that among other things it was about foreign policy issues; Helmut Otto said that since August 1891, established contacts between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Caprivi. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen on all important matters consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski (Hague Peace Conference in 1899 Hutten-Czapski). ...
Soon after Hutten-Czapski had a long conversation between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Hohenlohe, also Otto said: 'At the turn of the century to strengthen cooperation with the Government and the General Staff...'.
... In general, we should agree with Otto ...
Helmut Otto also confirms the existence of contacts and cooperation with the Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Hohenlohe ... consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski ... Schlieffen was fully aware of this need and ... foreign events and issues and their impact on military and strategic planning.
These included the Franco-Russian alliance, the peace conference in The Hague, the first Moroccan crisis, relations with partners in the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary and Italy and the problems of coalition military preparations, the military objectives and expansionist colonial policy of German imperialism, primarily intervention in China from 1900 to 1902. ... colonial wars in South-West Africa, the struggle against the revolutionary workers' movement...".

It was 1914, the start of the Great War.
But when this war finished, Beseler, as German Governor-General in 1916, proclaimed the German Empire by the occupying powers and Austria - Hungary agreed establishment of an independent Kingdom of Poland. With active help of his close employee Bogdan Hutten - Czapski, he created the new Polish-language Warsaw University and the Technical University of Warsaw. On 10 November 1918, back to Warsaw, Józef Piłsudski; Zdzisław Lubomirski and Adam Koc in the night 09/10 November, 1918 received message about Pilsudski; by Lubomirski's car, Piłsudski arrived to Lubomirski house. Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was looking at this situation from distance, but at Warsaw Castle talked with Hans Hartwig Beseler on Pilsudski; at this moment Sosnkowski moved at Moniuszki avenue. Beseler fled on November 12, with his two aides and Polish officers on a ship on the Vistula river, from Warsaw to Thorn and from there to Berlin.
His contemporaries Hutten - Czapski, Prince Hermann von Hatzfeld and Maria Princess Lubomirska - wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski - expressed their praise of him; Hutten - Czapski: 'The Inspector General of the engineer and pioneer corps and the fortresses had also acquired management experience. ... with a refined and perfect - looking character...'.
Above Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski, and Maria Zamoyska; he attended Krakow's St. Anna High School; Jagiellonian University and University of Graz.
Maria Lubomirska b. 1841, d. 1922, daughter of Zdzisław Zamoyski Count; she was wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski Prince, and she was mother of Zdzisław Lubomirski (b. on April 4, 1865, in Niżny Nowogrod, d. 1943); above Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna in the Mohylow region, d. 1908, m. Maria nee Zamoyska; Zdzisław Lubomirski m. Maria nee Branicka; mentioned above Nizhny Novgorod / Nizhniy Novgorod / Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
Above Zdzislaw Zamoyski:
Zdzisław Zamoyski Count, 1810 Warsaw - d. 1855 in Vienna, Austria, son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia; husband of Józefa Jadwiga Zamoyska; father of:
Stefan Zamoyski, above Maria Lubomirska;
Wanda Grocholska and Zofia Tarnowska;
brother of Konstanty Zamoyski, Andrzej Artur, Jan Zamoyski, Władysław Zamoyski, Celestyna Gryzelda Działyńska; Jadwiga Sapieha; Artur Zamoyski, Elżbieta Brzozowska; Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski and August Zamoyski.
Above named Władysław Zamoyski Count, 1803 - 1868.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.
Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski b. 1775, d. 1856, politician, landowner of Zamość estates. In 1809 he became the chairman of the "Provisional Government" of Galicia. He was Senator-Voivode of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom from 1810 until 1831. He married Princess Zofia Czartoryska in 1798 in Puławy.
Róża Maria / Marianna Ewa Zamoyska nee Potocka, b. 1831 in Tomaszpil, Ukraine, d. 1890, daughter of Przemysław Potocki and Teresa; wife of Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski b. 1820 in Vienna, who was son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia;
Roza was mother of Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Zamoyski b. 1852 - d. 1927, landowner, born in Warsaw - the grandson of above named Count Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski 1775 in Warszawa, d. 1856 in Wien / Vienna.

On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Lubomirski supported Pilsudski's nomination (on 10th Nov. 1918 - 14th Nov.) for the post of the head of state.
Above mentioned Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski, studied in St Petersburg. Then in France and England. 1863 the Foreign Affairs of Polish Government.
Above named Дубрoвно / Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha. Dubrovno to 1774 to Sapieha; then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father;
son of Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819) and Teofila Rzewuski (Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831), and brother of the Russian General Konstanty Lubomirski.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892.
She was the daughter of George and Josephine, and was born in Prague. Her mother came from the highest aristocracy of the Roman Empire. Maria was a prominent figure who has registered in history primarily as an editor collaborating with Paris 'Culture'. Also worked on biographies of her family, written in collaboration with her brother Jozef Czapski / Joseph.
Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.
Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.
The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.
Kuchcicze / Kuhtichi of Zawisza and the Radziwill family at the Minsk district; the palace complex, the facade with stone accents.
The first secret missions Bogdan Hutten - Czapski received in 1890, to the Vatican; over the next two years he worked as observer - the German embassy in Paris, where he was ambassador; the later Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, which entered into a close friendship with Czapski, and the later Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow, send him on missions; Duke Hohenlohe send Czapski to maintain contacts and research sentiment of the ruling class, also among the well-known from his youth - Bonapartists; he was residing in Paris, and known Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, and his wife Teresa primo voto Marquise de Paiva; then he moved to Strasbourg, where he was an aide of the Field Marshal Manteuffel.
Then he received from the German General Staff a very important intelligence mission, a trip to the Russian and Austrian ex-Polish districts, to explore moods and relationships (1892). Bogdan Hutten-Czapski met with Karol Czapski of the Minsk goverment;
in 1891 Karol Czapski Hutten in Minsk opened the first pawnshops; in 1892 Hutten-Czapski launched full-scale operations, 1894 Karol Czapski was one of the most wealthy man not only in Minsk, but also in the whole of Belarus.
He know the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In the same year in Minsk there was the first power plant, which was able to provide electricity to much of the city. This power was located on Independence Avenue near the Belarusian State Circus.
Karol Hutten-Czapski died in Germany, in Frankfurt on January 17, 1904.


And next very interesting woman:

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Above Wilhelm Bacheracht, the Russian diplomate, b. 1851, d. 1916 in Berne, the Bern District, in Switzerland; son of Robert von Bacheracht; husband of above mentioned Alexandrine.

Above Robert von Bacheracht b. 1797, died 1884 in Genova, Liguria, Italy. Ex-husband of Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, and father of above named Wilhelm Bacheracht. Also was the Russian diplomate, Vicekonsul in Hamburg, and the generale consul in Genova.
Above Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, born in 1804 in Stuttgart, to a father who was Russian legation secretary Heinrich von Struve; she lived in Hamburg; she was sent to Weimer in 1820, and in St. Petersburg,
married Robert von Bacheracht in 1825,
in 1841 / 1848 she started writing using the Pseudonym Therese. She sepparated from Robert von Bacheracht in 1849 (her love affair with the writer Karl Gutzkow / Karol Guczkow), back to her cousin, Heinrich Freiherr von Lützow (he was the Dutch officer, and she followed him to his post to Surabaya on Java) in August 1849. Therese died in 1852.

Mentioned above
Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin;
then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837; Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt;
now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827; Alexandrine was the sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Bacheracht, Alexandrine nee Countess von Hutten Czapska, Kolemine, Countess Romrod (1854-1941) has grave with Georg von Kolemines in the cemetery of St. Martin in Vevey, Switzerland; but her husband was Alexander von Kolemin.
Who was Georg v. Kolemines?

"According to L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (1986), Grand Duke Ludwig (b. 1837, d. 1892) married morganatically at Darmstadt on 30 April 1884 Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapski (b. 1853 or 1854, d. 1941). Alexandrine was Ludwig's young Warsaw-born mistress of some years, was a recent widow, her husband Alexander von Kolemine, a Russian diplomat, having died the previous month in March. The von Kolemines had been separated since 1884, according to L'Allemagne Dynastique, but according to other sources, Alexandrine and von Kolemine were divorced. She is known as Alexandrine or Alexandra, and her first husband's name is rendered as Kolemine, Kolemin, Kalomine, or Kolomine. ... The Queen wrote to Victoria in reply that she was angry with Ludwig's plan to marry... Queen Victoria acted quickly and decisively. She more or less forced Ludwig to agree to end his marriage ... See 'From Battenberg to Mountbatten', by E. H. Cookridge, London, 1966, ... E. Corti (Salzburg, 1936). ... Ultimately, Alexandrine had no choice, accepted the situation, and left for Moscow. A few years later, in 1892 or 1893, Alexandrine married for a third time, to Basil von Bacheracht, who died in 1916. Finally, as for a child born of Ludwig and Alexandrine's brief marriage, one source mentions his existence, ... by David Duff (London, 1958). ... the child, a son, 'was adopted as a brother by the Empress of Russia'. ... Duff, using information supplied by Lord Mountbatten (Victoria's younger son), states that Grand Duke Ludwig's marriage to Alexandrine was not consummated",
acc. to Yvonne Demoskoff on 14 Mar 2003.

It was different Alexander von Kolemin who in 1842 m. to Marija Aleksandrovna Tolstoj b. 1822, daughter of Alexandr Stepanovich Tolstoj 1788 - 1850 / 1859, and Marija Ivanovna Golovina.

Jurij Alexandrovich Kolemin, was son of above Alexandrina nee Hutten Czapska.

I wrote above that
Alexandrine von Hutten-Czapska was the daughter of Adam Graf von Hutten-Czapski (1819 - d. 1883 in Nice or 1884) and Marianne Countess of Rzewuska-Grocholska (1827-1897).
Her father was raised along with his brothers and Ignacy Hutten-Czapski (Emmerich) on 12 June 1874 to the Count title in the Russia.

Above Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski b. 1819 was son of Karol Hutten-Czapski and Fabianna;
above Karol Hutten-Czapski b. 1777 d. 1836,
was son of Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski and Weronika Joanna, husband of Fabianna;
he was father of Adam Józef Erazm;
Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski;
and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski;
brother of Stanislaw Hutten-Czapski; half brother of Augustyn Szymon (Michal) Hutten-Czapski; Anna Hutten-Czapska and Maria Hutten-Czapska.

In 1894 Karol Hutten Czapski was top figure in Minsk in Belarus; this Jan Karol Alexander Hutten-Czapski, usually as Karol Czapski (August 15 1860-1904) the Mayor of Minsk from 1890 to 1901, a Catholic, Count; born in Stankow close to Minsk Litewski, d. 1904 in Frankfurt;
he was the eldest son of Count Emeryk Czapski, known numismatist and Elizabeth of Meyendorff barons.
The owner of an estates: in Minsk belonged to him orchard, three stone and five multi-storey wooden houses, 34 thousands acres of land in Minsk and the Ihumen / Igumen districts, namely Stankovo:
Negoreloye (11 km south-west of Kojdanow, and north-east of Stolbcy; 12 km south-west of Stan'kowo / Stankovo),
Prusinovo (15 km east of Stolbcy; north-east of Nesvizh / Nieswiez),
Zubarevichi (Glussk / Hlusk area),
Stankovo (in Stankovo library there were more than 2,500 books), forest cottage on the way of Tslyakovo;
Sallenen estate / Sallienien in Courland / west Kurland, Saliene (Saliena), south-west of Kuldinga.
In 1894, a friend of Bogdan Czapski, Hohenlohe was Chancellor of the Reich and Czapski, along with his good friend, gray eminence of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Baron Holstein, became the main adviser to the Chancellor on matters of foreign policy;
Czapski also brokered between Berlin and the Vatican; Czapski at that time supported the candidacy of Edward Likowski on nomination, which Berlin did not want to agree. In 1895, Bogdan Hutten - Czapski was appointed hereditary member of the Prussian House of Lords.
Colonel Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, one of the closest collaborators of General Hans Hartwig von Beseler resided in the Potocki Palace in the years 1915-1918.

In 1914 Max Isidor Bodenheimer set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front.
With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, Bodenheimer established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews in 1914; Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic states, Poland, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an 'East European Federation' in which 'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, by Wikipedia.
Max Isidor Bodenheimer b. 1865, Stuttgart, the main figure in German Zionism, 1898 he visited Palestine, in August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Expose on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne. The League of East European States or Federation of East European States was a political idea conceived during World War I for the establishment of a buffer state, which would be a de facto protectorate of the German Empire.


Florence, a node of this network in Italy:
1.
a.
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d. 1885, Pratolino near Florence).
b.
Nikolai Nikitich Demidov, b. 1773 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1828 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. Since 1815 - Russian Ambassador to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In Florence, where he founded an orphanage and a school, it was built a monument (1871) on the square called Piazza Demidoff.
In 1793, "Demidov married an heiress Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov, so was able to improve their financial situation. Upon his retirement, Demidov went with his wife in foreign travel, visiting Germany, England, France and Italy, and never missed a chance to get acquainted with the success of the mining equipment ... Returning to Russia in 1806, Demidov, wanting to have at its plants all the latest improvements on the part of technology, ordered from France Professor Ferri, then famous expert in the mining business. Demidov sent at his own expense abroad in England, Sweden and Austria to study specific industries of metallurgy more than a hundred serfs. The Nizhny Tagil plant of Demidov, ... was considered at that time the most advanced around the ridge of the Ural Mountains. ... Appointed in 1815 to Florence as Russian envoy, Demidov arranged here at their own expense an art museum and art gallery, which contains works by famous artists. In Florence Nicholas Nikitich arranged for their money a home for the elderly and orphans charity and donated to his special affairs. Living in recent years in Florence, Demidov though he lived a very luxurious and spare no means patronized scientists and artists, could, however, skillfully manage their affairs in Siberia, America, France and other countries...".
His son with Baroness Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova:
Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov, b. 1798 in Saint Petersburg, died in 1840 in Mainz; husband of Aurora Karamzin; Count Pavel (called Paul) Nikolaievich Demidov as an officer in his father's regiment fought at the battle of Borodino in 1812. After the war he entered the Chevalier Guards regiment; in 1831 he entered civil service as governor of the province of Kursk. In 1834 he entered service in the Ministry of the Exterior as court Huntsmaster, later State Councillor. In Helsinki he married the maid-of-honour to Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Aurora Stjernvall (1808-1902) - they had one son, above Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov (1839–1885), whose daughter Aurora was mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia.
Above Eva Aurora Charlotta Karamzina (nee Stjernvall) was a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. "...Karamzina was born in Ulvila (Ulvsby), in Saaren Kartano, Finland. She was the daughter of Carl Johan Stjernvall (1764-1815) and Baroness Eva Gustava von Willebrand (1781-1844). Her father was a high official in the Grand Duchy of Finland and became the First Governor of the Viipuri Province in 1812. Von Willebrand was a distant niece of Gustav I of Sweden. Following Stjernvall's death in 1815, the Baroness remarried and became the wife of Finland's Procurator, Carl Johan Walleen ... Karamzina had an older brother, Emil Stjernvall Walleen (1806-1890) who became a Finnish Minister of State and a Baron. Karamzina also had two sisters, Emilia (1811-1846) and Alexandra Aline (1812-1851). Emilia married Vladimir Musin-Pushkin while Alexandra became the second wife of Jose Maurício Correia Henriques, the 1st Count de Seisal. Karamzina also had three half-brothers ... Aurora was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna the elder (consort to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia), and a lady of the bedchamber of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna the younger and Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was made a dame of the Order of Saint Catherine, the highest honour for ladies in Imperial Russia. ... In 1836, she married Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov ... In 1846 ... she remarried to Andrei Karamzin. ... She was considered a great benefactor in many cities such as Saint Petersburg and Florence. Karamzina's only child was Pavel Pavlovich Demidov ... In 1870, Pavel succeeded his childless uncle, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, as the 2nd Prince of San Donato. Her granddaughter ... Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova married Arsen Karadordevic, Prince of Serbia and became the mother of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia...".
Above named Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato, died in 1885, Pratolino, Florence, was a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist; first m. in 1867 to Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya (b. Saint Petersburg, 1844 - d. San Donato (or Vienna, per Ferrand), in 1868).
Her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato, at Hietzing in the suburbs of Vienna born 1868.
In Saint Petersburg in 1871 he remarried to Princess Elena Petrovna Trubetskaya (Saint Petersburg, 1853 - Odessa, 1917), with whom he had six children:
Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, 1873 - d. Bussolino Torinese, Torino), mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia;
Anatoly Pavlovich Demidov, 4th Prince of San Donato (b. San Donato 1874 d. in Marseille);
Princess Maria Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, d. Pratolino), married in Helsingfors to Prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev;
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov (b. San Donato, 1879);
Elena Pavlovna Demidova (b. Saint Petersburg, 1884 - d. Sesto Fiorentino), married firstly in Saint Petersburg to Count Alexander Pavlovich Shuvalov, married secondly in Dresden in 1907 to Nikolai Alexeievich Pavlov.
Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato moved to Villa Pratolino / Villa Demidoff next to Gaston Mestayer.
c.
Evgenia Klimentievna Demidova had daughters Evgenia, Avrora and Helena; in Saint Petersburg in 1894 he married Podmener.
d. Look at
http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/Part54.htm, on Florence, Bobrinski and Oginski:
da. Pr Dimitri Obolensky, b. St. Petersburg in 1882, d. Cannes in 1964; m. 1st Berlin in 1905 (div 1916) Css Helene Bobrinsky (St. Petersburg in 1885 - died in Bordeaux in 1937); m. 2d in Moscow 18 Jul 1917 (div 1921) to Css Maria Schouwalowa (b. Berlin in 1894, d. Oxford in 1973); m. 3d in London in 1923 to Natalia Fedorov (b. Simbirsk 1894).
db. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, b. St. Petersburg in 1893, d. London in 1971; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1915 to Css Natalia Fersen (b. Paris in 1890); m. 2d Paris in 1940 to Olga Kosolup-Pchenitchny; m. 3d to Css Olga de Bertren;
dc. Css Catherine Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1883, d. Nice in 1954; m. in St.Petersburg 1908 to Ilya Miklachevsky (b. Odessa in 1877).
dd. Pr Jerome Bonaparte (b. Trieste in 1814, d. Florence in 1847).
de. His sister:
Pss Mathilde Bonaparte (b. Trieste 1820, d. Paris in 1904); m. in Florence in 1840 to Anatole Demidov, Pr di San Donato (b. Moscow in 1813, d. Paris in 1870).

df. Ct Alexander Schouwalow / Szuwalow / Shuvalov, b. Vartemiagui in 1881, d. London 1935; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1903 (div) Pss Helene Demidova di San Donato (b. St. Petersburg in 1884, d. Florence in 1959); m. 2d in Paris in 1916 to Css Sophia Fersen (b. St. Petersburg 1888, d. Davos in 1927).

2.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florence / Florencja.
See: 'Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia' by Andreas Önnerfors and Robert Collis (eds.), Sheffield Lectures on the History of Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Volume Two, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, 2009, ©2009 CRFF and the authors, ISBN: 978-0-9562096-1-0.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st to Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry), but Oginski believed Kaunitz;
his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.
Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska, Emma Oginska.
In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius.
1801, Michal Kleofas Oginski
(1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg;
moved abroad in 1815?,
1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833)
was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw.
Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michal Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michal Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810.
Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 / 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor-General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".
"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at http://www.oginskidynasty.com/Kleofas.aspx.
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
"...in 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

And now the most important notes on:
1. The Scotti Douglas / Scotti family of Naples and Nola (below at this webpage); 2. the Neri family from Florence, Venice, Zalesse; 3. also the Mercier / Mercer family from Estonia, Petersburg, Ceylon and south India; 4. tea plantations at Ceylon island. 5. the Weiss family of Estonia.

We need to check all data on Michal Kleofas Oginski trips:
1815 abroad, 1817 ?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Florence.

Explanations to Naples in 1820:

1.
Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800; son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko; studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with Joachim Lelewel and Józef Zaliwski, and also with Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski (see Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842.
Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the
Société des Amis du Peuple

[see Inessa Armand:
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist,
acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинови ч who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.
Above mentioned Société des amis du peuple / The Society of Friends of the people was a Republican organization, dissolved October 2, 1830 on the basis of Article 291 of the Criminal Code, but it does not disappear. In April / May, 1831, 19 Republicans are accused of conspiracy, of which ten were members of the Society. New associations take over, such as the League of Human Rights. Member of the Society of Friends:
Evariste Galois was born 1811 in Bourg-la-Reine, died on 31 May 1832 in Paris after a duel; May 9, 1831 in the restaurant Harvest Burgundy, Faubourg du Temple, Evariste Galois was at garden-party, but the next day, arrested with nineteen Republicans, including Ulysses Trélat, Joseph Guinard, Godfrey Cavaignac and Pescheux Herbinville of accused of plotting against the security of the State; on July 4, 1831, Fish and Lacroix make their report on Galois; release on 29 April 1832. Galois's fatal duel took place on 30 May, 1832. There has been much speculation, about a Mademoiselle Stéphanie-Félicie Poterin du Motel; Alexandre Dumas names Pescheux d'Herbinville, one of the nineteen artillery officers whose celebrated at the banquet on the occasion of Galois's first arrest and du Motel's fiance.
Dumas is alone in this assertion, and only a few days after the duel give a description of his opponent that more accurately applies to one of Galois's Republican friends, most probably Ernest Duchatelet, who was imprisoned with Galois on the same charges. There were plans to initiate an uprising during his funeral.
See: John Stillwell of 2010.
Société des droits de l'homme / The Society for Human Rights (SDH) is a republican association from 1830, developed from 1832, after the disappearance of the other great republican association the Society of Friends of the People;
it is organized on the model of the Carbonari.
The note on:
François Etienne Pecheux or Pescheux of Herbinville, former member of the League of Friends of the People / Pescheux d'Herbinville (but also PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE / Théodore Pécheux d'Herbenville):
Evariste Galois confronted Pescheux d'Herbinville in a duel to be fought with pistols, and was shot through the stomach. Évariste Galois, b. 1811.
See: Alexandre Dumas, My Memoirs, p 61 and 247.
Pescheux was named Administrator at Compiegne Palace on May 4, 1848, he took office on June 1 to August 25, 1848 and then at Château de Fontainebleau, on September 2, 1848 until April 15, 1850. He published "Fontainebleau and charming walks to sites and rocks that surround" in 1850.
The genealogy of Inessa Armand:
Henri Lucien PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE born on 14 August 1875 in Asnieres;
parents: Leon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849, marchant, and Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854;
grand-parents:
Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1809 and Marie-Josephine DESCHAMPS / Marie-Joséphine Jenny DESCHAMPS by
http://gw.geneanet.org/pierfit?lang=en&p=henri+lucien&n=pecheux+herbinville.
Her children:
Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE 1839-1904,
Lucien PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1845 married in 1876, in Paris to Caroline GAVIOLI 1842-1924,
Théodore PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1847 - father of Inessa Armand;
Léon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849 married to Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854.
Above Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX des HERBENVILLE / Etienne François PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE, b. on 5 April 1809 in Paris, Artillery Officier, member of the 'Société des Amis du Peuple';
m. 1st to Marie-Joséphine DESCHAMPS;
m. 2nd in 1859 in Paris to Lucie Marie Dorothée PÉPIN; he was awarded the Cross of July]

and
Société des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen,
Filip Buonarotti, Michał Chodźko in Lyon in 1833; Kalikst Borzewski of Plock, Zawisza, Sperczyński, Kisielewski, Aleksander Psalmart, Józef Dąbkowski).
Mentioned Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
In 1833 Colonel Zaliwski, co-operated with The Carbonari movement (see Oginski in Naples in 1820; the Scotti-Douglas in Nola and Naples / Napoli and also Scotland), secret revolutionary society founded in early 19th century in Italy.
The Italian Carbonari influenced other revolutionary groups in Spain, France, Portugal and possibly Russia: Bazard, Silvio Pellico, Pietro Maroncelli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Marquis de Lafayette (see Chodzko), Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Byron and Giuseppe Garibaldi.

We back again to Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski / Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834
(Mazzini's Young Europe, founded in Bern by seventeen exiles; the center of a European movement, acc. to Alberto Mario Banti:
"...according to whom, in a peaceful future, Europe would take the form of a harmonious community, in which all free nations would cooperate both politically and culturally, to their mutual benefit".
"...Mazzini obtained the cooperation of the principal representatives of the various nationalities in the organization of a new association to be called Young Europe. ... appointed delegates, who on April 15, 1834, solemnly agreed to abide by the political, social, and religious platform which was laid down by Mazzini. The main object of Young Europe, according to Mazzini, was to lay the foundation for a universal development of thought and action, which would lead to the discovery and practical application of the divine laws of human government. Mazzini defined the league as the young Europe of the people, which was to supplant the old Europe of kings...",
acc. to 'chestofbooks.com/reference'),
including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland.
Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to Hubert Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski was the republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini of the Carbonari.
Who was above mentioned an Irishman O'Brien?
Notes:
Journal of Political Ideologies 06/2008 "...analyses the political economy of James Bronterre O'Brien, most important intellectual of 1830s' British working-class radicalism. It examines O'Brien's critique of 1830s Britain ... The article argues that O'Brien's work of the period 1832–1841 is best viewed as the first example of a genuinely democratic anti-capitalist political economy. The article goes on to analyse changes that occurred to O'Brien's democratic anti-capitalist political economy ... was partially abandoned in 1841. The article concludes that the reasons for these changes are to be found not in ideational factors internal to O'Brien's political economy, but rather in O'Brien's personal circumstances and relationship with his imagined audience", copyright by Ben Maw.
Acc. to Richard Brown at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.co.uk/
"...Bronterre O'Brien was born at (near by) Granard (28 km south of Cavan, 36 km north-west-north of Mullingar), County Longford, Ireland, in February 1804 (or 1805), the second son of Daniel O'Brien and his wife, Mary Kearney. His father, who was a wine and spirit merchant and a tobacco manufacturer in co. Longford, failed in business during O'Brien’s childhood, and died soon after. O'Brien was educated at ... Edgeworthstown School, which had been promoted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. He then went to Trinity College, Dublin ... 1829. He entered the King's Inns, Dublin, and then went to London, where he was admitted as a law student at Gray's Inn in March 1830. In London he met Henry Hunt and William Cobbett. In 1831, ... contributed to Hetherington's Poor Man's Conservative. ... called himself James Bronterre O'Brien. ... visited France on three occasions in 1837-8. In 1836, his translated edition of Buonarotti's History of Babeuf's Conspiracy was published and in 1838 the first volume of his eulogistic Life of Robespierre appeared. ... In 1837, he began Bronterre's National Reformer, but it soon failed and in 1838 The Operative that ended publication in July 1839. ... he had four children. From the beginning of the Chartist movement, O'Brien was one of its most prominent figures. He was a member of the original London Working Man's Association, and was a delegate to the Chartist meeting in Palace Yard ... 1838 ... He represented the Chartists of Manchester at the Chartist convention ... 1840. O'Brien acted in his own defence ... on a charge of conspiracy, but was found guilty at Liverpool in April ... He was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment. ... Released in September 1841, O'Brien continued the series of bitter personal quarrels with O'Connor ... edited the British Statesman between June and December 1842, and in 1845 became editor of the National Reformer. ... He wrote several pamphlets on Lord Palmerston, Lord Overstone, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Robespierre. He was a member of the Stop-the-War-League during the Crimean War ... died at his home in Pentonville, London, ... 1864. His wife survived him...".
A short on his son Bogdan Hutten-Czapski:
"...On the German side, the emperor had himself as early as July 31, 1914, a day before Germany declared war on Russia, given the German-Polish magnate Count Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Hutten-Czapski (b. 1851), a personal acquaintance of his, a non-binding assurance that the Polish state should be restored when Russia was defeated. The imperial promise may have been vague, but the Imperial Chancellor confirmed it on the same day. ... immediately on the outbreak of war this same Hutten-Czapski, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Prussian army, was attached to the general staff in charge of Polish and Ukrainian questions. His first commission was to foment insurrection in Congress Poland by means which included the raising of a Polish Legion - the counterpart to Pilsudski's in Galicia - and the dissemination among the Poles of leaflets and cartoons to awaken sympathy for the Central Powers. A month later Hutten-Czapski was relieved of this commission but only, it would appear, because his sympathies were too strongly nationalist ...
See: Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967 pp. 114-5. Note 4 referring to Hutten-Czapski, 60 Jahre Politik etc., Berlin, 1936, Vol 2, pp. 145 f.;
... Szescdziesiat lat zycia politycznego i towarzyskiego. Warszawa, F. Hoesick, 1936. 2 v. plates ... At head of title: Bogdan Hutten-Czapski...".

Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877)
acc. to Leszek Mila.


Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis, was a French orientalist. The son of a family of diplomats

(his father had been consul in the Crimea and in other countries of the Levant)

and military, he studied at the School of Languages of Louis-le-Grand College in Paris where he learned so well the Arab and Turkish, and at the age of fifteen, was working at the French Embassy in Constantinople. He was a secretary and interpreter of the Embassy of France; he held various positions in Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis in 1779 and Algier. He also participated in the inspection mission of the Levant, by Baron de Tott. He returned to Paris in 1797 at the School of Oriental Languages, the Turkish​​. The member of the Commission on Science and the Arts, military interpreter of the Army of the East. Member of the Institute of Egypt on August 22, 1798, at the section of literature and arts.

Jean-Joseph Marcel, who was his pupil, said he died of dysenterie, others talk of plague. Another hypothesis says he died on April 19, 1799 in Nazareth, ill after the Siege of Saint John of Acre.

He was married in Cairo to Victoria Digeon (on June 14, 1774), he had two daughters, one of which, Jeanne Venture de Paradis married in 1810 (?) to watchmaker Antoine Louis Breguet, son of the famous Abraham Louis Breguet, which is a branch of Clementine Célarié.

But we know that Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 (!) in Paris.

Clémentine Célarié (born 1957) is a French actress and singer, was born as Myriem Célarié in Dakar, living in the United States, back in France to Aix-en-Provence.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon, and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Above mentioned Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris) had two daughters.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages​​. When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.

During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet.

She was also wife of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski.

Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.

Janina Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska, with Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski had children:

Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille,

Olimpia Chodźko
and (different father !)
Adela married to Mortier (Adelajda? b. ca 1813 or ca 1815 ?).

So Little Louis had a sister, Adela!

And their mother knew the Polish language:

although she knew a bit the Polish language from first husband. So half-siblings of Little Louis also come to know from their father, the Polish language and Polish history.

Adela had the surname, which suggests that she could be in St. Petersburg already in the 30's of the 19th century?
And Breguet, when he was in Kazan in the 40's of the 19th century, could know the Polish language and some Russian language!?

Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.

The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.

On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.

1833, Louis BREGUET married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin.
Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise BREGUET LASSIEUR - a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.

May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.

Now, ANTOINE LOUIS BREGUET invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics;

at that time Louis Breguet

[Antoine Louis BREGUET had the son Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889. Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877]

realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia [1842/1843, winter] temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.

Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.

Louis Breguet [Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889] and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.

Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony BREGUET / ANTOINE BREGUET as his grandfather [Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889.
Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882 / Anthony Breguet,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877].

Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet.
In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his [see: Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889] son Anthony / Antoine Breguet worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.


By Bohdan Urbankowski at http://niniwa22.cba.pl/czy_towianski_byl_szpiegiem.htm:

"...Paris, May 30, 1848, meeting of the Society of Slavs. ... speaks Desprez. When the French writer refers ... on Mickiewicz, at the place leaps Leonard Chodźko: 'Mr. Mickiewicz authority is more than suspect, as we believe it all he is a Russian spy!' Chodźko was not a dull fanatic, he has a reputation ... He was written in French - the work of Polish history and literature (two-volume history of the Legions, biographies Kosciuszko, Pulaski et al.), Editor, and what is important: he was a friend - since college - of Mickiewicz in Vilnius, activist of the Filaret Society and publisher of the two-volume Mickiewicz Poetry in 1828. Shocking opinion, which gave, echoed, unfortunately, to our countrymen. Animosity towards earlier beloved poet began to grow after Mickiewicz started in the Towiański movement; because the "Master" Andrzej Towianski also, and even more, was deemed to be an agent of Russia. ... Rumors about Towiański appeared shortly after his arrival in Paris, behind him ... In fact, the way of the future "Master" Andzej Towianski was similar to the way of the future 'Prophet' Adam Mickiewicz, and even a few times with him crossed. A reconstruction of the biography. Towianski was born ... on 1 January 1799 in Antoszwińce (the name of the farm is also present in the plural), was given to schools in Vilnius, ... made friend with Ferdinand Gutt, ... on this friendship has left a shocking record Zbigniew Krasinski, dated 19 March (April), 1848 letter to Delfina. Gutt's father was a pharmacist. It seems that demanded from him poison to someone, apparently Wittgenstein that had married to Radziwiłł (Stefania Radziwill Wittgenstein of Miezonka among others). Old Gutt did not want to bring out the poison, it seems that it was Towiański who advised to bring out the poison... Old Gutt disappeared. I have not known what happened to him, and finally discovered that his body was carved on pieces, and thrown into the river. ... this terrible murder. ... The beginning of the mission of Towiański dated on May 11, 1828. It seems that was in Vilnius and in the neighborhood, but the result was rather unexpected. Edward Wołodko wrote about it in 1907, in the "Library of Warsaw", in the article 'Memories of Towiański' ... Here are a result of denunciation of Towiański by another neighbor, and Towianski was arrested and subjected to a psychiatric examination. ... admits Wołodko - these studies, however, killed of Towianski movement in the eyes of the residents of Vilnius. ... "Master" Andrzej choose somewhere else.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianko, but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
He tried to convert, so the St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life. Thanks to Odyniec, he met 'Dziady'... Towiański also met and charmed General Skrzynecki

... In 1837, after his father's death, he returned to the family farm ... For the second time, as we know, ... on May 23, 1839 before leaving, he wrote "constitution" - a set of moral rules for the peasants, he visited his mother, who settled in Vilnius ... also visited the appropriate authorities. On June 28, 1840 received a passpo